Browsing by Subject "Spain"

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  • Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Ramos, Cândida; Domènech, Marc; Febles, Sara; Santos, Irene; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Emerson, Brent C.; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background There is an increasing demand for databases including species trait information for biodiversity and community ecology studies. The existence of trait databases is useful for comparative studies within taxa or geographical regions, but there is low availability of databases for certain organisms. Here we present an open access functional trait database for spiders from Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula, recording several morphological and ecological traits related to the species life histories, microhabitat and trophic preferences. New information We present a database that includes 12 biological traits for 506 spider species present in natural forests of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and three Macaronesian archipelagoes (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). The functional trait database consists of two sections: 1. individual-level data for six morphological traits (total body size, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma height, tibia I length and fang length), based on direct measurements of 2844 specimens of all spider species; and 2. species-level aggregate data for 12 traits (same 6 morphological traits as in the previous section plus dispersal ability, vertical stratification, circadian activity, foraging strategy, trophic specialization and colonization status), based on either the average of the direct measurements or bibliographic searches. This functional trait database will serve as a data standard for currently ongoing analyses that require trait and functional diversity statistics.
  • Urraca, Ruben; Antonanzas, Javier; Sanz-Garcia, Andres; Javier Martinez-de-Pison, Francisco (2019)
    Different types of measuring errors can increase the uncertainty of solar radiation measurements, but most common quality control (QC) methods do not detect frequent defects such as shading or calibration errors due to their low magnitude. We recently presented a new procedure, the Bias-based Quality Control (BQC), that detects low-magnitude defects by analyzing the stability of the deviations between several independent radiation databases and measurements. In this study, we extend the validation of the BQC by analyzing the quality of all publicly available Spanish radiometric networks measuring global horizontal irradiance (9 networks, 732 stations). Similarly to our previous validation, the BQC found many defects such as shading, soiling, or calibration issues not detected by classical QC methods. The results questioned the quality of SIAR, Euskalmet, MeteoGalica, and SOS Rioja, as all of them presented defects in more than 40% of their stations. Those studies based on these networks should be interpreted cautiously. In contrast, the number of defects was below a 5% in BSRN, AEMET, MeteoNavarra, Meteocat, and SIAR Rioja, though the presence of defects in networks such as AEMET highlights the importance of QC even when using a priori reliable stations.
  • Khosravifard, Sam; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Naimi, Babak; Venus, Valentijn; Munoz, Antonio R.; Toxopeus, Albertus G. (2020)
    Renewable energy plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the expansion of wind farms has raised concerns about risks for bird collisions. We tested different methods used to understand whether birds' flight occurs over wind turbines and found kernel density estimators outperform other methods. Previous studies using kernel utilization distribution (KUD) have considered only the 2 horizontal dimensions (2D). However, if altitude is ignored, an unrealistic depiction of the situation may result because birds move in 3 dimensions (3D). We quantified the 3D space use of the Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) in El Estrecho natural park in Tarifa (southern Spain, on the northern shore of the Strait of Gibraltar) during 2012-2013, and, for the first time, their risk of collision with wind turbines in an area in the south of Spain. The 2D KUD showed a substantial overlap of the birds' flight paths with the wind turbines in the study area, whereas the 3D kernel estimate did not show such overlap. Our aim was to develop a new approach using 3D kernel estimation to understand the space use of soaring birds; these are killed by collision with wind turbines more often than any other bird types in southern Spain. We determined the probability of bird collision with an obstacle within its range. Other potential application areas include airfields, plane flight paths, and tall buildings. (c) 2020 The Authors. Wildlife Society Bulletin published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Wildlife Society.
  • Lyytimäki, Jari; Benighaus, Ludger; Gómez, Javier; Benighaus, Christina; Kauppi, Sari; Kotilainen, Juha M.; Mononen, Tuija; del Rio, Virginia (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration 38 (2021), 1831–1843
    The understanding of public debates over mineral exploration and mining largely originates from exceptional situations such as mining accidents of conflicts. Less is known about how mining is portrayed and understood under more conventional settings. What storylines dominate the local day-to-day public debate? This article presents results from a comparative case study focusing on newspaper coverage of mineral exploration and mining in three European countries representing different geological and socio-economic contexts. Newspaper articles from the Geyer-Erzgebirge region in Germany, the Andalusia region in Spain, and Northern Finland are studied. The sample looks into the period between September 2018 and February 2020 and shows that regional newspapers report about mining issues relatively intensively even in the absence of major accidents or other media events causing peaks of attention. The tone of the articles is generally neutral to positive towards mining activities, reflecting the specific local settings, historical experiences, and future expectations. Despite the different contexts of the three countries, there were considerable similarities to the topics highlighted, including common themes of mining revival, mining events and social interaction, history of mining, and damages related to mining. Past, present, and future employment opportunities related directly or indirectly to the mining sector are key storylines. Another recurrent underlying theme is the need to balance environment and safety risks and socio-economic prosperity, typically covered through ordinary disputes among the mining sector, public authorities, regional non-governmental organizations, and local initiatives.
  • Trivino, Maria; Kujala, Heini; Araujo, Miguel B.; Cabeza, Mar (2018)
    Species are expected to shift their distributions in response to global environmental changes and additional protected areas are needed to encompass the corresponding changes in the distributions of their habitats. Conservation policies are likely to become obsolete unless they integrate the potential impacts of climate and land-use change on biodiversity. We identify conservation priority areas for current and future projected distributions of Iberian bird species. We then investigate the extent to which global change informed priority areas are: (i) covered by existing protected area networks (national protected areas and Natura 2000); (ii) threatened by agricultural or urban land-use changes. We use outputs of species distributions models fitted with climatic data as inputs in spatial prioritization tools to identify conservation priority areas for 168 bird species. We use projections of land-use change to then discriminate between threatened and non-threatened priority areas. 19% of the priority areas for birds are covered by national protected areas and 23% are covered by Natura 2000 sites. The spatial mismatch between protected area networks and priority areas for birds is projected to increase with climate change. But there are opportunities to improve the protection of birds under climate change, as half of the priority areas are currently neither protected nor in conflict with urban or agricultural land-uses. We identify critical areas for bird conservation both under current and climate change conditions, and propose that they could guide the establishment of new conservation areas across the Iberian Peninsula complementing existing protected areas.
  • Dudel, Christian; López Gómez, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G.; Myrskylä, Mikko (2018)
    While there has been considerable debate about extending the length of working life, relatively little is known about this issue. We use data from the Spanish Continuous Working Life Sample for 2004--2013 to calculate period working life tables, which in turn allows us to assess the impact of the financial crisis on working life expectancy in Spain. Before the recession hit, working life expectancy in Spain was around 38 years for males and 33 years for females. The recession had a tremendous impact on the Spanish labor market, but the effects differed considerably by gender and occupational category. Men working in skilled non-manual jobs were less affected, while men working in unskilled manual jobs lost close to 14 years of working life expectancy. Women were less affected than men. With working life expectancy decreasing, the average proportion of lifetime spent in unemployment and outside the labor market increased markedly, whereas the average number of years spent in retirement changed only a little. When we decompose losses in working life expectancy by age group, we find that economic fluctuations affect both older and younger workers. This result suggests that policies that focus on retirement ages only are incomplete. We also compare our findings to the results obtained by Sullivans method, which is based on prevalence rates rather than the incidence-based working life table approach. We find that the use of Sullivans approach does not accurately reflect the levels of and the trends in working life expectancy.
  • Veas Perez de Tudela, Esther (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This master’s thesis sought to fill in two gaps: the lack of studies of gendered media representation of women politicians in Spain, and the way older women politicians are represented in the media. The 2015 Spanish municipal elections provided the perfect ground to study these two phenomena, as Manuela Carmena, who was 71 years old at the time, was elected mayor of Madrid, the capital of Spain. This paper dealt with a corpus of 183 newspaper articles in total, belonging to the two most read newspapers in Spain, El País and El Mundo, which mentioned Manuela Carmena in some capacity. Through a mixed methodology consisting of Qualitative Content Analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis, the articles were analysed through a feminist prism. Manuela Carmena’s mediated representation was shown to draw heavily from gendered tropes usually ascribed to women politicians, and a discourse of grandmotherhood underlined the way her image was constructed. However, there were some instances where Carmena was represented with more typically masculine traits, such as power or assertiveness, signifying perhaps a small improvement in the representation of women politicians.