Browsing by Subject "Spinal cord"

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  • Wei, Hong; Chen, Zuyue; Koivisto, Ari; Pertovaara, Antti (2021)
    Background Earlier studies show that endogenous sphingolipids can induce pain hypersensitivity, activation of spinal astrocytes, release of proinflammatory cytokines and activation of TRPM3 channel. Here we studied whether the development of pain hypersensitivity induced by sphingolipids in the spinal cord can be prevented by pharmacological inhibition of potential downstream mechanisms that we hypothesized to include TRPM3, sigma(1) and NMDA receptors, gap junctions and D-amino acid oxidase. Methods Experiments were performed in adult male rats with a chronic intrathecal catheter for spinal drug administrations. Mechanical nociception was assessed with monofilaments and heat nociception with radiant heat. N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS) was administered to induce pain hypersensitivity. Ononetin, isosakuranetin, naringenin (TRPM3 antagonists), BD-1047 (sigma(1) receptor antagonist), carbenoxolone (a gap junction decoupler), MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist) and AS-057278 (inhibitor of D-amino acid oxidase, DAAO) were used to prevent the DMS-induced hypersensitivity, and pregnenolone sulphate (TRPM3 agonist) to recapitulate hypersensitivity. Results DMS alone produced within 15 min a dose-related mechanical hypersensitivity that lasted at least 24 h, without effect on heat nociception. Preemptive treatments with ononetin, isosakuranetin, naringenin, BD-1047, carbenoxolone, MK-801 or AS-057278 attenuated the development of the DMS-induced hypersensitivity, but had no effects when administered alone. Pregnenolone sulphate (TRPM3 agonist) alone induced a dose-related mechanical hypersensitivity that was prevented by ononetin, isosakuranetin and naringenin. Conclusions Among spinal pronociceptive mechanisms activated by DMS are TRPM3, gap junction coupling, the sigma(1) and NMDA receptors, and DAAO.
  • Blomqvist, Kim J.; Skogster, Moritz O. B.; Kurkela, Mika J.; Rosenholm, Marko P.; Ahlström, Fredrik H. G.; Airavaara, Mikko T.; Backman, Janne T.; Rauhala, Pekka V.; Kalso, Eija A.; Lilius, Tuomas O. (2022)
    The blood-brain barrier significantly limits effective drug delivery to central nervous system (CNS) targets. The recently characterized glymphatic system offers a perivascular highway for intrathecally (i.t.) administered drugs to reach deep brain structures. Although periarterial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) influx and concomitant brain drug delivery can be enhanced by pharmacological or hyperosmotic interventions, their effects on drug delivery to the spinal cord, an important target for many drugs, have not been addressed. Hence, we studied in rats whether enhancement of periarterial flow by systemic hypertonic solution might be utilized to enhance spinal delivery and efficacy of i.t. morphine. We also studied whether the hyperosmolar intervention affects brain or cerebrospinal fluid drug concentrations after systemic administration. Periarterial CSF influx was enhanced by intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline (HTS, 5.8%, 20 ml/kg, 40 mOsm/kg). The antinociceptive effects of morphine were characterized, using tail flick, hot plate and paw pressure tests. Drug concentrations in serum, tissue and microdialysis samples were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with isotonic solution, HTS increased concentrations of spinal i.t. administered morphine by 240% at the administration level (T13-L1) at 60 min and increased the antinociceptive effect of morphine in tail flick, hot plate, and paw pressure tests. HTS also independently increased hot plate and paw pressure latencies but had no effect in the tail flick test. HTS transiently increased the penetration of intravenous morphine into the lateral ventricle, but not into the hippocampus. In conclusion, acute systemic hyperosmolality is a promising intervention for enhanced spinal delivery of i.t. administered morphine. The relevance of this intervention should be expanded to other i.t. drugs and brought to clinical trials.