Browsing by Subject "Speech"

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  • Vainio, Lari (2019)
    Mounting evidence shows interaction between manipulative hand movements and movements of tongue, lips and mouth in a vocal and non-vocal context. The current article reviews this evidence and discusses its contribution to perspectives of development and evolution of speech. In particular, the article aims to present novel insight on how processes controlling the two primary grasp components of manipulative hand movements, the precision and power grip, might be systematically connected to motor processes involved in producing certain articulatory gestures. This view assumes that due to these motor overlaps between grasping and articulation, development of these grip types in infancy can facilitate development of specific articulatory gestures. In addition, the hand-mouth connections might have even boosted the evolution of some articulatory gestures. This account also proposes that some semantic sound-symbolic pairings between a speech sound and a referent concept might be partially based on these hand-mouth interactions.
  • Ylinen, Sari; Junttila, Katja; Laasonen, Marja; Iverson, Paul; Ahonen, Lauri; Kujala, Teija (2019)
    Dyslexia is characterized by poor reading skills, yet often also difficulties in second-language learning. The differences between native- and second-language speech processing and the establishment of new brain representations for spoken second language in dyslexia are not, however, well understood. We used recordings of the mismatch negativity component of event-related potential to determine possible differences between the activation of long-term memory representations for spoken native- and second-language word forms in Finnish-speaking 9-11-year-old children with or without dyslexia, studying English as their second language in school. In addition, we sought to investigate whether the bottleneck of dyslexic readers' second-language learning lies at the level of word representations or smaller units and whether the amplitude of mismatch negativity is correlated with native-language literacy and related skills. We found that the activation of brain representations for familiar second-language words, but not for second-language speech sounds or native-language words, was weaker in children with dyslexia than in typical readers. Source localization revealed that dyslexia was associated with weak activation of the right temporal cortex, which has been previously linked with word-form learning. Importantly, the amplitude of the mismatch negativity for familiar second-language words correlated with native-language literacy and rapid naming scores, suggesting a close link between second-language processing and these skills.
  • Suominen, Janne; Salminen, Päivi; Usvasalo, Anu; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna (2018)
    Trakeostomia eli henkitorviavanteen teko on lapsella hengitystieongelmien hoidon äärimuoto. Sen tarve on harkittava tarkasti huomioiden lapsen sairaudet, kokonaistilanne ja mahdollisuus hoitoon ¬yksikössä, jossa hoidosta on tarpeeksi kokemusta. Toimenpiteen yleisimpiä syitä ovat kasvojen rakennepoikkeavuudet, hengitysteiden ahtaumat ja keuhkoputken vaikea pehmeys. Kotiin pyritään järjestämään hoitorinki ympärivuorokautisen hoidon varmistamiseksi.
  • Oksanen, Lotta-Maria; Sanmark, Enni; Tuhkuri, Anna; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Geneid, Ahmed (2021)
  • Lahtinen, Roni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Huuli- ja suulakihalkiot ovat yleisimpiä kasvojen alueen synnynnäisiä kehityshäiriöitä. Suomessa hoitoon hakeutuu vuosittain noin 120 uutta halkiopotilasta. Osalle halkiopotilaista kehittyy keskikasvojen ja yläleuan kasvuhäiriö sekä ristipurenta. Tämä saadaan nykyisillä ortognaattiskirurgisilla menetelmillä hyvin korjattua. Riskinä on kuitenkin, että puhe huononee ja velofaryngeaalinen insuffisienssi (puheen nenäsointisuus) korostuu. Toistaiseksi ei voida vielä luotettavasti preoperatiivisesti arvioida maksillaosteotomian vaikutusta puheeseen. Nykyinen tutkimus toteutettiin, jotta voitaisiin paremmin ennakoida maksillaosteotomiohin liittyviä puheen muutoksia halkiopotilailla. Tutkielmassa tarkasteltiin retrospektiivisesti halkiopotilaiden yläleuan kirurgisen siirron määrän vaikutusta potilaiden puheeseen. Tutkimus on retrospektiivinen kohorttitutkimus. Tutkimusaineisto koostui HUS:n Huuli- suulakihalkiokeskuksen potilaista (n=93), joille oli tehty yläleuan kirurginen eteenpäin siirto purennan ja kasvojen mittasuhteiden korjaamiseksi vuosien 2002 ja 2016 välisenä aikana. Aineiston 21 potilaalla oli tuotu myös alaleukaa eteenpäin kirurgisesti. Tutkimusaineistossa 23 potilaalla oli suulakihalkio tai suulaen piilohalkio, 48 toispuolinen huuli- ja suulakihalkio ja 22 molemminpuolinen huuli- ja suulakihalkio. Tutkimus toteutettiin kefalometrisesti digitoimalla potilaiden kallolateraaliröntgenkuvat ennen ja jälkeen yläleuan siirron. Röntgenkuvista analysoitiin yläleuan kirurgisen siirron määrät horisontaalisesti ja vertikaalisesti. Lisäksi analysoitiin nielun ilmatilan sagittaalimittojen muutoksia. Tuloksia verrattiin tilastotieteellisesti puheterapeuttien leikkausta edeltäviin ja sen jälkeisiin puheen analyyseihin. Tutkimuksessa todettiin, että yläleuan siirron määrä ei vaikuta halkiopotilaiden puheen huononemiseen ja velofaryngeaalisen insuffisienssin korostumiseen.
  • Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Paavilainen, Petri; Vainio, Martti; Vainio, Lari (2017)
    Manual actions and speech are connected: for example, grip execution can influence simultaneous vocalizations and vice versa. Our previous studies show that the consonant [k] is associated with the power grip and the consonant [t] with the precision grip. Here we studied whether the interaction between speech sounds and grips could operate already at a pre-attentive stage of auditory processing, reflected by the mismatch-negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential (ERP). Participants executed power and precision grips according to visual cues while listening to syllable sequences consisting of [ke] and [te] utterances. The grips modulated the MMN amplitudes to these syllables in a systematic manner so that when the deviant was [ke], the MMN response was larger with a precision grip than with a power grip. There was a converse trend when the deviant was [te]. These results suggest that manual gestures and speech can interact already at a pre-attentive processing level of auditory perception, and show, for the first time that manual actions can systematically modulate the MMN. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Isokuortti, Harri; Luoto, Teemu (2019)
    Tavallisin syy aivovammaan on kaatuminen ja suurin osa vammoista on lieviä. Alkuvaiheessa tärkeintä on sulkea pois vakavan vamman mahdollisuus. Tapahtumatiedot, löydökset ja oireet kirjataan huolellisesti. Olennaisia ovat tajunnan muutokset, muistiaukko ja kuvantamislöydökset. Akuuttivaiheessa ensisijainen kuvantamismuoto on pään tietokonetomografia. Sillä voidaan sulkea pois vakavat kallonsisäiset verenvuodot. Toipumista voidaan edistää oireenmukaisella hoidolla ja potilasohjauksella. Ennuste on hyvä, mutta toipumisen pitkittyessä erikoissairaanhoidon arvio on usein tarpeen.
  • Makkonen, Tanja; Korpijaakko-Huuhka, Anna-Maija; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Hollo, Kirsi; Ylinen, Aarne; Palmio, Johanna (2016)
    The aim of this study was to explore the cranial nerve symptoms, speech disorders and communicative effectiveness of Finnish patients with diagnosed or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at their first assessment by a speech-language pathologist. The group studied consisted of 30 participants who had clinical signs of bulbar deterioration at the beginning of the study. They underwent a thorough clinical speech and communication examination. The cranial nerve symptoms and ability to communicate were compared in 14 participants with probable or definitive ALS and in 16 participants with suspected or possible ALS. The initial type of ALS was also assessed. More deterioration in soft palate function was found in participants with possible ALS than with diagnosed ALS. Likewise, a slower speech rate combined with more severe dysarthria was observed in possible ALS. In both groups, there was some deterioration in communicative effectiveness. In the possible ALS group the diagnostic delay was longer and speech therapy intervention actualized later. The participants with ALS showed multidimensional decline in communication at their first visit to the speech-language pathologist, but impairments and activity limitations were more severe in suspected or possible ALS. The majority of persons with bulbar-onset ALS in this study were in the latter diagnostic group. This suggests that they are more susceptible to delayed diagnosis and delayed speech therapy assessment. It is important to start speech therapy intervention during the diagnostic processes particularly if the person already shows bulbar symptoms. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Tiainen, Mikko; Rantala, Aleksi; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    Research has shown connections between articulatory mouth actions and manual actions. This study investigates whether forward-backward hand movements could be associated with vowel production processes that programme tongue fronting/backing, lip rounding/spreading (Experiment 1), and/or consonant production processes that programme tongue tip and tongue dorsum actions (Experiment 2). The participants had to perform either forward or backward hand movement and simultaneously pronounce different vowels or consonants. The results revealed a response benefit, measured in vocal and manual reaction times, when the responses consisted of front vowels and forward hand movements. Conversely, back vowels were associated with backward hand movements. Articulation of rounded versus unrounded vowels or coronal versus dorsal consonants did not produce the effect. In contrast, when the manual responses of forward-backward hand movements were replaced by precision and power grip responses, the coronal consonants [t] and [r] were associated with the precision grip, whereas the dorsal consonant [k] was associated with the power grip. We propose that the movements of the tongue body, operating mainly for vowel production, share the directional action planning processes with the hand movements. Conversely, the tongue articulators related to tongue tip and dorsum movements, operating mainly for consonant production, share the action planning processes with the precision and power grip, respectively.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Tiainen, Mikko; Rantala, Aleksi; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    Research has shown connections between articulatory mouth actions and manual actions. This study investigates whether forward-backward hand movements could be associated with vowel production processes that programme tongue fronting/backing, lip rounding/spreading (Experiment 1), and/or consonant production processes that programme tongue tip and tongue dorsum actions (Experiment 2). The participants had to perform either forward or backward hand movement and simultaneously pronounce different vowels or consonants. The results revealed a response benefit, measured in vocal and manual reaction times, when the responses consisted of front vowels and forward hand movements. Conversely, back vowels were associated with backward hand movements. Articulation of rounded versus unrounded vowels or coronal versus dorsal consonants did not produce the effect. In contrast, when the manual responses of forward-backward hand movements were replaced by precision and power grip responses, the coronal consonants [t] and [r] were associated with the precision grip, whereas the dorsal consonant [k] was associated with the power grip. We propose that the movements of the tongue body, operating mainly for vowel production, share the directional action planning processes with the hand movements. Conversely, the tongue articulators related to tongue tip and dorsum movements, operating mainly for consonant production, share the action planning processes with the precision and power grip, respectively.
  • Maria, Ambika; Nissilä, Ilkka; Shekhar, Shashank; Kotilahti, Kalle; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Hirvi, Pauliina; Huotilainen, Minna; Heiskala, Juha; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse (2020)
    Background: Maternal pregnancy-related anxiety (PRA) is reportedly related to neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants. However, the relationship between maternal PRA and the processing of emotions in the infant brain has not been extensively studied with neuroimaging. The objective of the present pilot study is to investigate the relationship between maternal PRA and infant hemodynamic responses to emotional speech at two months of age. Methods: The study sample included 19 mother-infant dyads from a general sample of a population of Caucasian mothers. Self-reported Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R2) data was collected from mothers during pregnancy at gestational weeks (gwks) 24 (N = 19) and 34 (N = 18). When their infants were two months old, the infants' brains functional responses to emotional speech in the left fronto-temporoparietal cortex were recorded using diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Results: Maternal PRAQ-R2 scores at gwk 24 correlated negatively with the total hemoglobin (HbT) responses to sad speech on both sides of the temporoparietal junction (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho = -0.87). The correlation was significantly greater at gwk 24 than gwk 34 (rho = -0.42). Limitations: The field of view of the measurement did not include the right hemisphere or parts of the frontal cortex. The sample size is moderate and the mothers were relatively highly educated, thus there may be some differences between the study sample and the general population. Conclusions: Maternal pregnancy-related anxiety may affect child brain emotion processing development. Further research is needed to understand the functional and developmental significance of the findings.
  • Alaluusua, Suvi; Harjunpää, Roni; Turunen, Leena; Geneid, Ahmed; Leikola, Junnu; Heliövaara, Arja (2020)
    Introduction Maxillary advancement may affect speech in cleft patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maxillary advancement on Finnish alveolar consonants/s/,/l/, and/r/in cleft patients. Materials and methods Fifty-nine Finnish-speaking nonsyndromic cleft patients, who had undergone Le Fort I or bimaxillary osteotomies, were evaluated retrospectively Production of the Finnish alveolar consonants/s/,/l/, and/r/was assessed from pre- and postoperative standardized video recordings by two experienced speech pathologists. McNemar’s test was used in the statistical analyses. Kappa statistics were calculated to assess reliability. Results The patients included 35 females and 24 males with CP (n = 12), UCLP (n = 31), and BCLP (n = 16). There was a significant improvement in/s/and/l/sounds after maxillary advancement (p = 0.039 and p = 0.002, respectively). The preoperative mean percentage of/s/errors was 34%; postoperatively it was 20%./L/was misarticulated preoperatively by 34% of the patients and postoperatively by 19%./R/was misarticulated preoperatively by 47% of the patients and postoperatively by 42%. The level of mild articulation errors rose from 25% to 31%, while severe articulation errors decreased from 37% to 25%. The reliabilities were good. Conclusion When planning orthognathic surgery in cleft patients with maxillary retrusion and articulation errors, advancement of the maxilla might be a means for improving articulation of/s/and/l/.
  • Alaluusua, Suvi; Turunen, Leena; Saarikko, Anne; Geneid, Ahmed; Leikola, Junnu; Heliövaara, Arja (2019)
    Introduction: Maxillary advancement may affect speech in cleft patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative velopharyngeal (VP) function and cleft type can predict VP function after a Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive nonsyndromic cleft patients (54 females, 64 males) who underwent Le Fort I osteotomies were retrospectively evaluated. Pre- and postoperative VP function was assessed perceptually and instrumentally by a Nasometer. A five-point scale was used to rate velopharyngeal insufficiency symptoms (VPI 0-4). To assess reliability, 30 video recordings were re-evaluated. Results: Preoperatively, 89% of patients had normal or insignificant VPI (0-1), and only 3% had moderate VPI (3). Postoperatively, 77% of patients had VPI values of 0-1 and 14% had moderate to severe VPI values (VPI 3-4). A positive correlation was found between pre- and postoperative VPI scores, whereas the cleft type did not affect speech results. Patients with a preoperatively normal VPI (0) were not at risk for postoperative velopharyngeal incompetence. Conclusions: There was an overall significant negative change in speech after a Le Fort I osteotomy. At-risk patients presented with borderline (1) or more severe VPI (2 and 3) preoperatively. (C) 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Torppa, Ritva; Huotilainen, Minna (2019)
    This paper presents evidence for a strong connection between the development of speech and language skills and musical activities of children and adolescents with hearing impairment and/or cochlear implants. This conclusion is partially based on findings for typically hearing children and adolescents, showing better speech and language skills in children and adolescents with musical training, and importantly, showing increases of speech and language skills in children and adolescents taking part in musical training. Further, studies of hearing-impaired children show connections between musical skills, involvement in musical hobbies, and speech and language skills. Even though the field is still lacking large-scale randomised controlled trials on the effects of musical interventions on the speech and language skills of children and adolescents with hearing impairments and cochlear implants, the current evidence seems enough to urge speech therapists, music therapists, music teachers, parents, and children and adolescents with hearing impairments and/or cochlear implants to start using music for enhancing speech and language skills. For this reason, we give our recommendations on how to use music for language skill enhancement in this group.