Browsing by Subject "Species delimitation"

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  • Wang, Kai; Sipilä, Timo; Overmyer, Kirk (2021)
    Protomyces is an understudied genus of yeast-like fungi currently defined as phytopathogens of only Umbelliferae and Compositae. Species relationships and boundaries remain controversial and molecular data are lacking. Of the 82 named Protomyces, we found few recent studies and six available cultures. We previously isolated Protomyces strains from wild Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of Brassicaceae, a family distant from accepted Protomyces hosts. We previously sequenced the genomes of all available Protomyces species, and P. arabidopsidicola sp. nov. strain C29, from Arabidopsis. Phylogenomics suggests this new species occupied a unique position in the genus. Genomic, morphological, and physiological characteristics distinguished P. arabidopsidicola sp. nov. from other Protomyces. Nuclear gene phylogenetic marker analysis suggests actin1 gene DNA sequences could be used with nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences for rapid identification of Protomyces species. Previous studies demonstrated P. arabidopsidicola sp. nov. could persist on the Arabidopsis phyllosphere and Protomyces sequences were discovered on Arabidopsis at multiple sites in different countries. We conclude that the strain C29 represents a novel Protomyces species and propose the name of P. arabidopsidicola sp. nov. Consequently, we propose that Protomyces is not strictly associated only with the previously recognized host plants.
  • Wang, Kai; Sipilä, Timo; Overmyer, Kirk (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Protomyces is an understudied genus of yeast-like fungi currently defined as phytopathogens of only Umbelliferae and Compositae. Species relationships and boundaries remain controversial and molecular data are lacking. Of the 82 named Protomyces, we found few recent studies and six available cultures. We previously isolated Protomyces strains from wild Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of Brassicaceae, a family distant from accepted Protomyces hosts. We previously sequenced the genomes of all available Protomyces species, and P. arabidopsidicola sp. nov. strain C29, from Arabidopsis. Phylogenomics suggests this new species occupied a unique position in the genus. Genomic, morphological, and physiological characteristics distinguished P. arabidopsidicola sp. nov. from other Protomyces. Nuclear gene phylogenetic marker analysis suggests actin1 gene DNA sequences could be used with nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences for rapid identification of Protomyces species. Previous studies demonstrated P. arabidopsidicola sp. nov. could persist on the Arabidopsis phyllosphere and Protomyces sequences were discovered on Arabidopsis at multiple sites in different countries. We conclude that the strain C29 represents a novel Protomyces species and propose the name of P. arabidopsidicola sp. nov. Consequently, we propose that Protomyces is not strictly associated only with the previously recognized host plants.
  • Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost Andre Maria; Hablützel, Pascal Istvan; Vanhove, Maarten Pieterjan Maria; Koblmüller, Stephan; Snoeks, Jos (2018)
    BackgroundSpecies delineation is particularly challenging in taxa with substantial intra-specific variation. In systematic studies of fishes, meristics and linear measurements that describe shape are often used to delineate species. Yet, little is known about the taxonomic value of these two types of morphological characteristics. Here, we used Tropheus (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the southern subbasin of Lake Tanganyika to test which of these types of characters best matched genetic lineages that could represent species in this group of stenotypic rock-dwelling cichlids. We further investigated intra-population variation in morphology. By linking this to a proxy of a population's age, we could assess the evolutionary stability of different kinds of morphological markers.ResultsMorphological data was collected from 570 specimens originating from 86 localities. An AFLP approach revealed the presence of five lineages in the southern subbasin: T. moorii, T. brichardi, T. sp. maculatus', T. sp. Mpimbwe' and T. sp. red', which we consider to represent distinct species. Although both types of morphological data supported this classification, a comparison of P-ST-values that describe inter-population morphological differentiation, revealed a better correspondence between the taxon delineation based on AFLP data and the patterns revealed by an analysis of meristics than between the AFLP-based taxon delineation and the patterns revealed by an analysis of shape. However, classifying southern populations of Tropheus was inherently difficult as they contained a large amount of clinal variation, both in genetic and in morphological data, and both within and among species. A scenario is put forward to explain the current-day distribution of the species and colour varieties and the observed clinal variation across the subbasin's shoreline. Additionally, we observed that variation in shape was larger in populations from shallow shores whereas populations from steep shores were more variable in meristics. This difference is explained in terms of the different timescales at which small and large scale lake level fluctuations affected populations of littoral cichlids at steep and shallow shores.ConclusionsOur results showed meristics to be more evolutionary stable, and of higher taxonomic value for species delimitation in Tropheus, than linear measurements that describe shape. These results should be taken into account when interpreting morphological differences between populations of highly stenotypic species, such as littoral cichlids from the Great East African Lakes.
  • Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Hablützel, Pascal I; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Koblmüller, Stephan; Snoeks, Jos (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Species delineation is particularly challenging in taxa with substantial intra-specific variation. In systematic studies of fishes, meristics and linear measurements that describe shape are often used to delineate species. Yet, little is known about the taxonomic value of these two types of morphological characteristics. Here, we used Tropheus (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the southern subbasin of Lake Tanganyika to test which of these types of characters best matched genetic lineages that could represent species in this group of stenotypic rock-dwelling cichlids. We further investigated intra-population variation in morphology. By linking this to a proxy of a population’s age, we could assess the evolutionary stability of different kinds of morphological markers. Results Morphological data was collected from 570 specimens originating from 86 localities. An AFLP approach revealed the presence of five lineages in the southern subbasin: T. moorii, T. brichardi, T. sp. ‘maculatus’, T. sp. ‘Mpimbwe’ and T. sp. ‘red’, which we consider to represent distinct species. Although both types of morphological data supported this classification, a comparison of PST-values that describe inter-population morphological differentiation, revealed a better correspondence between the taxon delineation based on AFLP data and the patterns revealed by an analysis of meristics than between the AFLP-based taxon delineation and the patterns revealed by an analysis of shape. However, classifying southern populations of Tropheus was inherently difficult as they contained a large amount of clinal variation, both in genetic and in morphological data, and both within and among species. A scenario is put forward to explain the current-day distribution of the species and colour varieties and the observed clinal variation across the subbasin’s shoreline. Additionally, we observed that variation in shape was larger in populations from shallow shores whereas populations from steep shores were more variable in meristics. This difference is explained in terms of the different timescales at which small and large scale lake level fluctuations affected populations of littoral cichlids at steep and shallow shores. Conclusions Our results showed meristics to be more evolutionary stable, and of higher taxonomic value for species delimitation in Tropheus, than linear measurements that describe shape. These results should be taken into account when interpreting morphological differences between populations of highly stenotypic species, such as littoral cichlids from the Great East African Lakes.
  • Hakala, Sanja Maria; Seppä, Perttu; Heikkilä, Maria; Punttila, Pekka; Sorvari, Jouni; Helanterä, Heikki (2018)
    Coptoformica Muller, 1923 is a subgenus of Formica Linnaeus, 1758 that consists of c. a dozen species of ants that typically inhabit open grassy habitats and build small nest mounds. The most recent addition to the group is Formica fennica Seifert, 2000. The description was based on morphological characters, but the species status has not been confirmed by molecular methods. In this study, we use thirteen DNA microsatellite markers and a partial mitochondrial COI gene sequence to assess the species status of F. fennica, by comparing the genetic variation among samples identified as F. fennica and six other boreal Formica (Coptoformica) species. Most of the species studied form separate, discontinuous clusters in phylogenetic and spatial analyses with only little intraspecific genetic variation. However, both nuclear and mitochondrial markers fail to separate the species pair F. exsecta Nylander, 1846 and F. fennica despite established morphological differences. The genetic variation within the F. exsecta/fennica group is extensive, but reflects spatial rather than morphological differences. Finnish F. fennica populations studied so far should not be considered a separate species, but merely a morph of F. exsecta.
  • Mignotte, Antoine; Garros, Claire; Gardes, Laetitia; Balenghien, Thomas; Duhayon, Maxime; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Tabourin, Laura; Poujol, Lea; Mathieu, Bruno; Ibanez-Justicia, Adolfo; Deniz, Ahmet; Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar; Purse, Bethan; Ramilo, David W.; Stougiou, Despoina; Werner, Doreen; Pudar, Dubravka; Petric, Dusan; Veronesi, Eva; Jacobs, Frans; Kampen, Helge; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Lucientes, Javier; Navarro, Javier; de la Puente, Josue Martinez; Stefanovska, Jovana; Searle, Kate R.; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Larska, Magdalena; Bourquia, Maria; Goffredo, Maria; Bisia, Marina; England, Marion; Robin, Matthew; Quaglia, Michela; Miranda-Chueca, Miguel Angel; Bodker, Rene; Estrada-Pena, Rosa; Carpenter, Simon; Tchakarova, Simona; Boutsini, Sofia; Sviland, Stale; Schafer, Stefanie M.; Ozolina, Zanda; Seglina, Zanda; Vatansever, Zati; Huber, Karine (2020)
    BackgroundCulicoides obsoletus is an abundant and widely distributed Holarctic biting midge species, involved in the transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) to wild and domestic ruminants. Females of this vector species are often reported jointly with two morphologically very close species, C. scoticus and C. montanus, forming the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex. Recently, cryptic diversity within C. obsoletus was reported in geographically distant sites. Clear delineation of species and characterization of genetic variability is mandatory to revise their taxonomic status and assess the vector role of each taxonomic entity. Our objectives were to characterize and map the cryptic diversity within the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.MethodsPortion of the cox1 mitochondrial gene of 3763 individuals belonging to the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex was sequenced. Populations from 20 countries along a Palaearctic Mediterranean transect covering Scandinavia to Canary islands (North to South) and Canary islands to Turkey (West to East) were included. Genetic diversity based on cox1 barcoding was supported by 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene sequences and a gene coding for ribosomal 28S rDNA. Species delimitation using a multi-marker methodology was used to revise the current taxonomic scheme of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.ResultsOur analysis showed the existence of three phylogenetic clades (C. obsoletus clade O2, C. obsoletus clade dark and one not yet named and identified) within C. obsoletus. These analyses also revealed two intra-specific clades within C. scoticus and raised questions about the taxonomic status of C. montanus.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, our study provides the first genetic characterization of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex on a large geographical scale and allows a revision of the current taxonomic classification for an important group of vector species of livestock viruses in the Palaearctic region.
  • Mignotte, Antoine; Garros, Claire; Gardès, Laetitia; Balenghien, Thomas; Duhayon, Maxime; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Tabourin, Laura; Poujol, Léa; Mathieu, Bruno; Ibañez-Justicia, Adolfo; Deniz, Ahmet; Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar; Purse, Bethan V; Ramilo, David W; Stougiou, Despoina; Werner, Doreen; Pudar, Dubravka; Petrić, Dušan; Veronesi, Eva; Jacobs, Frans; Kampen, Helge; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Lucientes, Javier; Navarro, Javier; de la Puente, Josue M; Stefanovska, Jovana; Searle, Kate R; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Culverwell, C. L; Larska, Magdalena; Bourquia, Maria; Goffredo, Maria; Bisia, Marina; England, Marion; Robin, Matthew; Quaglia, Michela; Miranda-Chueca, Miguel Á; Bødker, René; Estrada-Peña, Rosa; Carpenter, Simon; Tchakarova, Simona; Boutsini, Sofia; Sviland, Ståle; Schäfer, Stefanie M; Ozoliņa, Zanda; Segliņa, Zanda; Vatansever, Zati; Huber, Karine (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Culicoides obsoletus is an abundant and widely distributed Holarctic biting midge species, involved in the transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) to wild and domestic ruminants. Females of this vector species are often reported jointly with two morphologically very close species, C. scoticus and C. montanus, forming the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex. Recently, cryptic diversity within C. obsoletus was reported in geographically distant sites. Clear delineation of species and characterization of genetic variability is mandatory to revise their taxonomic status and assess the vector role of each taxonomic entity. Our objectives were to characterize and map the cryptic diversity within the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex. Methods Portion of the cox1 mitochondrial gene of 3763 individuals belonging to the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex was sequenced. Populations from 20 countries along a Palaearctic Mediterranean transect covering Scandinavia to Canary islands (North to South) and Canary islands to Turkey (West to East) were included. Genetic diversity based on cox1 barcoding was supported by 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene sequences and a gene coding for ribosomal 28S rDNA. Species delimitation using a multi-marker methodology was used to revise the current taxonomic scheme of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex. Results Our analysis showed the existence of three phylogenetic clades (C. obsoletus clade O2, C. obsoletus clade dark and one not yet named and identified) within C. obsoletus. These analyses also revealed two intra-specific clades within C. scoticus and raised questions about the taxonomic status of C. montanus. Conclusions To our knowledge, our study provides the first genetic characterization of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex on a large geographical scale and allows a revision of the current taxonomic classification for an important group of vector species of livestock viruses in the Palaearctic region.