Browsing by Subject "South Korea"

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  • Timonen, Meri Tuuli Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis researches anti-Americanism among South-Korean university students. South-Korea is known to be very pro-American country, but anti-American sentiment has existed in the society especially in the beginning of 21st century. The goal of this thesis is to know, if anti-Americanism still exists in South-Korea. The university students are target group, since university students have been major force behind anti-Americanism since the 1980’s in South-Korea. The research question asks, how South Korean university students perceive the U.S. The hypothesis assumes, that they perceive the U.S. positively. Research literature focuses on books and articles about anti-American sentiment in South-Korea. The theoretical framework constitutes the concept of ethnic nationalism, that is widely researched among western and South-Korean scholars. Ethnic nationalism means nationalism based on the idea of ethnic unity. In Korea, it is traditionally connected with primordialism and uniqueness of Korean race. Also, theories of intercultural conflicts are applied. Not too much emphasis is paid to political aspects. This thesis focuses on nationalistic theories, and some identity theories are taken into consideration. Area- and cultural studies, sociology, history and are main study fields of this thesis. Gender studies are given some emphasis. The data is gathered with semi-structured survey research, conducted in November 2018 in Seoul, South Korea. The data consists 50 answers from Yonsei university students. The data is analysed both statistically and thematically. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test are used in statistical analysis. SPSS serves as the main tool of the analysis. The analysis focuses on four different variables; gender, ideology, foreign experience and English skill. Thematic analysis is qualitative, whereas statistical quantitative. The results indicate, that male students have more positive view of the U.S. than female students. Furthermore, students with leftist-ideology hold more negative view than right-wing or centrist. Foreign experience and English skill had little influence on the views. Thematic analysis shows, that South-Korean students have very pragmatic attitude towards the U.S. Overall, the results argue, that South-Korean anti-Americanism is very complex phenomenon, and is constantly changing. Anti-Americanism exists in South Korea but is not so evident. People tend to have neutral attitudes towards the U.S. and this neutrality can vary from pro-Americanism to anti-Americanism. Causes behind anti-Americanism are so diverse, that it is hard to predict when anti-American sentiment gains popularity in the future.
  • Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Berg, Bjorn; Song, Byeong-Yeol (2020)
    Evaluating the decomposition-based change dynamics of various elements in plant litter is important for improving our understanding about their biogeochemical cycling in ecosystems. We have studied the concentrations of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) (34 elements) in green tissue litter, and soil and their dynamics in the decomposing litters of successional annual fleabane (Erigeron annuus) and silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis). Concentrations of major and trace elements in the litter of annual fleabane were 1.02-2.71 times higher compared to silvergrass. For REEs the difference between the two litter types for elements studied was in the range of 1.02-1.29 times. Both the litters showed a general decrease in the concentrations of elements in the initial stages of decomposition (60-90 days). All the major and trace elements (except for Na) in silvergrass showed a net increase in concentration at the end of the decomposition study (48.9-52.5% accumulated mass loss). Contrastingly, a few trace elements (Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn, Sb, and Cd) in annual fleabane showed a net decrease in their concentrations. For REEs, there was an increase in concentrations as well as in net amounts in both litter types. Similarities observed in the dynamics together with high and significant correlations among them likely suggest their common source. The higher concentrations of REEs in soil likely suggest its role in the net increase in REEs' concentrations and amount in litter during decomposition. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ho, Hang Kei (2021)
    Since the early 2000s, East Asia has witnessed a significant increase in the consumption of luxury wines. Both Hong Kong and Singapore have become two of the most valuable wine trading hubs in the world, while surrounding regions such as South Korea and Japan have also experienced increases in the wine trade. In particular, mainland China has become the most important market that many wine makers and traders now focus on. Nevertheless, how East Asia has been transformed into a region of fine and luxury wine consumption remains a fascinating topic to explore further. This exploratory article aims to unpack this phenomenon and construct a sociology of wine in East Asia in four fundamental ways. First, wine itself is an alcoholic drink and has potential public health implications. Second, wine is a luxury good that can be consumed while simultaneously traded as a financial investment product. Third, East Asia as a region has a rich of history of alcohol production and consumption, but its drinking practices may sometimes clash with Western wine etiquette. Fourth, the creation of the wine industry in East Asia largely came from the withdrawal of wine duty in Hong Kong in 2008. The article explores how drinking cultures and the wine industry in various East Asian regions have been transformed by economic development, changing gender norms, and the influence of Western culture.
  • Holopainen, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis examines the notions of ethnicity, nation, and belonging in the context of South Korea, in order to investigate whether the scope of these notions will allow the reproduction of new South Koreans from multicultural subjects through education. South Koreans have traditionally considered themselves a strictly homogenous group: in order to stake a claim on Koreanness, one must meet the requirements of being Korean both in body as well as in practice. During the last two decades, the South Korean state has switched its national narrative into one of a multicultural nation, discarding the ethnonationalist definition of Koreanness. This thesis aims to answer the question of what kind of notion of Koreanness is present in the education of “multicultural” children. Does the educational process aim to transform these Othered children into Koreans? Is there even a potential for such transformation in the context of the South Korean society? How does the process work in practice? The data of this thesis was collected through participant observation during a three-month long fieldwork period at a South Korean afterschool educational institution catering to children with immigrant backgrounds. The data consists of descriptions of the centre’s educational programme and structure, and a field diary depicting the everyday interactions between the adult Korean staff and the Othered children, as well as among the children. The requirements of being Korean in body and in practice were both salient in the educational setting of the centre. Being Korean in practice presupposed a suitable command of learnable skills such as the Korean language and the proper Korean way of studying. The children each participated in the learning process from more or less peripheral localities, defined by the limitations of their relative competence. Their positionality in regard to Koreanness was dynamic and under constant change. Nevertheless, the explicit and implicit everyday practices of the adult staff upheld the requirement of having Korean blood or being Korean in body, which restricted the children’s positioning in the boundary-making process of defining Koreanness. Although the current national narrative of the South Korean state emphasises the notion of a multicultural nation, the ethnographic data of this study suggests that the traditional folk definitions of Koreanness have not changed. The requirements of being Korean both in body as well as in practice seem to still be dominant in everyday life. “Multicultural” children are unable to fulfil the former requirement but are nevertheless situated as subjects of the state and civil society’s multiculturalist educational project in regard to the latter. Through a social learning process, they may be able to approximate full membership in the Korean society, but reaching it seems ever elusive.