Browsing by Subject "Sphingolipids"

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  • Dichlberger, Andrea; Zhou, Kecheng; Bäck, Nils; Nyholm, Thomas; Backman, Anders; Mattjus, Peter; Ikonen, Elina; Blom, Tomas (2021)
    Lysosome Associated Protein Transmembrane 4B (LAPTM4B) is a four-membrane spanning ceramide interacting protein that regulates mTORC1 signaling. Here, we show that LAPTM4B is sorted into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) and released in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) into conditioned cell culture medium and human urine. Efficient sorting of LAPTM4B into ILV membranes depends on its third transmembrane domain containing a sphingolipid interaction motif (SLim). Unbiased lipidomic analysis reveals a strong enrichment of glycosphingolipids in sEVs secreted from LAPTM4B knockout cells and from cells expressing a SLim-deficient LAPTM4B mutant. The altered sphingolipid profile is accompanied by a distinct SLim-dependent co-modulation of ether lipid species. The changes in the lipid composition of sEVs derived from LAPTM4B knockout cells is reflected by an increased stability of membrane nanodomains of sEVs. These results identify LAPTM4B as a determinant of the glycosphingolipid profile and membrane properties of sEVs.
  • Hilvo, Mika; Simolin, Helena; Metso, Jari; Ruuth, Maija; Öörni, Katariina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Laaksonen, Reijo; Baruch, Amos (2018)
    Background and aims: While inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is known to result in dramatic lowering of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), it is poorly understood how it affects other lipid species and their metabolism. The aim of this study was to characterize the alterations in the lipidome of plasma and lipoprotein particles after administration of PCSK9 inhibiting antibody to patients with established coronary heart disease. Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from patients undergoing a randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial (EQUATOR) for the safe and effective use of RG7652, a fully human monoclonal antibody inhibiting PCSK9 function. Lipoprotein fractions were isolated by sequential density ultracentrifugation, and both plasma and major lipoprotein classes (VLDL-IDL, LDL, HDL) were subjected to mass spectrometric lipidomic profiling. Results: PCSK9 inhibition significantly decreased plasma levels of several lipid classes, including sphingolipids (dihydroceramides, glucosylceramides, sphingomyelins, ceramides), cholesteryl esters and free cholesterol. Previously established ceramide ratios predicting cardiovascular mortality, or inflammation related eicosanoid lipids, were not altered. RG7652 treatment also affected the overall and relative distribution of lipids in lipoprotein classes. An overall decrease of total lipid species was observed in LDL and VLDL thorn IDL particles, while HDL-associated phospholipids increased. Following the treatment, LDL displayed reduced lipid cargo, whereas relative lipid proportions of the VLDL thorn IDL particles were mostly unchanged, and there were relatively more lipids carried in the HDL particles. Conclusions: Administration of PCSK9 antibody significantly alters the lipid composition of plasma and lipoprotein particles. These changes further shed light on the link between anti-PCSK9 therapies and cardiovascular risk. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Wei, Hong; Chen, Zuyue; Koivisto, Ari; Pertovaara, Antti (2021)
    Background Earlier studies show that endogenous sphingolipids can induce pain hypersensitivity, activation of spinal astrocytes, release of proinflammatory cytokines and activation of TRPM3 channel. Here we studied whether the development of pain hypersensitivity induced by sphingolipids in the spinal cord can be prevented by pharmacological inhibition of potential downstream mechanisms that we hypothesized to include TRPM3, sigma(1) and NMDA receptors, gap junctions and D-amino acid oxidase. Methods Experiments were performed in adult male rats with a chronic intrathecal catheter for spinal drug administrations. Mechanical nociception was assessed with monofilaments and heat nociception with radiant heat. N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS) was administered to induce pain hypersensitivity. Ononetin, isosakuranetin, naringenin (TRPM3 antagonists), BD-1047 (sigma(1) receptor antagonist), carbenoxolone (a gap junction decoupler), MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist) and AS-057278 (inhibitor of D-amino acid oxidase, DAAO) were used to prevent the DMS-induced hypersensitivity, and pregnenolone sulphate (TRPM3 agonist) to recapitulate hypersensitivity. Results DMS alone produced within 15 min a dose-related mechanical hypersensitivity that lasted at least 24 h, without effect on heat nociception. Preemptive treatments with ononetin, isosakuranetin, naringenin, BD-1047, carbenoxolone, MK-801 or AS-057278 attenuated the development of the DMS-induced hypersensitivity, but had no effects when administered alone. Pregnenolone sulphate (TRPM3 agonist) alone induced a dose-related mechanical hypersensitivity that was prevented by ononetin, isosakuranetin and naringenin. Conclusions Among spinal pronociceptive mechanisms activated by DMS are TRPM3, gap junction coupling, the sigma(1) and NMDA receptors, and DAAO.