Browsing by Subject "Social media"

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  • Hausmann, Anna; Toivonen, Tuuli; Fink, Christoph; Heikinheimo, Vuokko Vilhelmiina; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Butchart, Stuart; Brooks, Thomas; Di Minin, Enrico (2019)
    Understanding worldwide patterns of human use of sites of international significance for biodiversity conservation is crucial for meeting global conservation targets. However, robust global datasets are scarce. In this study, we used social media data, mined from Flickr and Twitter, geolocated in Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) to assess i) patterns of popularity; ii) relationships of this popularitywith geographical and biological variables; and iii) identify sites under high pressure fromvisitors. IBAs located in Europe and Asia, and in temperate biomes, had the highest density of users. Sites of importance for congregatory species, which were also more accessible, more densely populated and provided more tourism facilities, received higher visitation than did sites richer in bird species. Wefound 17% of all IBAs assessed to be under very high threat also received high visitation. Our results showinwhich IBAs enhancedmonitoring should be implemented to reduce potential visitation risks to sites of conservation concern for birds, and to harness the potential benefits of tourism for conservation. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Hiltunen, Miikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The thesis analyzes how the EU regulates freedom of expression on social media and how the regulation transfers power. It interrogates EU’s positive fundamental right obligation to put in place a legislative and administrative framework to prevent and redress different online harms. By taking up a critical method that analyzes the contradiction between efficiency and democracy, the thesis focuses on the changes that are happening to positive obligations as part of the fundamental rights structure. The thesis links the structural changes to the advancement of neoliberal governmentality that favors managerial techniques such as cost-benefit analysis and privatization in government. After laying out the foundations, the thesis is divided into two parts. The first part departs from the observation that the EU has pressure to shift positive obligations regarding the protection of people’s freedom of expression and related rights to social media companies. It develops the general analytical framework of cooperation and contest which is informed by power struggles. In cooperation, the interests of the EU and the companies in rights protection are considered aligned. In contest, the focus is on situations where the interests diverge and where the EU and the companies deploy their respective strategies to assert their power unilaterally. The second part contextualizes the framework of cooperation and contest in three case studies. The case studies analyze three different initiatives to regulate social media introduced by the EU between 2016 and 2019. The initiatives are EU Code of conduct on hate speech, the revised Directive on audiovisual media services, and the Regulation on preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online. The case studies locate cooperation and contest in regulation through the analysis of relevant policy documents and other preparatory materials of the legislative processes. The thesis concludes that the emerging regulatory framework for rights protection exhibits hybridity that results from the interconnectedness of public and private power. While the framework can provide more effectiveness for the EU in protecting rights and public interest on social media, by deploying managerial techniques it also tends to sideline the considerations for people’s democratic self-determination, and reinforce the power of the executive and large social media companies. It is argued that new ways to enhance the horizontality of rights are needed for people to assert their rights against emerging hybrid power.
  • Oksanen, Atte; Oksa, Reetta; Savela, Nina; Mantere, Eerik; Savolainen, Iina; Kaakinen, Markus (2021)
    The global crisis caused by the outbreak of a novel coronavirus and the associated disease (COVID-19) has changed working conditions due to social-distancing policies. Many workers started to use new technologies at work, including social media applications. In this longitudinal study, we investigated the potential stress effects of social media communication (SMC) at work. Based on our integrative theoretical model, we expected that SMC at work would burden some workers, but those who were accustomed to SMC at work would be better off when the crisis started. We collected a nationally representative sample of Finnish workers before (N = 1308) and during (N = 1081) the COVID-19 crisis. Outcome measures included technostress and work exhaustion. Multilevel linear mixed-effects regression models investigated formal and informal SMC at work. Covariates included cyberbullying at work, social media usage, personality, occupational status, and sociodemographic factors. Results showed that formal SMC increased and predicted higher technostress. However, technostress and work exhaustion decreased among workers already accustomed to using SMC at work before the crisis. The results indicate a disparity in workers' resilience during remote work and highlight a need for organizational level support.
  • Oksanen, Atte; Oksa, Reetta; Savela, Nina; Kaakinen, Markus; Ellonen, Noora (2020)
    Cyberbullying at work takes many forms, from aggressive and threatening behavior to social ostracism. It can also have adverse consequences on general well-being that might be even more severe for people whose identities are centrally based on social media ties. We examined this type of identity-driven social media use via the concept of social media identity bubbles. We first analyzed the risk and protective factors associated with cyberbullying victimization at work and then investigated its impacts on well-being. We expected that workers strongly involved in social media identity bubbles would be in the worst position when faced with cyberbullying. Data include a sample of workers from five Finnish expert organizations (N = 563) and a representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1817). We investigated cyberbullying at work with 10 questions adapted from the Cyberbullying Behavior Questionnaire. Other measures included scales for private and professional social media usage, social media identity bubbles (six-item Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale), well-being at work, sociodemographic factors, and job-related information. Prevalence of monthly cyberbullying victimization at work was 13% in expert organizations and 17% in the Finnish working population. Victims were young, active users of professional social media and they were strongly involved in social media identity bubbles. Victims who were in social media identity bubbles reported higher psychological distress, exhaustion, and technostress than other victims. Cyberbullying at work is a prevalent phenomenon and has negative outcomes on well-being at work. Negative consequences are more severe among those with highly identity-driven social media use.
  • Rantala, Salla; Toikka, Arho; Pulkka, Anna; Jari, Lyytimäki (2020)
    Strategic niches are protected spaces for emerging technologies, where expectations are articulated, social networks built, and learning occurs. Although Strategic Niche Management (SNM) can be done in a directed, strategic manner, more diffuse, loosely connected and self-organizing niches also exist. We explore such niches in a particular setting: a social media discussion forum - a Facebook group - set up for an open discussion on the reform of national-level energy policy in Finland. We focus on discussions related to two renewable energy technologies: biogas and ground-source heat pumps. We conduct Social Network Analysis and quantitative as well as qualitative content analysis of the social media material to ask what kind of SNM happens in these discussions. Our results indicate that the discussion networks may be conducive for wide engagement and incorporation of new ideas, while also containing sub-groups that may foster learning. However, the discussions are highly centralized around a few active discussants and focused on the present-day situation, drawing from specific local and national experiences and technical details, despite the original aim of the group to induce forward-looking debates on energy policy. The articulation of future expectations is not a predominant feature of the discussions related to these two technologies. Still, the quantitative content analysis reveals extensive agreement in their framing as sustainable future energy solutions, while the qualitative analysis also points to critical debates that may support learning and further development of shared expectations.
  • Sinquefield-Kangas, Rachel; Myllyntaus, Oona (InSEA, International Society for Education through Art, 2019)
    A new challenge for art educators in the 21st century has emerged, given the volume of messages on social media conveying new types of exchanges of socio-culturally constructed imagery. Visual arts teachers need to teach methods of viewing and apply critical pedagogy, and address socio-cultural issues in particular. Further, we subscribe to the paradigm that big sociocultural ideas, which are interlinked to students’ worldviews and conception of self, should be taught in conjunction with visual literacy and critical thinking in order for students 1) to learn how to learn and 2) to express their ideas through visual media. Within this premise, this book chapter describes a visual arts curriculum framework designed for the digital media era and draws parallel connections to Herbert Read’s theoretical Education Through Art (1943). The described curriculum design is intended to foster communication and collaboration as important skills for the early 21st century. Drawing from Read’s educational philosophy, we explain how this curriculum can encourage awareness of unacknowledged cultural influences shaping identities (Keel, 1969, p. 54). We thus endorse the idea that visual arts education in the 21st century can encourage youth in developing both an awareness to how visual culture is constructed and visual literacy skills needed to express their own personalities. Today’s youth can use the new awareness and acquired skills to navigate through the influences of the outside world, i.e. social media.
  • Kuosma-Hämäläinen, Marlen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Yhteiskunnassa näkemykset ikääntyneistä ja ikääntymisestä vaihtelevat ajasta riippuen. Viime aikana ikääntyneisiin liittyvä julkisuuskuva on liittynyt huoltosuhteeseen, hoitajapulaan ja ikääntyneiden heikkoon toimintakykyyn. Tämän näkemyksen rinnalle on tullut vahvasti ajatus aktiivisesta ja onnistuneesta ikääntymisestä, jolla ikääntymiseen liittyviä negatiivisia stereotypioita on pyritty yhteiskunnassamme heikentämään. Lähestymme ikääntymistä mistä tulokulmasta tahansa, vaikuttaa se siihen kuinka ikääntyneet itse itsensä näkevät. Ikääntymisen julkisuuskuvaa on käsitelty aikaisemmissa tutkimuksessa, mutta lähtökohtana ovat olleet pääsääntöisesti mediatekstit. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena onkin selvittää millainen kuva ikääntyneistä luodaan visuaalisten kuvien kautta. Tutkimuskysymykseni on: Millainen kuva ikääntyneistä muodostuu Instagram-kuvien perusteella. Aineisto koostui 316 Instagram-kuvasta, jotka kerättiin Instagram-tileiltä. Jokaisessa aineistoon valitussa kuvassa esiintyi tulkintani mukaan ikääntynyt henkilö. Aineisto analysoitiin Erving Goffmanin luoman kehysanalyysin avulla, jossa on hyödynnetty Eeva Luhtakallion sovellusta visuaalisesta kehysanalyysistä. Löysin kahdeksan erilaista kehystä, jotka kuvaavat ikääntyneistä esitettyjä kuvia; aktiivisuuden, oppimisen, hoivan, menestyksen, merkityksellisyyden, tunteiden, yhteisöllisyyden ja yksilöllisyyden kehykset. Ikääntyneistä voi siis kuvien avulla luoda heterogeenisen kuvan. Tärkeä tutkimuksen huomio oli, että näille kaikille kehyksille yhtenäinen piirre oli se, että ne kuvaavat ”onnistunutta ikääntymistä” monipuolisesti. Sen sijaan toimintakyvyltään hauraampia ikääntyneitä ei aineiston kuvissa näkynyt. Tässä tutkielmassa aktiivisuuden ja oppimisen kehykset olivat eniten edustettuina. Puolestaan menestyksen ja hoivan kehykseen sisältyviä kuvia löytyi aineistosta vähiten. Ikääntyneistä muodostuva kuva kaipaa edelleen ikääntyneiden kuvaston monipuolistumista. Vaikka tuloksista on selvästi nähtävissä se, että ikääntymistä voi lähestyä monesta eri näkökulmasta, on esimerkiksi vähemmistöt ja vanhimmat vanhat kuvissa harvoin edustettuina. Koenkin, että sosiaaliseen mediaan kaivataan ikääntyneiden kohdalla entistä enemmän sosiaalityön ja ikääntyneiden omaa näkökulmaa, joka voi tarjota tätä hetkeä rikkaamman ja todentuntuisemman lähestymistavan ikääntymiseen. Toisaalta on tärkeä vaalia voimavaralähtöistä kuvaa ikääntyneistä, joka voi edesauttaa yhteiskunnan suhtautumista ikääntyneisiin. On kuitenkin muistettava, että onnistunut ikääntyminen merkitsee yksilötasolla paljon enemmän kuin mitä tämän hetken visuaaliset kuvat antavat olettaa.
  • Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Savolainen, Iina; Paek, Hye-Jin; Zych, Izabela; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Social media tends to gather users around social cliques consisting of similar-minded individuals and shared identities. These online group processes can have significant influence on user behavior, which is alarming when considering risky behaviors such as gambling. This study examined how online clique involvement predicts young people's interest in gambling content and following observed group norms on social media. Survey respondents were 15-25-year-olds from Finland (n = 1200), the United States (n = 1212), South Korea (n = 1192) and Spain (n = 1212). A self-reported measure of online clique involvement and a gambling-related social media vignette experiment were utilized. The results show that online clique involvement was related to higher interest in gambling content. Content liked by a majority gathered more interest, indicating conformity to a group norm. This finding was especially true among participants with past involvement in online cliques, and the association was strongest in South Korea. The tendency to participate in online clique behavior creates a potentially risky setting when encountering online gambling content, because it may accentuate the effect of observed group norms. Interacting with gambling content increases the visibility of such content due to algorithmic filtering technologies, which can fuel gambling-related intentions and behaviors, and normalize gambling.
  • Talwar, Shalini; Dhir, Amandeep; Singh, Dilraj; Virk, Gurnam; Salo, Jari (2020)
    Sharing of fake news on social media platforms is a global concern, with research offering little insight into the motives behind such sharing. This study adopts a mixed-method approach to explore fake-news sharing behaviour. To begin with, qualitative data from 58 open-ended essays was analysed to identify six behavioural manifestations associated with sharing fake news. Thereafter, research model hypothesizing the association between these behaviours was proposed using the honeycomb framework and the third-person effect hypothesis. Age and gender were the control variables. Two data sets obtained from cross-sectional surveys with 471 and 374 social media users were utilized to test the proposed model. The study results suggest that instantaneous sharing of news for creating awareness had positive effect on sharing fake news due to lack of time and religiosity. However, authenticating news before sharing had no effect on sharing fake news due to lack of time and religiosity. The study results also suggest that social media users who engage in active corrective action are unlikely to share fake news due to lack of time. These results have significant theoretical and practical implications.
  • Oksanen, Atte; Miller, Bryan L.; Savolainen, Iina; Sirola, Anu; Demant, Jakob; Kaakinen, Markus; Zych, Izabela (2021)
    Drugs are sold on both dark web services and on social media, but research investigating these drug purchases online is still emerging. The aim of this study is to analyze risk factors associated with buying drugs online. Utilizing theories of criminology and addiction research, it was hypothesized that social bonds, low levels of self-control, and poor mental health are associated with buying drugs online. Additionally, it was predicted that purchases of drugs online would mediate the relationship between low self-control and regular drug use. Participants of this nationwide study were 15 to 25 years old living in the United States (N= 1,212) and Spain (N= 1,212). Measures of impulsivity, a sense of mastery, social belonging, psychological distress, excessive behaviors (drinking, gambling and internet use) were utilized to predict purchasing drugs online. Two percent of the U.S. and Spanish respondents reported buying drugs online with 77% of them utilizing social media services to buy drugs. Results from multinomial logistic regression, penalized maximum-likelihood logistic regression, and binary mediation regression models indicated that buying drugs online was associated with lower self-control, higher psychological distress, and excessive gambling behavior and excessive Internet use. Having online friends was not a risk factor, but having strong social bonds with offline friends served as a protective factor. Additionally, buying drugs online mediated the relationship between low self-control and regular use of drugs. Results indicate that more focus should be placed on mainstream social media services as sources of drug acquisition as online drug buyers have multiple self-control and mental health problems.
  • Toivonen, Tuuli; Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Fink, Christoph; Hausmann, Anna; Hiippala, Tuomo; Järv, Olle; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Di Minin, Enrico (2019)
    Improved understanding of human-nature interactions is crucial to conservation science and practice, but collecting relevant data remains challenging. Recently, social media have become an increasingly important source of information on human-nature interactions. However, the use of advanced methods for analysing social media is still limited, and social media data are not used to their full potential. In this article, we present available sources of social media data and approaches to mining and analysing these data for conservation science. Specifically, we (i) describe what kind of relevant information can be retrieved from social media platforms, (ii) provide a detailed overview of advanced methods for spatio-temporal, content and network analyses, (iii) exemplify the potential of these approaches for real-world conservation challenges, and (iv) discuss the limitations of social media data analysis in conservation science. Combined with other data sources and carefully considering the biases and ethical issues, social media data can provide a complementary and cost-efficient information source for addressing the grand challenges of biodiversity conservation in the Anthropocene epoch.
  • Kammonen, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Pro Gradu –tutkielmassani tutkin englannin kielen käyttöä vaikuttajamarkkinoinnissa keskittyen erityisesti sosiaalisen median kuvapalveluun Instagramiin. Vaikuttajamarkkinointi perustuu niin sanottuihin vaikuttajiin, joita ovat sosiaalisessa mediassa suuren määrän seuraajia keränneet käyttäjät. Vaikuttajamarkkinoinnissa yritykset maksavat vaikuttajille, jotta he markkinoisivat kyseisen yrityksen tuotteita sosiaalisen median tileillään. Suurin ero perinteiseen markkinointiin on se, että vaikuttajamarkkinoinnissa viesti ei tule suoraan yritykseltä itseltään, vaan sosiaalisen median käyttäjältä, jonka yleisö kokee vertaisenaan. Tutkimuskysymykseni on seuraava: kuinka englannin kielen käyttö Instagramin sponsoroitujen julkaisujen kuvateksteissä vaikuttaa julkaisun vetovoimaan ja yleisön tykkäyksiin ja kommentointiin? Tutkimustani varten olen koonnut 20 sponsoroidun julkaisun aineiston yhtä monelta eri käyttäjältä. Olen analysoinut julkaisujen kuvatekstit käyttäen pohjana Ken Hylandin teoriaa kirjoituksessa käytettävistä vuorovaikutuskeinoista sekä omaa malliani kuvatekstien elementeistä. Edellinen pohjautuu kirjoittajalähtöiseen stance –käsitteeseen sekä lukijalähtöiseen engagement –käsitteeseen. Olen laskenut kuinka monta stance- ja engagement –markkeria kussakin kuvatekstissä on ja verrannut niitä muuan muassa kuvatekstien kokonaissanamäärään ja ”vuorovaikutusasteeseen” (engl. engagement rate: osuus seuraajista, joka on vuorovaikutuksessa julkaisun kanssa; tälle termille ei ole standardoitua suomenkielistä vastinetta). Oma mallini kuvateksteistä puolestaan perustuu neljään eri elementtiin, jotka ovat Instagramin sponsoroitujen julkaisujen kuvateksteissä yleisiä. Olen verrannut myös näiden elementtien esiintyvyyttä vuorovaikutusasteen kanssa. Tämän tutkimuksen tuloksena olen tehnyt johtopäätöksiä kuvatekstien vaikutuksesta julkaisun vetovoimaan. Kun olen analysoinut laskelmiini perustuvat vertailut, en suurimmassa osassa ole havainnut olennaista korrelaatiota kielellisten ja narratiivisten tekijöiden sekä vuorovaikutusasteen kanssa. Merkittävin löydökseni on positiivinen korrelaatio kuvatekstien elementti D:n esiintyvyyden ja vuorovaikutusasteen kanssa. Elementti D:n määritelmä on ”kuvatekstin luova yhdistäminen kuvaan sekä markkinoituun tuotteeseen”. Tämän korrelaation perusteella olen päätellyt, että saadakseen vahvan vastakaiun yleisöltä tuotteen ja kuvatekstin tulee olla yleisesti hyvin yhteen nivoutuneet, ja että vaikuttajan yleisö arvostaa tuotteen tuomista osaksi julkaisun yhtenäistä kokonaisuutta. Väitän, että tämä saa julkaisun vaikuttamaan luontevammalta ja aidommalta eikä sellaiselta, jossa tuote antaa päälleliimatun vaikutelman koko julkaisuun nähden. Avainsanat – Nyckelord – Keywords Influencer marketing, Social media, Instagram, Sociolinguistics, English Säilytyspaikka – Förvaringställe – Where deposited Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto – Helda / E-thesis (opinnäytteet)
  • Sirola, Anu; Savela, Nina; Savolainen, Iina; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Gambling opportunities are facilitated by the growth of the Internet and social media platforms. Digital games also increasingly include monetary features, such as microtransactions, blurring the line between gambling and gaming. The Internet provides a variety of virtual communities for gamblers and gamers, but comprehensive research on these communities and their relevance in gambling and monetary gaming behaviors remains scarce. This paper summarizes research of online gambling and monetary gaming communities based on a systematic literature review. A systematic literature search was conducted from five databases: Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Social Science Premium Collection, and EBSCOhost. The search was limited to empirical articles that focused on gambling or gaming involving money and examined online interaction between gamblers or gamers. Preliminary search resulted in 1056 articles, from which 55 were selected for the analyses based on pre-determined criteria. According to results, online communities serve different functions in gambling and gaming behaviors. Gambling communities are typically forums for discussing and sharing gambling experiences, strategies, and tips as well as gambling problems, while gaming communities are inherently embedded inside a game being an essential part of the gaming experience. Identification with virtual communities influences gambling behavior and monetary gaming behavior through mechanisms of perceived norms, social influence, and community feedback. Whereas some gambling communities may provide protection from excessive gambling habits, gaming communities seem to solely motivate gaming behavior and purchase intentions. The role of online communities should be acknowledged in prevention and treatment of gambling and gaming problems.
  • Cripps, Helen; Singh, Abhay; Mejtoft, Thomas; Salo, Jari (2020)
    Purpose The purpose of this research is to investigate the use of Twitter in business as a medium for knowledge sharing and to crowdsource information to support innovation and enhance business relationships in the context of business-to-business (B2B) marketing. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a combination of methodologies for gathering data in 52 face-to-face interviews across five countries and the downloaded posts from each of the interviewees' Twitter accounts. The tweets were analysed using structural topic modelling (STM), and then compared to the interview data. This method enabled triangulation between stated use of Twitter and respondent's actual tweets. Findings The research confirmed that individuals used Twitter as a source of information, ideas, promotion and innovation within their industry. Twitter facilitates building relevant business relationships through the exchange of new, expert and high-quality information within like-minded communities in real time, between companies and with their suppliers, customers and also their peers. Research limitations/implications - As this study covered five countries, further comparative research on the use of Twitter in the B2B context is called for. Further investigation of the formalisation of social media strategies and return on investment for social media marketing efforts is also warranted. Practical implications - This research highlights the business relationship building capacity of Twitter as it enables customer and peer conversations that eventually support the development of product and service innovations. Twitter has the capacity for marketers to informand engage customers and peers in their networks on wider topics thereby building the brand of the individual users and their companies simultaneously. Originality/value This study focuses on interactions at the individual level illustrating that Twitter is used for both customer and peer interactions that can lead to the sourcing of ideas, knowledge and ultimately innovation. The study is novel in its methodological approach of combining structured interviews and text mining that found the topics of the interviewees' tweets aligned with their interview responses.