Browsing by Subject "Social interaction"

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  • Nelson, Marie; Henricson, Sofie; Norrby, Catrin; Wide, Camilla; Lindström, Jan; Nilsson, Jenny (2015)
    Ett samtal är ett dynamiskt växelspel som kännetecknas av initiativ och olika former av återkoppling. Vem som gör vad i samtalet påverkas av den aktuella situationen, av samtalsdeltagarnas förhållande till varandra och av den språkliga och kulturella inramningen. I den här artikeln presenteras en studie av återkoppling i handledningssamtal där hand-ledare och studenter vid svenskspråkiga universitet och högskolor i Finland respektive Sverige interagerar med varandra.Med återkoppling menar vi hur samtalsdeltagarna reagerar på varandras kommunikativa handlingar och samtidigt visar att handlingarna åtminstone i någon mån tagits emot. Återkoppling inkluderar därmed såväl uppbackningar som responsiva turer. En uppbackning fungerar som ett stöd till men inte ett direkt svar på eller kommentar till en annan samtalsdeltagares samtalsbidrag (Green-Vänttinen 2001:57), medan en responsiv tur utgör en självständig språkhandling som bidrar till samtalsämnet (Linell & Gustavsson 1987:60). I avsnitt 2 för vi ett närmare resonemang kring fenomenet återkoppling och de avgränsningar och indelningar vi använt oss av i denna studie.Syftet med föreliggande undersökning av återkoppling i handledningssamtal är att jämföra autentiska finlandssvenska och sverigesvenska samtal för att söka likheter och skillnader i kommunikativa mönster. Studien utgör således ett bidrag till den variationspragmatiska forskningen. Variations¬pragmatiken är en relativt ny forskningsinriktning som kombinerar ett intresse för pragmatisk variation med ett intresse för geografisk och social variation (Schneider & Barron 2008:1).
  • Heinla, Indrek; Åhlgren, Johanna; Vasar, Eero; Voikar, Vootele (2018)
    Developing reliable mouse models for social behaviour is challenging. Different tests have been proposed, but most of them consist of rather artificial confrontations of unfamiliar mice in novel arenas or are relying on social stress induced by aggressive conspecifics. Natural social interaction in home cage in laboratory has not been investigated well. IntelliCage is a fully automated home-cage system, where activity of the group-housed mice can be monitored along with various cognitive tasks. Here we report the behavioural profile of C57BL/6N (86) and BALB/c (BALB) female mice in IntelliCage when separated by strain, followed by monitoring of activity and formation of 'home-base' after mixing two strains. For that purpose, 3 cages were connected. Significant differences between the strains were established in baseline behaviour in conventional tests and in IntelliCage. The B6 mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviour in open field and light-dark box, slightly enhanced exploratory activity in IntelliCage during initial adaptation and clearly distinct circadian activity. Mixing of two strains resulted in reduction of body weight and anhedonia in B6 mice. In addition, the B6 mice showed clear preference to previous home-cage, and formed a new home-base faster than BALB mice. In contrast, BALB mice showed enhanced activity and moving between the cages without showing any preference to previous home-cage. It could be argued that social challenge caused changes in both strains and different coping styles are responsible for behavioural manifestations. Altogether, this approach could be useful in modelling and validating mouse models for disorders with disturbed social behaviour.
  • Pekarek Doehler, Simona; Maschler, Yael; Keevallik, Leelo; Lindström, Jan (John Benjamins, 2020)
    Studies in Language and Social Interaction
    The past two decades have witnessed a sea-change in our understanding of language. Grammar is no longer dominantly seen from a “bird’s eye view” (cf. Hopper, 2011) as an autonomously structured inventory of items and abstract combination rules, but is increasingly understood as a usage-based, temporal, and ever-adaptive resource for people’s acting in the social world (Hopper, 1987, 2011; Hakulinen, 2001; Thompson, 2002; Tomasello, 2003; Ellis & Larsen Freeman, 2006; Linell, 2009; Auer, 2009; Bybee, 2010; Fox & Thompson, 2010). The present collection of original chapters taps into this understanding of language and explores the ways by which patterns of complex syntax – that is, syntactic structures beyond a simple clause – relate to the local contingencies of action formation in social interaction, and how they are tied to participants’ nonverbal (prosodic and/or embodied) conduct. The collection investigates both emergent and emerging aspects of grammar (see the discussions in Hopper, 2011 and Auer & Pfänder, 2011a): it tracks on-line emergent clause-combining patterns as they are ‘patched together’ on the fly in response to local interactional contingencies (such as lack of recipient response); it also investigates emerging grammatical patterns, i.e., patterns that routinize (or: sediment) in the grammar as interactional resources, for instance for the purpose of projecting what comes next. We thus focus both on the process of the structuring of patterns of language use in real time and on the results of repeated language use in and for social interaction over time, in an attempt to shed light on two facets of grammar as a highly adaptive resource for interaction. For the past five decades, scholars working on the social dynamics of conversation have seen conversationalists’ use of language as one of the central foci of analysis. This has resulted in a collaboration with linguists towards “a syntaxfor-conversation”, a concept famously coined by Schegloff (1979). However, the path towards a micro-socially attuned grammar, which puts the sequential organization of conversational talk in the foreground, has not been straightforward; it underwent significant development only rather recently, since the turn of the 21st century, not least through Schegloff’s visionary paper on the grammar of turn organization (1996) and the advent of the sub-discipline of interactional linguistics (Selting & Couper-Kuhlen, 2001; Couper-Kuhlen & Selting, 2018; going back to Ochs, Schegloff & Thompson, 1996). It is in this tradition of interactionally sensitive research on language structure and the organization of social actions that we position ourselves, setting a special focus on the centerpiece of traditional grammatical inquiry, namely, syntax, which we scrutinize in light of its temporal structuring within situated social interaction.
  • Kavlak, Alper Tuna; Stranden, Erling; Lidauer, M. H.; Uimari, Pekka (2021)
    Pigs are housed in groups during the test period. Social effects between penmates may affect average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BF), feed conversion rate (FCR), and the feeding behaviour traits of pigs sharing the same pen. The aim of our study was to estimate the genetic parameters of feeding behaviour and production traits with statisticalmodels that include social genetic effects (SGEs). The data contained 3075 Finnish Yorkshire, 3351 Finnish Landrace, and 968 F1-crossbred pigs. Feeding behaviour traits were measured as the number of visits per day (NVD), time spent in feeding per day (TPD), daily feed intake (DFI), time spent in feeding per visit (TPV), feed intake per visit (FPV), and feed intake rate (FR). The test period was divided into five periods of 20 days. The number of pigs per pen varied from 8 to 12. Two model approaches were tested, i.e. a fixed group size model and a variable group size model. For the fixed group size model, eight random pigs per pen were included in the analysis, while all pigs in a pen were included for the variable group size model. The linear mixed-effectsmodel included sex, breed, and herd*year*season as fixed effects and group (batch*pen), litter, the animal itself (direct genetic effect (DGE)), and penmates (SGEs) as random effects. For feeding behaviour traits, estimates of the total heritable variation (T-2 +/- SE) and classical heritability (h(2) +/- SE, values given in brackets) from the variable group size model (e.g. period 1) were 0.34 +/- 0.13 (0.30 +/- 0.04) for NVD, 0.41 +/- 0.10 (0.37 +/- 0.04) for TPD, 0.40 +/- 0.15 (0.14 +/- 0.03) for DFI, 0.53 +/- 0.15 (0.28 +/- 0.04) for TPV, 0.66 +/- 0.17 (0.28 +/- 0.04) for FPV, and 0.29 +/- 0.13 (0.22 +/- 0.03) for FR. The effect of social interaction was minimal for ADG (T-2 = 0.29 +/- 0.11 and h(2) = 0.29 +/- 0.04), BF (T-2 = 0.48 +/- 0.12 and h(2) = 0.38 +/- 0.07), and FCR (T-2 = 0.37 +/- 0.12 and h(2) = 0.29 +/- 0.04) using the variable group size model. In conclusion, the results indicate that social interactions have a considerable indirect genetic effect on the feeding behaviour and FCR of pigs but not on ADG and BF. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Animal Consortium.
  • Lindström, Jan; Laury, Ritva; Lindholm, Camilla (de Gruyter, 2019)
    Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs
    This chapter reports a study of Swedish and Finnish insubordinate om and jos ‘if’ clauses from a synchronic perspective as the clauses emerge in interactional sequences of action. Insubordinate conditional clauses have the potential to function as complete directives without any main clauses: the recipients are able to treat them as such, responding to the directive as soon as the insubordinate clause is produced. The authors show that the emergence of insubordinate conditionals is anchored in projectable, often routinized interactional trajectories, in which the verbal action is enhanced with multimodal communication. Routinization and contextual cues play a particularly prominent role in the kind of data that are analyzed here: service encounters and medical consultations. Insubordinate conditional requests emerge in interaction in response to verbal and non-verbal actions done (and not done) by the recipients of the requests, and are thus a product of the interaction of participants in conversation.
  • Lindström, Jan K.; Norrby, Catrin; Wide, Camilla; Nilsson, Jenny (2017)
    The pesent study investigates the interplay between language, materia land embodied resources in one specific type of service encounters: interactions at theatre box offices. The data consist of video recorded interactions in Swedish at three box offices, two in Sweden and onei n Finland. Cases representative of the interactions are selected for a multimodal micro-analysis of the customer -- seller interactions involving artefacts from the institutional and personal domain. The study specifically aims at advancing our understanding of the role of artefacts for structuring and facilitating communicative events in (institutional) interaction. In this way, it contributes to the growing research interest in the interactional importance of the material world. Our results show that mutual interactional focus is reached through mutual gaze in strategic moments, such as formulation of the reason for the visit. Artefacts are central in enhancing intersubjectivity and mutual focus in that they effectively invite the participants for negotiation, for example, about a seatingplan which can be made visually accessible in different ways. Verbal language can be sparse and deictic in these moments while gaze and pointing to an artefact does more specific referential work. Artefacts are also a resource for signalling interactional inaccessibility, the seller orienting to the computer in order to progress a request and the customer orienting to a personal belonging (like a bag) to mirror and accept such a temporary non-accessibility. We also observe that speech can be paced to match the deployment of an artefact so that a focal verbal item is produced without competing, simultaneous physical activity.
  • Henricson, Sofie; Lindström, Jan (2019)
    This is an introduction to the edited volume 'Språk och interaktion 4'. It maps the profile of the volume based on the articles included in it, lifting up classical topics in studies of language and interaction, and especially in conversation analysis, and points to the key topic of the volume, interactional asymmetries in a societal context.
  • Henricson, Sofie; Lindström, Jan (2019)
    In this study we present an interactional linguistic analysis of pseudo-clefts in Swedish based on audio and video recordings of everyday and institutional conversations, resulting in a collection of 80 instances. The ‘free relative’ initiating the construction can have an English-style wh-word as an opener ("va" ‘what), but in the majority of cases there is a fused item consisting of a demonstrative and a relativizer ("det som"), in resemblance of "ce que" in French. Our collection shows that there is variation in the degree to which pseudo-cleft constructions are syntactically integrated: from fully integrated biclausal constructions (cleft clause + copula verb + main clause) to non-copular variants and further to variants in which the latter clause stands in a loose relation to the cleft clause or is aborted or even missing. The analysis shows that the initial part (cleft clause, or A-part) has an important turn-projecting function: it alerts the recipient about the pragmatic course of the speaker’s unfolding turn. This projected content is very much coded in the predicate verb of the A-part, which often refers to the speaker’s stance towards the issue at hand. Moreover, the construction constitutes a shift in the speaker’s ongoing reasoning or a narrative, signalling a transition from a positive to a critical stance or from the background of a telling to its peak or point. Half of our instances come from everyday interactions, the other half from institutional settings with asymmetric participant roles of the expert–non-expert kind. One feature that stands out in the institutional contexts is that pseudo-cleft constructions are typically produced by the expert part. Our findings shed new light on structural and functional properties of pseudo-clefts not only in the Swedish language but also more generally in mundane and institutional spoken interaction.
  • Auer, Peter; Lindström, Jan (2016)
    In this paper, we argue that the suggested mirror-equivalence of "left-" and "right-" adjoined or-positioned constituents in syntax is misleading from the point of view of Interactional Linguistics and needs to be replaced by a positionally sensitive grammatical analysis, in which pre- and post-positioning is seen in the context of the sequential unfolding of conversation in time. We show this on the basis of various examples from conversational German and Swedish. Our main empirical focus is on pre- and post positioned verba sentiendi expressions of the type ich denke ... or jag tror ... (cf. English I think). A quantitative analysis shows that these expressions have an uneven distribution in pre- and post-position, as well as in different discourse genres. In a sequential analysis, we can see a positionally dependent differentiation with respect to syntactic integration and interactional meaning, especially with reference to the dynamics of stance taking and turn taking: post-position is more attuned to deal with local contingencies of turn-taking and next-speaker uptake, whereas pre-position establishes a contextualizing frame for the upcoming action. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lindström, Jan Krister; Auer, Peter (2015)
    In this paper, we argue that the suggested mirror-equivalence of ‘left-’ and ‘right-’ adjoined or -positioned constituents in syntax is misleading from the point of view of Interac-tional Linguistics and needs to be replaced by a positionally sensitive grammatical analysis, in which pre- and post-positioning is seen in the context of the sequential unfolding of conversa-tion in time. We show this on the basis of various examples from conversational German and Swedish. Our main empirical focus is on pre- and post-positioned verba sentiendi expressions of the type ich denke… or jag tror (cf. English ‘I think’). A quantitative analysis shows that these expressions have an uneven distribution in pre- and post-position, as well as in different discourse genres. In a sequential analysis, we can see a positionally sensitive differentiation with respect to syntactic integration and interactional meaning, especially with reference to the dynamics of stance taking and turn taking.
  • Norrby, Catrin; Lindström, Jan; Nilsson, Jenny; Wide, Camilla (John Benjamins, 2020)
    Many languages are pluricentric in nature, i.e. they exist as a national or official language in more than one nation. They range from languages diffused widely across different continents, such as English or Spanish, to languages predominantly used in neighbouring countries, such as Dutch or Swedish. In the following we introduce readers to both foundational and more recent research of pluricentric languages, as well as current debates in the field. While the first attempts to describe the conditions typical of pluricentric languages appeared in the 1960s, it took until the 1980s for the field to establish itself, through theoretical as well as empirical accounts of pluricentricity. From early on, there have been accounts of the power relationships between different varieties of pluricentric languages, in particular with regard to power asymmetries between national varieties, often expressed as dominant versus non-dominant varieties. Among other things, this has resulted in extensive research into the varying status of non-dominant national, or sub-national, varieties, an endeavour which also draws attention to language ideologies and linguistic rights of national (and other) varieties of pluricentric languages. A related issue here concerns whether the description primarily should follow national borders or concern regional variation within a language, often subsumed under the headings pluricentricity and pluriareality respectively. Parallel to such theoretically motivated inquiry, there has been substantial empirical research from the outset. The early, foundational work in the field was primarily concerned with the description of linguistic structural differences, such as phonological, morphological or lexical variation between varieties of pluricentric languages. This interest has hardly abated, but it has been complemented by other perspectives in more recent years. In particular, there has been an increasing emphasis on pragmatic and interactional variation. The shift in interest to include pragmatic variation can to a large extent be credited to work within the field variational pragmatics where pluricentricity is treated as a case of regional variation. While studies in variational pragmatics have explored micro-pragmatic variation, based on both experimental and actual discourse, more recently others have focused on the sequentiality of authentic interactional data from the perspective of conversation analysis and interactional linguistics. Even though some methodological differences exist between variational pragmatics and the interactional paradigm, they also have much in common and there has been cross-fruition between the two.
  • De Jaegher, Hanne; Peräkylä, Anssi Matti; Stevanovic, Tuire Melisa (2016)
    What makes possible the co-creation of meaningful action? In this paper, we go in search of an answer to this question by combining insights from interactional sociology and enaction. Both research schools investigate social interactions as such, and conceptualise their organisation in terms of autonomy. We ask what it could mean for an interaction to be autonomous, and discuss the structures and processes that contribute to and are maintained in the so-called interaction order. We also discuss the role played by individual vulnerability as well as the vulnerability of social interaction processes in the co-creation of meaningful action. Finally, we outline some implications of this interdisciplinary fraternisation for the empirical study of social understanding, in particular in social neuroscience and psychology, pointing out the need for studies based on dynamic systems approaches on origins and references of coordination, and experimental designs to help understand human co-presence.
  • Lindström, Jan Krister; Lindholm, Camilla Christina; Laury, Ritva Hannele (2016)
    This article concerns the sequential emergence of Finnish and Swedish insubordinated jos and om ‘if’ adverbial clauses in interaction from a synchronic, online use perspective. The authors first demonstrate that such clauses function as complete directives without any main clauses, and that recipients treat them as such, responding to the directive as soon as the insubordinate clause is produced. It is then shown that many insubordinated conditionals used as directives (ICDs) are associated with a certain orderly sequential pattern organized in adjacency pairs, which bears a certain similarity to bona fide conditional clauses. This suggests that conditional clause patterns, including insubordinated ones, emerge in interaction in response to actions done and not done by the recipients of the requests, and are thus a product of the interaction of participants in conversation.
  • Koskela, Maryna; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Võikar, Vootele; Airavaara, Mikko (2018)
    It is about half a century ago when the so-called "Wise model" to study alcohol drinking behavior in rats was established. The model was based on voluntary intermittent access to increasing concentrations of alcohol. We aimed to establish a model of alcohol craving and used an extinction test on withdrawal days 1 and 10 to study motivation for alcohol. For this purpose, the alcohol drinking training was paired with light cues to establish conditioning. The extinction test was carried out without alcohol but in the presence of light cues and empty bottles. The outcome measures were number of visits, nosepokes, and licks in the conditioned corner where the number of nosepokes represents how much mice "want" alcohol and number of licks shows how much mice "like" alcohol. The number of nosepokes during withdrawal is a measure of craving. Late withdrawal craving was found when intermittent alcohol access was carried out in the automated cages. In this case, we observed a significant increase in the number of nosepokes on both withdrawal days 1 and 10 as compared to water control. The number of nosepokes in the withdrawal days did not correlate with alcohol dose, but number of nosepokes on withdrawal day 1 correlated with the number of nosepokes on the last training day. Although we did not observe incubation of alcohol craving after withdrawal, the craving was increased at the late time point. We conclude that we have established a new tool to study alcohol drinking behavior and craving in female mice.