Browsing by Subject "Sound archaeology"

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  • Rainio, Riitta (Ekho verlag, 2013)
    Publications of the ICTM Study Group on Music Archaeology
    In this paper, I analyze and interpret the T-shaped antler artefact that was excavated from the 14th−15th century layers of the city of Turku, Finland. On the basis of the basic form, size, use-wear and raw material, the artefact is a drum hammer of Saami origin. Although the ornaments are uncharacteristic of traditional Saami drum hammers, similar type of motifs can be found in another medieval drum hammer from Norway. In the medieval city of Turku, the drum hammer seems to have been in a use that was different from the original shamanistic one. On the basis of the archaeological context, the drum hammer was hidden in the floor construction of a dwelling house, most probably as a gift to the house spirit or some other kind of transcendent being. As similar deposits of sound-related artefacts and instruments can be found in the later Finnish folklore, it is possible to carry on the reasoning further. The hidden drum hammer can be interpreted as a special sound deposit, by which the drumming sound was transported to the other transcendent reality, where it protected the household in an inaudible way.
  • Rainio, Riitta; Lahelma, Antti; Äikäs, Tiina; Lassfolk, Kai; Okkonen, Jari (2017)
    In northern Finland, near the canyon lakes of Julma-Ölkky, Somerjärvi and Rotkojärvi, steep rock cliffs produce distinctive acoustic spaces. On these cliffs, prehistoric rock paintings (5200 to 1000 BC) as well as an ancient Sámi offering site (circa 1100 to present) can be found. Ethnographic sources describe that the Sámi used to sing and listen to echoes while making offerings there. This article presents the results of an archaeoacoustic research project that seeks to explore the role of sound in the development and use of these archaeological sites. The innovative set of methods includes multichannel impulse response recording, angle-of-arrival estimation of early reflections, spectrum analysis, digital image processing and 3D laser scanning. On the basis of the analyses, it is concluded that the cliffs that have been painted or held as sacred are efficient sound reflectors. They create discrete echoes and, accordingly, phantom sound sources. Especially at the Värikallio cliff near Lake Somerjärvi, the sound appears to emanate directly from the painted figures. These results, together with previously unnoticed drumming figures in the Värikallio painting, provide a clue to the significance of the sound rituals at these sacred sites.
  • Rainio, Riitta; Tamboer, Annemies (2018)
    In one of the Late Mesolithic graves at Skateholm, Sweden, dating from 5500–4800 BC, were buried a woman together with a newborn baby. Altogether 32 perforated wild boar (Sus scrofa) teeth and traces of red ochre pigment were found in this grave as well. These were interpreted by us as a rattling ornament decorating a baby pouch of leather coloured with red ochre. We made an experimental reconstruction and found out that the teeth function well as a rattle when moving the carrier. The reconstruction currently is on display in the European Music Archaeology Project’s travelling exhibition on archaeological instruments.
  • Rainio, Riitta; Tamboer, Annemies (2018)
    In one of the Late Mesolithic graves at Skateholm, Sweden, dating from 5500–4800 BC, were buried a woman together with a newborn baby. Altogether 32 perforated wild boar (Sus scrofa) teeth and traces of red ochre pigment were found in this grave as well. These were interpreted by us as a rattling ornament decorating a baby pouch of leather coloured with red ochre. We made an experimental reconstruction and found out that the teeth function well as a rattle when moving the carrier. The reconstruction currently is on display in the European Music Archaeology Project’s travelling exhibition on archaeological instruments.
  • Kolltveit, Gjermund; Rainio, Riitta (Ekho verlag, 2020)
    Publications of the ICTM Study Group on Music Archaeology
    This book arose from an international symposium in Honour of Cajsa S. Lund that took place in 2016 at Linnaeus University’s Department of Music and Art, in Växjö, Sweden. The symposium was organized by Nordic music archaeologists Gjermund Kolltveit (Oslo) and Riitta Rainio (Helsinki), with Cornelius Holtorf and Karin Hallgren as local contributors at Linnaeus University. It was funded by the Swedish Research Council, the Nordic Culture Fund and Musik i Syd. The book is edited by Gjermund Kolltveit and Riitta Rainio, and published in Berlin by Ekho Verlag. The contributors are Cornelius Holtorf, Iain Morley, Catherine Homo-Lechner, Emiliano Li Castro, Rupert Till, Frances Gill, Annemies Tamboer, Graeme Lawson, Stefan Hagel, Timo Leisiö, Anders Söderberg, Dorota Popławska, Andrzej Janowski, Stanisław Mazurek, Simon Wyatt, Raquel Jiménez Pasalodos, Riitta Rainio, John Purser, Joachim Schween and Cajsa S. Lund.
  • Rainio, Riitta (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Orient-Abteilung, 2012)
    Orient-Archäologie
    Hunderte von ausgegrabenen Schellen, Glocken und glockenförmigen Anhänger bezeugen, dass metallene Klänge ein charakterisches Merkmal der späten finnischen Eisenzeit (800 – 1300 n. Chr.) waren. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird die Bedeutung dieser Klänge untersucht und erklärt, warum sie so beliebt in dieser Zeit waren. Die in den Gräbern und Wohnplätzen gefundenen Gegenstände repräsentieren strukturierte Befunde, die mit ethnographischen Analogien verglichen werden können. Über hundert Ausgrabungsbefunde legen nahe, dass die Schellen, Glocken und glockenförmigen Anhänger an Trachten und Zaumzeug befestigt waren oder in Beuteln oder Kästchen aufbewahrt wurden. Vorrangig befanden sich diese Klanggeräte in reich ausgestatteten Gräbern sozial höhergestellter Persönlichkeiten. Des weiteren wurden sie häufig zusammen mit Kreuzen, Miniatur-Schneidwerkzeugen und zoomorphen Anhängern gefunden, die in der späteren finnisch-karelischen Kultur als prophylaktische Amulette Verwendung fanden. In der Eisenzeit sowie in der späteren finnischkarelischen Kultur scheint der Klang der Schellen, Glocken und glockenförmigen Anhänger die sozialen, kosmologischen und territorialen Grenzen markiert zu haben.
  • Rainio, Riitta; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Valkeapää, Juha (2017)
    The rich and well-preserved osteological material from the archaeological complex of Ajvide, Gotland (3200‒2300 cal BC), provides favorable conditions for studying prehistoric sounds and soundscapes. Archaeological excavations at the site have uncovered tubular bone artifacts and concentrations of animal tooth pendants that resemble whistles and rattles, the earliest types of sound instruments. The remains of hunted animals, such as seals, boars, dogs and birds, provide a lively picture of the species that were present in the environment. This article aims to evoke the sonic experiences of the people utilizing the site of Ajvide and explore how these hunter-gatherers constructed and responded to their sonic environment. The results of the osteological, organological and soundscape analyses are presented in the form of a scholarly text, samples of studio and field recordings, and a soundtrack that fuses the results together into a nine-minute piece of sound art.
  • Lund, Cajsa S.; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Rainio, Riitta; Ringot, Jean-Loup; Tamboer, Annemies (2015)
    The well-known Mesolithic net find of Antrea includes, among other things, an artefact made of whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) bone. One end of this tubular artefact is equipped with an U-shaped notch, which resembles a kind of working edge or the blowing end of a wind instrument. This article aims to shed new light on the function of the artefact by making copies and type models, and testing them in practice. The copies perform well as a duct flute and a reed pipe, but small structural details suggest that the maker was not after a sound instrument. A more probable function for this kind of artefact would be a fisherman’s tool used for scaling fish, peeling bark or making and repairing nets. Although the experiments do not lead to an unequivocal identification of the artefact, it appears that its earlier suggested use as a flute or other kind of wind instrument is unlikely.
  • Rainio, Riitta (Marie Leidorf, 2016)
    Orient-Archäologie
    In the Hornbostel-Sachs system of musical instrument classification, the aerophones proper are presumed to be blown instruments. Several trumpets from northern Eurasia, North America and South America, however, have traditionally been played in the opposite way, by inhaling. These sucked trumpets, counting among lip-vibrated instruments, have been used for calling game, as well as playing melodies. This article presents prehistoric bone artefacts from Ajvide, Gotland, Sweden (c. 2900–2300 cal. BC) and Eva, Benton county, Tennessee (5700–4700 BC), and discusses whether they could be regarded as early examples of sucked trumpets. The tubular artefacts are made from swan (Cygnus sp.) and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) ulnae and radii by cutting, scraping and filing the bones and fitting them together. Similar two-piece structure turns up in the traditional wing bone turkey calls used to this day by North American hunters. The copies of the artefacts produce a variety of clucking, yelping and trumpeting sounds, when played with the sucking technique. The two-piece structure could have an acoustic motive or meaning, as it enables to make the sound louder and to modify the tone colour. In der Klassifikation der Musikinstrumente nach Hornbostel-Sachs werden die Aerophone zu den Blasinstrumenten gezählt. Verschiedene Trompeten vom nördlichen Eurasien sowie Nord- und Südamerika wurden jedoch traditionell anders gespielt, nämlich durch Einziehen der Luft. Die durch Einziehen der Luft gespielten Trompeten wurden sowohl verwendet um Signale zu geben als auch um Melodien zu spielen. Dieser Beitrag behandelt prähistorische Knochenartefakte aus Ajvide, Gotland, Schweden (ca. 2900 – 2300 v. Chr.) und aus Eva, Benton County, Tennessee, USA (5700 – 4700 v. Chr.) und erörtert, ob sie als frühe Beispiele der durch Einziehen der Luft zu spielende Trompeten betrachtet werden können. Die röhrenförmigen Artefakte wurden aus Ellen und Speichen von Schwan (Cygnus sp.) und Truthahn (Meleagris gallopavo) hergestellt und zu einem Kompositgerät zusammengesetzt. Ähnliche, zweiteilige Instrumente werden bis heute von nordamerikanischen Jägern als Truthahnlockrufinstrument verwendet. Die Nachbauten dieser Aerophone ermöglichen eine Vielfalt von gluckenden, gellenden und trötenden Klängen zu erzeugen, wenn sie mit der Luft einziehenden Technik (‚sucking technique‘) gespielt werden.
  • University of Helsinki, Archaeology; Kolltveit, Gjermund; Rainio, Riitta; (Ekho verlag, 2020)
    Publications of the ICTM Study Group on Music Archaeology
    This book arose from an international symposium in Honour of Cajsa S. Lund that took place in 2016 at Linnaeus University’s Department of Music and Art, in Växjö, Sweden. The symposium was organized by Nordic music archaeologists Gjermund Kolltveit (Oslo) and Riitta Rainio (Helsinki), with Cornelius Holtorf and Karin Hallgren as local contributors at Linnaeus University. It was funded by the Swedish Research Council, the Nordic Culture Fund and Musik i Syd. The book is edited by Gjermund Kolltveit and Riitta Rainio, and published in Berlin by Ekho Verlag. The contributors are Cornelius Holtorf, Iain Morley, Catherine Homo-Lechner, Emiliano Li Castro, Rupert Till, Frances Gill, Annemies Tamboer, Graeme Lawson, Stefan Hagel, Timo Leisiö, Anders Söderberg, Dorota Popławska, Andrzej Janowski, Stanisław Mazurek, Simon Wyatt, Raquel Jiménez Pasalodos, Riitta Rainio, John Purser, Joachim Schween and Cajsa S. Lund.