Browsing by Subject "South Africa"

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  • Teppo, Annika (2013)
  • Kim, Eunjung; Choi, Kijung; Lappeman, James; Salo, Jari (2021)
    Recreational cyclists are pertinent but rarely studied leisure and tourism segment. Recreational cycling has traditionally been considered as a ‘masculine stereotyped’ sport. The purpose of the research is to better understand a gendered consumer view of recreational cycling and to possibly promote recreational cycling to women and men in countries like South Africa with keen interests of recreational cycling in the form of sport tourism. This research employs a content analysis of social media posts on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter as a research method. Specifically, the gendered nature of recreational cycling is focused upon. In total, 2,504 posts from 1,598 unique authors from South Africa are analysed. As a result, this research shows that in the South African context male cyclists tend to like to attend the specialised event and race for their health and fitness while female cyclists seem to find more enjoyable and family-friendly (children focused) cycling. The results also confirm the paradox that women are generally presented in more family oriented roles, while men are typically shown as more independent in the media. Managerial implications and future research are also presented.
  • Stassen, Willem; Wallis, Lee; Castren, Maaret; Vincent-Lambert, Craig; Kurland, Lisa (2019)
    The incidence of cardiovascular disease and STEMI is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa. Timely treatment is essential to reduce mortality. Internationally, prehospital 12 lead ECG telemetry has been proposed to reduce time to reperfusion. Its value in South Africa has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prehospital 12 lead ECG telemetry on the PCI-times of STEMI patients in South Africa. A multicentre randomised controlled trial was attempted among adult patients with prehospital 12 lead ECG evidence of STEMI. Due to poor enrolment and small sample sizes, meaningful analyses could not be made. The challenges and lessons learnt from this attempt at Africa's first prehospital RCT are discussed. Challenges associated with conducting this RCT related to the healthcare landscape, resources, training of paramedics, rollout and rando-misation, technology, consent and research culture. High quality evidence to guide prehospital emergency care practice is lacking both in Africa and the rest of the world. This is likely due to the difficulties with performing prehospital clinical trials. Every trial will be unique to the test intervention and setting of each study, but by considering some of the challenges and lessons learnt in the attempt at this trial, future studies might experience less difficulty. This may lead to a stronger evidence-base for prehospital emergency
  • Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Sylvester, Frederick J.; Marsh, Kathryn (2021)
    Background: Positive behavioural interventions and supports (PBIS) is a framework that aligns with the South African Department of Education’s Alternatives to Corporal Punishment. Aim: The aim of this study is to provide a snapshot of the extent to which policies and practices in a disadvantaged South African primary school align with PBIS. Setting: The study was conducted at a South African primary school with grades kindergarten to Grade 7 in an urban disadvantaged community. Methods: Twenty-eight teachers, administrators and non-educational school staff completed a survey that addressed: (1) common behaviour problems; (2) the extent to which the school implements five core features of PBIS and (3) the existence of a crisis prevention and intervention plan. Results: In this disadvantaged school, there is little evidence that (1) a cohesive, evidence-based schoolwide behaviour plan exists that includes multi-tiered systems of support; (2) staff have the expertise to implement a positive and proactive behaviour plan or are provided adequate professional development; (3) staff follow the plan and are held accountable for following it and (4) a representative leadership team provides oversight and direction regarding the plan by using learner behaviour data. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is a lack of multi-tiered systems of behavioural support and a continued reliance on reactive and punitive approaches to learner behaviour. Moreover, staff do not adhere to the schoolwide behaviour plan, are not held accountable for doing so, and need training in key areas of behaviour management.
  • Caterpillar Rearing Group (CRG), LepSoc Africa; Staude, Hermann; MacLean, Marion; Mecenero, Silvia; Pretorius, Rudolph J.; Oberprieler, Rolf G.; van Noort, Simon; Sharp, Allison; Sharp, Ian; Balona, Julio; Bradley, Suncana; Brink, Magriet; Morton, Andrew S.; Bodha, Magda J.; Collins, Steve C.; Grobler, Quartus; Edge, David A.; Williams, Mark C.; Sihvonen, Pasi (2020)
    We present an overview of the known host associations of larval Lepidoptera for southern Africa, based on a database of 11 628 rearings, including all Caterpillar Rearing Group (CRG) records and other published records. Rearings per Lepidoptera family show some bias in the rearing effort towards the more conspicuous families, ectophagous groups and non-detritus-feeders but in general follow species diversity. Recorded Lepidoptera host associations per host family for southern Africa are shown. Data analyses revealed the following general trends: of the 20 most reared species 13 are polyphagous; Fabaceae are the most utilised plant family with 2 122 associations, followed by Asteraceae (600), Malvaceae (564) and Anacardiaceae (476); 98.8 % of hosts are vascular plants; and of the 19 most utilised host species 18 are common trees or shrubs. We discuss possible reasons behind these trends, particularly the high utilisation of Fabaceae and the widespread use of trees and shrubs as hosts. We compare recorded host species numbers with species diversity for the 19 most recorded host families and discuss possible reasons for the low utilisation of four plant families with an exceptionally low percentage of Lepidoptera host species / plant host species diversity. All Lepidoptera families for which more than 100 rearings have been recorded (21 families) utilise one (or two in the case of Pyralidae, Nolidae and Hesperiidae) plant family exponentially more than any of the other families, with resulting histograms forming hyperbolic curves, as are typical of distributions of taxonomic assemblages in nature. We calculate an exponential factor to quantify this phenomenon and show that for all 21 Lepidoptera families one host family is utilised 6–33 times more than the average use of other host families. In this paper, the larvae and adults of 953 African, mostly South African, Lepidoptera species reared by the CRG between January 2016 and June 2019 are illustrated together with pertinent host information. 119 Lepidoptera-parasitoid associations are reported, comprising seven hymenopteran families and one dipteran family. With the current data release, larval host association records are now available for 2 826 Lepidoptera species in the southern African subregion, covering about 25 % of the described fauna.
  • Friedland, Barbara A.; Stoner, Marie; Chau, Michelle M.; Plagianos, Marlena Gehret; Govender, Sumen; Morar, Neetha; Altini, Lydia; Skoler-Karpoff, Stephanie; Ahmed, Khatija; Ramjee, Gita; Monedi, Constance; Maguire, Robin; Lähteenmäki, Pekka (2016)
    A randomized, placebo-controlled, efficacy trial of Carraguard was unable to demonstrate a reduction in women's risk of HIV infection, which may have been due, in part, to low adherence (gel used in 42 % of vaginal sex acts, on average). A secondary analysis was undertaken to understand baseline factors associated with high adherence (gel used in aeyen85 % of sex acts). Women who reported aeyen1 vaginal sex act, returned aeyen1 opened applicator, and had aeyen1 conclusive post-enrollment HIV test (N = 5990) were included. Adherence was estimated as the ratio of average weekly applicator insertions (based on a dye stain assay indicating vaginal insertion)/average weekly sex acts (by self-report). Multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that coital frequency, site, contraception, and partner age difference had a significant impact on adherence. Women reporting > 1 and aecurrency sign2 vaginal sex acts per week, on average, were half as likely to be adherent as those reporting 1 vaginal sex act per week or less [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.48; 95 % CI 0.38-0.61]; women from the Western Cape had one-third the odds of being adherent compared to women from KZN (AOR: 0.31; 95 % CI 0.23-0.41); compared to women using injectable contraception, women using any other or no method were more likely to be adherent (AOR: 1.30; 95 % CI 1.04-1.63); and women who had a larger age gap from their partners were more likely to be adherent (AOR: 1.03; 95 % CI 1.01-1.05; p = 0.001). Despite low adherence, overall, 13 % of participants achieved nearly perfect adherence, indicating a potential niche for a coitally dependent microbicide. More research is needed on the impact of sexual patterns and HIV risk perception on product acceptability and adherence to improve counseling in ongoing trials and when products are eventually introduced.
  • Pöllänen, Katri; de Vries, Hein; Mathews, Catherine; Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Petrus J. (2021)
    Sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem worldwide. Research regarding beliefs about perpetrating sexual IPV is, however, limited. This study investigated attitudes, social influence, and self-efficacy beliefs and intentions toward perpetrating sexual IPV among Grade 8 adolescents (M age = 13.73, SD = 1.04) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The study sample was taken from the baseline data of the Promoting sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa (PREPARE) study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Young adolescents (N = 2,199), from 42 randomly selected high schools, participated in the study and answered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Multivariate ANOVA were conducted to assess differences in beliefs and intention toward perpetrating sexual IPV between boys and girls, and between perpetrators and nonperpetrators. Results showed that boys were more frequently perpetrators (11.3% vs. 3.2%) and victims (13.6% vs. 6.4%) of sexual IPV than girls. Boys’ attitudes toward perpetrating sexual IPV were more supportive than girls’. Boys perceived their social network to be more likely to think that putting pressure on a boyfriend or girlfriend to have sex is okay, and boys had a lower self-efficacy to refrain from pressuring a boyfriend or girlfriend to have sex compared with girls. Both boys and girls, who have perpetrated sexual IPV, had more tolerant attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy beliefs toward sexual IPV perpetration, compared with nonperpetrators. Intention not to perpetrate sexual IPV did not differ between boys and girls, or between perpetrators and nonperpetrators. Our findings suggest that interventions should address attitude and social influence beliefs regarding sexual IPV perpetration. More attention should be given to sexual IPV perpetration among boys. Given that sexual IPV victimization and perpetration are significantly linked, prevention of sexual IPV perpetration seems to be of utmost importance.
  • Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Roux, Francois; Nakao, Minoru; Sasaki, Mizuki; Lavikainen, Antti (2017)
    Hydatid cysts of Echinococcus felidis are described from the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) from Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Among six hippopotami investigated, hepatic hydatids were found in three. The identification was based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. In addition, the rostellar hook morphology was analysed. This is the first morphological description of the metacestode of E. felidis, and the first molecularly confirmed report of the intermediate host of E. felidis in South Africa. The definitive host of E. felidis in South Africa is the lion (Panthera leo).
  • Nurmi, Marisofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Globally, there is a constant shortfall of financial resources in conservation, which has partially been supplemented by combining conservation and conservation-compatible businesses. Many protected and conserved areas in sub-Saharan Africa are largely funded by revenues generated within the area, mainly through ecotourism. While ecotourism revenues are bringing in money into the system, dependency on this single type of revenue source is making conservation areas – or even the whole protected area system – vulnerable to changes in visitor numbers, which are prone to different political or socio-economic disturbances (such as conflicts, economic recession, and epidemics). A sudden substantial decrease in revenues or increase in costs may threaten the existence, extent, and quality of conservation areas in terms of biodiversity conservation. Collecting and analysing economic information on protected and conserved areas can help investigate their long-term sustainability and resilience to financial threats, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and related economic outcomes. In this thesis, I assess how conservation costs and revenues vary between different types of protected and conserved areas, how financially self-sufficient they are, and how economically resilient these areas may be in the face of global changes. The analysis is based on financial data from different types of protected and conserved areas in South Africa: state-owned national parks (South African National Parks, later SANParks), provincial parks (Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife, later Ezemvelo) and private conserved areas. With the use of simulation modelling and resilience theory, I discuss how potential economic resilience varies between protected areas. The findings indicate that there are significant differences in the cost-revenue structure of different kinds of protected and conserved areas, and especially between public and private. Ezemvelo receives most of its funds from the provincial government, whereas SANParks covers the majority of its costs from tourism revenues. Private game reserves again need to cover their costs independently. According to the findings, size is an important attribute to predict the per hectare net income and running costs of public protected areas but has no significant influence on those of private game reserves. For public protected areas, the running costs per hectare are significantly higher for protected areas less than 1000 hectares. Based on the economic modelling and resilience theory, I concluded that private game reserves are generally financially more viable, but their vulnerability lies in their lack of embeddedness within a larger system (e.g., a conservation organization) that could support them during difficult times and require and encourage a long-term commitment to conservation. The economic resilience of public protected areas is more closely tied to the political atmosphere regarding conservation funding: self-generated revenues form only a part of the budgets of public protected areas. In addition, protected areas which have large fixed costs and depend on high tourism revenues are likely to be less economically resilient. Because of the higher running costs and resultant sensitivity of net income to changes in costs and revenues, parks that are home to the “Big Five” species (lion, leopard, rhino, elephant and buffalo) are in a more vulnerable position in the face of disturbances, as the pandemic. To address the threats that upcoming socio-economic disturbances pose to the funding base of protected and conserved areas, more focus should be given to the economic resilience of these areas, especially in countries and occasions where the areas rely on self-generated revenues.
  • Itkonen, Suvi (2008)
    This research is aiming to answer to the following questions: Is modern education only a tool of oppression and indoctrination? What is the connection between education, oppression and inequalities within the South African context? Oppressive educational policies have created various challenges to the South African population throughout the history. Particularly darker ethnic groups have long been oppressed and poorly educated, which has made it hard for them to succeed and prosper in modern life. Today, many of them are challenged with problems caused by poverty and structuralised inequality. What is being taught in schools is decided and determined by the people and institutions in power. In modern societies in particular, it is an accepted fact that the powerful are wiser and therefore the most competent ones to decide what goes into the curricula. Rarely do the masses, who get decided upon, participate. In South Africa, schools have long been the institutions in which children have been considered to learn the rules and norms of the state. The curricula were dominated by the elites. In South Africa, the educational system developed into an effective tool of oppression during the years. In the end, during the apartheid era, oppressive education culminated into so called Bantu education, which was purely designed to keep the black population at the lowest levels in the modern society. In this study I show that education has been a powerful tool of oppression through cases in the history and presence. My main methods are historical analysis and qualitative research. Observation and poetry are the main qualitative research methods. Black people were long oppressed and abused and thus still have unequal chances in life. The problems caused by poverty and culture of violence are endemic particularly in many townships. The values and structures of such powerful oppression machine, as the European system of rule has been in South Africa, are not eliminated and modified over night. In my view, the previously oppressed parts of people in South Africa are the key actors in the social change, if there is going to be a real change. They need to liberate themselves and create new radical models of democratic rule with true participation and integration. Only that way can the country purify itself from inequality, violence and poverty. Brief in Finnish Koulutus ja syrjintä: epätasa-arvo eteläafrikkalaisten lasten keskuudessa Pro gradu-tutkielma käsittelee Etelä-Afrikan koulutusta yhteiskunnallisesta näkökulmasta ja sitä, miten koulutusta on käytetty syrjinnän välineenä Etelä-Afrikan historiassa. Keskeisenä tutkimuskysymyksenä on se kuinka koulutus, syrjintä ja sosiaalinen epätasa-arvo ovat toisiinsa kytkettyjä. Lisäksi pohdin vaihtoehtoja suurimpiin ongelmiin koulutuksellisen epätasa-arvon ratkaisemiseksi Etelä-Afrikassa.
  • Russo, V.; Strever, A. E.; Ponstein, Helena J. (2021)
    Purpose Following the urgency to curb environmental impacts across all sectors globally, this is the first life cycle assessment of different wine grape farming practices suitable for commercial conventional production in South Africa, aiming at better understanding the potentials to reduce adverse effects on the environment and on human health. Methods An attributional life cycle assessment was conducted on eight different scenarios that reduce the inputs of herbicides and insecticides compared against a business as usual (BAU) scenario. We assess several impact categories based on ReCiPe, namely global warming potential, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, terrestrial toxicity, freshwater toxicity, marine toxicity, human carcinogenic toxicity and human non-carcinogenic toxicity, human health and ecosystems. A water footprint assessment based on the AWARE method accounts for potential impacts within the watershed. Results and discussion Results show that in our impact assessment, more sustainable farming practices do not always outperform the BAU scenario, which relies on synthetic fertiliser and agrochemicals. As a main trend, most of the impact categories were dominated by energy requirements of wine grape production in an irrigated vineyard, namely the usage of electricity for irrigation pumps and diesel for agricultural machinery. The most favourable scenario across the impact categories provided a low diesel usage, strongly reduced herbicides and the absence of insecticides as it applied cover crops and an integrated pest management. Pesticides and heavy metals contained in agrochemicals are the main contributors to emissions to soil that affected the toxicity categories and impose a risk on human health, which is particularly relevant for the manual labour-intensive South African wine sector. However, we suggest that impacts of agrochemicals on human health and the environment are undervalued in the assessment. The 70% reduction of toxic agrochemicals such as Glyphosate and Paraquat and the 100% reduction of Chlorpyriphos in vineyards hardly affected the model results for human and ecotoxicity. Our concerns are magnified by the fact that manual labour plays a substantial role in South African vineyards, increasing the exposure of humans to these toxic chemicals at their workplace. Conclusions A more sustainable wine grape production is possible when shifting to integrated grape production practices that reduce the inputs of agrochemicals. Further, improved water and related electricity management through drip irrigation, deficit irrigation and photovoltaic-powered irrigation is recommendable, relieving stress on local water bodies, enhancing drought-preparedness planning and curbing CO2 emissions embodied in products.
  • Howard, Ian; Cameron, Peter; Wallis, Lee; Castrén, Maaret; Lindström, Veronica (2019)
    Introduction Historically, performance within the Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC) setting has been assessed primarily based on response times. While easy to measure and valued by the public, overall, response time targets are a poor predictor of quality of care and clinical outcomes. Over the last two decades however, significant progress has been made towards improving the assessment of PEC performance, largely in the form of the development of PEC-specific quality indicators (QIs). Despite this progress, there has been little to no development of similar systems within the low- to middle-income country setting. As a result, the aim of this study was to identify a set of QIs appropriate for use in the South African PEC setting. Methods A three-round modified online Delphi study design was conducted to identify, refine and review a list of QIs for potential use in the South African PEC setting. Operational definitions, data components and criteria for use were developed for 210 QIs for inclusion into the study. Results In total, 104 QIs reached consensus agreement including, 90 clinical QIs, across 15 subcategories, and 14 non-clinical QIs across two subcategories. Amongst the clinical category, airway management (n = 13 QIs; 14%); out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (n = 13 QIs; 14%); and acute coronary syndromes (n = 11 QIs; 12%) made up the majority. Within the non-clinical category, adverse events made up the significant majority with nine QIs (64%). Conclusion Within the South Africa setting, there are a multitude of QIs that are relevant and appropriate for use in PEC. This was evident in the number, variety and type of QIs reaching consensus agreement in our study. Furthermore, both the methodology employed, and findings of this study may be used to inform the development of PEC specific QIs within other LMIC settings.
  • Grünthal, Riho; Honkasalo, Sami; Juutinen, Markus (2019)
    This article presents the results of a language sociological survey (2016) focusing on language choices and practices of two different Ndebele-speaking communities in Limpopo and Mpumalanga, the two north-eastern provinces of South Africa. The survey shows the prevailing dynamics in a multilingual environment, in both private and public spheres. One of the main differ-ences between the investigated groups is that in Mpumalanga, isiNdebele is the dominating language in its surroundings, whereas in Limpopo the local Sindebele variety is in the position of a minority language. From the perspec-tive of daily practices and attitudes Northern Sotho often dominates in this particular case. The different perceptions of the implementation of language law and the relationship of individual speakers with respect to private and public use of the two Ndebele variants suggest that further research is needed especially in order to shed more light on the language sociological status of Limpopo Ndebele. The survey consisted of a pilot sample of three different groups, which are: 1) speakers of the Mpumalanga Ndebele variety, which corresponds to isiNdebele and has official status in South Africa; 2) the signifi-cantly diverging Limpopo Ndebele, which does not have any official status; and 3) a control group sample from Mokopane town.
  • Koski, Sinikka (2000)
    The study consists of a case study in squatter camp communities in Cato Manor, Durban, South Africa, in the context of democratization. The case study was conducted through participant observation and twelve in-depth interviews among the local leadership in May - August 1998. The interviewees were chosen to represent the community opinions on the basis of brief pilot interviews. The aim was to gather first- hand, detailed information on the political attitudes, opinions, culture, behaviour, and local order in previously disenfranchised, but still economically and socially marginalized communities. The research examined the impact of legitimacy in a democratic consolidation process. The theoretical framework was the recent democratization theories of transitiology and consolidology. The main concept was legitimacy, which was analyzed through three clusters: types of political participation, local and regional security order, and the redefined role of the African state. Each cluster contains elements of the legitimization from above and from below. The results of the field research conclude that the culture of resistance and undemocratic, violent modes of participation are still part of the political culture in socio-economically deprived communities in South Africa. Democratic ways to participate are practiced, but the potential for violence, revenge, and distrust towards authorities dominate the patterns of participation. Democracy is closely linked to the socio-economic rights, but more importantly to human dignity and other non-material values. Community democracy was strong and communities had their own dispute mechanism and marshal system. Violence was perceived as a threat to personal security only in its most extreme forms, while everyday crime and instability were mostly tolerated, rejected, or denied. The national government enjoyed high levels of legitimacy and was uncriticized. The local authorities had low levels of legitimacy. Horizontal legitimacy was high among the residents and towards the new invaders, even though invasions often stopped the development plans in the area. Based on the case study was created a new concept, participation through community leaders and gatekeepers. This concept describes the political participation of the people at the grass-roots level, where the local leadership provides information, interpretations, and political strategies for a group of people. Also a continuum was defined for different types of participation, where one pole covers undemocratic, violent, and delegitimizating political participation, another pole democratic, peaceful, and legitimizing political participation.
  • Malkamaki, Arttu; Wagner, Paul M.; Brockhaus, Maria; Toppinen, Anne; Yla-Anttila, Tuomas (2021)
    Overcoming common-pool resource dilemmas requires learning across different sectors of society. However, policy actors frequently entrench themselves in so-called echo chambers by preferring to rely on information from those whose policy beliefs resemble their own. Policy forums can reduce the limiting effects of echo chambers by encouraging actors with diverse knowledge bases to exchange information and learn from one another. This paper applies exponential random graph models to network data from the South African tree plantation policy domain to investigate how belief homophily, reputational influence, and forum co-participation shape information exchange behavior. Results show that echo chambers are important determinants of information exchange ties and that reputational influence is likely to "deepen" the echo. Results also show that the more forums that a pair of actors co-participate in, the more likely they are to exchange information. This applies to information exchange generally, as well as information exchange with trusted partners. Findings indicate that forums enable both cognitive learning (as knowledge gains) and relational learning (as improved relations). Nonetheless, when echo chambers are strong, and many forums are polarized, then forum co-participation may not break up echo chambers.
  • Stassen, Willem; Wallis, Lee; Lambert, Craig; Castren, Maaret; Kurland, Lisa (2017)
    Introduction: The incidence of myocardial infarction is rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to reduce mortality, timely reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolysis followed by PCI is required. South Africa has historically been characterised by inequities in healthcare access based on geographic and socioeconomic status. We aimed to determine the coverage of PCI-facilities in South Africa and relate this to access based on population and socio-economic status. Methods: This cross-sectional study obtained data from literature, directories, organisational databases and correspondence with Departments of Health and hospital groups. Data was analysed descriptively while Spearman's Rho sought correlations between PCI-facility resources, population, poverty and medical insurance status. Results: South Africa has 62 PCI-facilities. Gauteng has the most PCI-facilities (n = 28) while the Northern Cape has none. Most PCI-facilities (n = 48; 77%) are owned by the private sector. A disparity exists between the number of private and state-owned PCI-facilities when compared to the poverty (r = 0.01; p = 0.17) and insurance status of individuals (r = -0.4; p = 0.27). Conclusion: For many South Africans, access to PCI-facilities and primary PCI is still impossible given their socio-economic status or geographical locale. Research is needed to determine the specific PCI-facility needs based on geographic and epidemiological aspects, and to develop a contextualised solution for South Africans suffering a myocardial infarction. (C) 2017 African Federation for Emergency Medicine. Publishing services provided by Elsevier B.V.
  • Talikka, Sanna Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established as an official government body to create national reconciliation after apartheid. It provided an arena for the perpetrators and victims to try to understand each other and their actions. Even though the Truth and Reconciliation Commission is studied from various perspectives, the role of religion in it as a transition process has not received much attention. This study is a critical analysis, which examines the role of religion in South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The analysis is supported with the theories of conflict resolution and transitional justice by using the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s reports as primary sources and the previous academic study as secondary sources. The very little investigation of religion that has been conducted in the multidisciplinary field of transitional justice, justifies the relevance of the study. The study begins with an overview of the role of religion in conflict resolution and peacemaking. Reconciliation and truth commissions as mechanisms of transitional justice are examined and analyzed before moving onto the brief historical overview of South Africa and apartheid. The role of religion in the history of South Africa is explained to support historical the perspective of the study. The role of Religion in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission is analyzed from several different perspectives to support the argument that religious connotations took place during the Commission’s existence. The results show that religion and especially Christianity played a significant role in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s work. Main reasons for it appear to be the religious historical and cultural notions of the society, and the role of religious leaders as commissioners. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission relied strongly to the ideas of reconciliation and forgiveness which guided its work and eventually swayed religious influence to take place. States that choose reconciliation as an approach to transition to democracy often tend to have strong involvement of religious communities in their society. Even though conflict resolution theories take religion into account, it is very much an underutilized topic in the transitional justice field. With the theoretical ground and the case established, the study shows the importance of understanding religion in conflict resolution and reconciliation processes.
  • Abraham, Ibrahim (2018)
    Drawing on the work of Webb Keane and Joel Robbins in the anthropology of Christianity, furnished with the influential work of Charles Hirschkind in the anthropology of Islam, and the ethnographic studies of Tom Wagner and Mark Jennings on Pentecostal worship music, this article critically examines ideas of sincerity in the musical practices of Pentecostal megachurches. Making use of ethnographic data from research on congregational music in South Africa, including interviews with a variety of Pentecostal musicians, this article argues that the question of Protestant sincerity, understood following Keane as emphasizing individual moral autonomy and suspicion of external material religious forms for expressing one's inner state, is particularly acute in the case of the Hillsong megachurch. Employing the full array of spectacular possibilities made available by the contemporary culture industry, Hillsong churches centralize cultural production and standardize musical performance whilst simultaneously emphasizing individual religious experience. It is argued that Pentecostal megachurches seek to realize a form of sincere mimicry grounded in learned and embodied practices.
  • Hallamaa, Mikko (2006)
    This study is investigates changes in strategic culture in South Africa. The focus is on two White Papers on Defence, of 1977 and 1996. A strategic culture –based approach is employed. Strategic culture refers to a relatively enduring consensus about values, beliefs and beliefs concerning the use of force. A national strategy community consists of people who guide and lead defence policy, and who share a common strategic culture. Strategic culture is studied here with a specific focus on national strategic communities, defence doctrines and civil-military relations. The 1977 White Paper introduces the doctrine of total strategy that defined South Africa's defence policy until the late 1980s. Its starting point was South Africa's rapidly deteriorating security situation. Internal and external pressure directed at South Africa's policy of separate development or apartheid was interpreted as a 'total onslaught' by Soviet Union and its allies, with the aim of establishing majority rule sympathetic to the Soviet Union. To counter this threat a 'total strategy' that included military means was devised. Membership in the national strategic community was restricted on ethnic, racial and political grounds. Security policies were informed by strategic scholarship that was developed in a closed environment, mainly within the defence establishment and Afrikaans-language universities. Civil-military relations were characterized by a process of rapid militarization. Defence doctrine relied on total strategy and counter-revolutionary warfare. The 1996 White Paper aims at the demilitarization of security policies. The transition to democracy in South Africa had begun in 1990 and culminated in the country's first democratic elections in 1994. The basic premise of defence planning was that the country was not faced with any military threat in the foreseeable future. The country had, however, inherited from the former government an oversized defence force and an equally immense defence industry. The downsizing of both was imperative. In light of the government's objectives of social-economic development the resources consumed by the defence sector were a serious problem. The national strategic community was defined on normative grounds: the Department of Defence sought the cooperation of civil society actors who, in the main, had a background in critical security studies. Regarding civil-military relations the White Paper stresses civil supremacy over armed forces, and the role of the Parliament in directing defence policy. Defence doctrine is based on the concepts of human security and common security - both reflect a broad security agenda.