Browsing by Subject "Spheroid"

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  • Diosdi, Akos; Hirling, Dominik; Kovacs, Maria; Toth, Timea; Harmati, Maria; Koos, Krisztian; Buzas, Krisztina; Piccinini, Filippo; Horvath, Peter (2021)
    3D multicellular spheroids quickly emerged as in vitro models because they represent the in vivo tumor environment better than standard 2D cell cultures. However, with current microscopy technologies, it is difficult to visualize individual cells in the deeper layers of 3D samples mainly because of limited light penetration and scattering. To overcome this problem several optical clearing methods have been proposed but defining the most appropriate clearing approach is an open issue due to the lack of a gold standard metric. Here, we propose a guideline for 3D light microscopy imaging to achieve single-cell resolution. The guideline includes a validation experiment focusing on five optical clearing protocols. We review and compare seven quality metrics which quantitatively characterize the imaging quality of spheroids. As a test environment, we have created and shared a large 3D dataset including approximately hundred fluorescently stained and optically cleared spheroids. Based on the results we introduce the use of a novel quality metric as a promising method to serve as a gold standard, applicable to compare optical clearing protocols, and decide on the most suitable one for a particular experiment. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology.
  • Heuser, Vanina D.; Kiviniemi, Aida; Lehtinen, Laura; Munthe, Sune; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Posti, Jussi P.; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Vuorinen, Ville; Carpen, Olli; Gardberg, Maria (2020)
    BackgroundThe prognosis of glioblastoma remains poor, related to its diffuse spread within the brain. There is an ongoing search for molecular regulators of this particularly invasive behavior. One approach is to look for actin regulating proteins that might be targeted by future anti-cancer therapy. The formin family of proteins orchestrates rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in multiple cellular processes. Recently, the formin proteins mDia1 and mDia2 were shown to be expressed in glioblastoma in vitro, and their function could be modified by small molecule agonists. This finding implies that the formins could be future therapeutic targets in glioblastoma.MethodsIn cell studies, we investigated the changes in expression of the 15 human formins in primary glioblastoma cells and commercially available glioblastoma cell lines during differentiation from spheroids to migrating cells using transcriptomic analysis and qRT-PCR. siRNA mediated knockdown of selected formins was performed to investigate whether their expression affects glioblastoma migration.Using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of two formins, FHOD1 and INF2, in tissue samples from 93 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. Associated clinicopathological parameters and follow-up data were utilized to test whether formin expression correlates with survival or has prognostic value.ResultsWe found that multiple formins were upregulated during migration. Knockdown of individual formins mDia1, mDia2, FHOD1 and INF2 significantly reduced migration in most studied cell lines. Among the studied formins, knockdown of INF2 generated the greatest reduction in motility in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated expression of formin proteins FHOD1 and INF2 in glioblastoma tissues. Importantly, we found that moderate/high expression of INF2 was associated with significantly impaired prognosis.ConclusionsFormins FHOD1 and INF2 participate in glioblastoma cell migration. Moderate/high expression of INF2 in glioblastoma tissue is associated with worse outcome. Taken together, our in vitro and tissue studies suggest a pivotal role for INF2 in glioblastoma. When specific inhibiting compounds become available, INF2 could be a target in the search for novel glioblastoma therapies.