Browsing by Subject "Spirometry"

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  • Backman, Helena; Lindberg, Anne; Sovijarvi, Anssi; Larsson, Kjell; Lundback, Bo; Ronmark, Eva (2015)
    Background: The Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 (GLI) reference values are currently endorsed by several respiratory societies but evaluations of applicability for adults resident in European countries are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the GLI reference values are appropriate for an adult Caucasian Swedish population. Methods: During 2008-2013, clinical examinations including spirometry were performed on general population samples in northern Sweden, in which 501 healthy Caucasian non-smokers were identified. Predicted GLI reference values and Z-scores were calculated for each healthy non-smoking subject and the distributions and mean values for FEV1, FVC and the FEV1/FVC ratio were examined. The prevalence of airway obstruction among these healthy non-smokers was calculated based on the Lower Limit of normal (LLN) criterion (lower fifth percentile) for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Thus, by definition, a prevalence of 5% was expected. Results: The Z-scores for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were reasonably, although not perfectly, normally distributed, but not centred on zero. Both predicted FEV1 and, in particular, FVC were lower compared to the observed values in the sample. The deviations were greater among women compared to men. The prevalence of airway obstruction based on the LLN criterion for the FEV1/FVC ratio was 9.4% among women and 2.7% among men. Conclusions: The use of the GLI reference values may produce biased prevalence estimates of airway obstruction in Sweden, especially among women. These results demonstrate the importance of validating the GLI reference values in different countries.
  • Li, Janet (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Keuhkosyöpä on kolmanneksi yleisin todettu uusi syöpä Suomessa ja leikkaus on sen ainoa parantava hoito. Potilaan on tultava toimeen leikkauksen jälkeisellä keuhkojen toiminnalla, joten leikkauskelpoisuus on selvitettävä ennen toimenpidettä. Spirometria, diffuusiokapasiteettitutkimus ja suorituskykytestit ovat ensivaiheen tutkimuksia keuhkotoiminnan ennustamisessa. Ventilaation ja perfuusion gammakuvausta eli radiospirometriaa voidan käyttää riskinarvion tarkentamiseksi. Sen avulla selvitetään keuhkojen perfuusion ja ventilaation alueellinen jakautuminen. Ventilaation ja perfuusion gammakuvaus suoritetaan tällä hetkellä kaksiulotteisella gammakuvauksen tasokuvantamismenetelmällä. Tutkimuksessani selvitän uuden SPECT/TT hybridikuvantamismenetelmän hyötyä verrattuna nykyiseen kaksiulotteiseen menetelmään sekä muihin vaihtoehtoisiin laskennallisiin menetelmiin keuhkosyöpäleikkauksen jälkeisen keuhkojen toiminnan arvioinnissa. Tutkimusaineistona on kymmenen kliinisellä indikaatiolla radiospirometrialla kuvattua potilasta, jotka ovat menossa keuhkosyöpäleikkaukseen Meilahden sairaalassa vuonna 2019-2020. Nykyinen kaksiulotteinen gammakuvauksen tasokuvantamismenetelmä tuotti kolmiulotteisen SPECT/TT-menetelmän kanssa varsin yhteneviä tuloksia koko keuhkon poiston osalta. Suunniteltaessa lohkon poistoa menetelmien erot lisääntyivät. Kliininen laskuri tuotti kuvantamista matalampia arvoja. Vain kaksiulotteiseen gammakuvauksen kuva-analyysiin perustuva menetelmä erosi merkittävästi muista menetelmistä, mikä vastaa aiempien tutkimusten tuloksia. SPECT/TT mahdollistaa kajoamattoman ventilaation ja perfuusion mittaamisen sekä tarkan keuhkosyöpäleikkauksen riskinarvion huomioiden erityisesti oikean keuhkon monimutkaisen kolmiulotteisen anatomian. Menetelmä otetaan HUS isotooppilääketieteellä käyttöön ensisijaiseksi radiospirometrian kuvantamismenetelmäksi.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Friedrich, Jan O. (2019)
    BACKGROUND: The relative scale adjusts for baseline variability and therefore may lead to findings that can be generalized more widely. It is routinely used for the analysis of binary outcomes but only rarely for continuous outcomes. Our objective was to compare relative vs absolute scale pooled outcomes using data from a recently published Cochrane systematic review that reported only absolute effects of inhaled β2-agonists on exercise-induced decline in forced-expiratory volumes in 1 s (FEV1). METHODS: From the Cochrane review, we selected placebo-controlled cross-over studies that reported individual participant data (IPD). Reversal in FEV1 decline after exercise was modeled as a mean uniform percentage point (pp) change (absolute effect) or average percent change (relative effect) using either intercept-only or slope-only, respectively, linear mixed-effect models. We also calculated the pooled relative effect estimates using standard random-effects, inverse-variance-weighting meta-analysis using study-level mean effects. RESULTS: Fourteen studies with 187 participants were identified for the IPD analysis. On the absolute scale, β2-agonists decreased the exercise-induced FEV1 decline by 28 pp., and on the relative scale, they decreased the FEV1 decline by 90%. The fit of the statistical model was significantly better with the relative 90% estimate compared with the absolute 28 pp. estimate. Furthermore, the median residuals (5.8 vs. 10.8 pp) were substantially smaller in the relative effect model than in the absolute effect model. Using standard study-level meta-analysis of the same 14 studies, β2-agonists reduced exercise-induced FEV1 decline on the relative scale by a similar amount: 83% or 90%, depending on the method of calculating the relative effect. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the absolute scale, the relative scale captures more effectively the variation in the effects of β2-agonists on exercise-induced FEV1-declines. The absolute scale has been used in the analysis of FEV1 changes and may have led to sub-optimal statistical analysis in some cases. The choice between the absolute and relative scale should be determined based on biological reasoning and empirical testing to identify the scale that leads to lower heterogeneity.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Friedrich, Jan O (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The relative scale adjusts for baseline variability and therefore may lead to findings that can be generalized more widely. It is routinely used for the analysis of binary outcomes but only rarely for continuous outcomes. Our objective was to compare relative vs absolute scale pooled outcomes using data from a recently published Cochrane systematic review that reported only absolute effects of inhaled β2-agonists on exercise-induced decline in forced-expiratory volumes in 1 s (FEV1). Methods From the Cochrane review, we selected placebo-controlled cross-over studies that reported individual participant data (IPD). Reversal in FEV1 decline after exercise was modeled as a mean uniform percentage point (pp) change (absolute effect) or average percent change (relative effect) using either intercept-only or slope-only, respectively, linear mixed-effect models. We also calculated the pooled relative effect estimates using standard random-effects, inverse-variance-weighting meta-analysis using study-level mean effects. Results Fourteen studies with 187 participants were identified for the IPD analysis. On the absolute scale, β2-agonists decreased the exercise-induced FEV1 decline by 28 pp., and on the relative scale, they decreased the FEV1 decline by 90%. The fit of the statistical model was significantly better with the relative 90% estimate compared with the absolute 28 pp. estimate. Furthermore, the median residuals (5.8 vs. 10.8 pp) were substantially smaller in the relative effect model than in the absolute effect model. Using standard study-level meta-analysis of the same 14 studies, β2-agonists reduced exercise-induced FEV1 decline on the relative scale by a similar amount: 83% or 90%, depending on the method of calculating the relative effect. Conclusions Compared with the absolute scale, the relative scale captures more effectively the variation in the effects of β2-agonists on exercise-induced FEV1-declines. The absolute scale has been used in the analysis of FEV1 changes and may have led to sub-optimal statistical analysis in some cases. The choice between the absolute and relative scale should be determined based on biological reasoning and empirical testing to identify the scale that leads to lower heterogeneity.
  • Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi L.; Vanninen, Esko; Sovijarvi, Anssi R. (2018)
    Inspiratory spirometry is used in evaluation of upper airway disorders e.g. fixed or variable obstruction. There are, however, very few published data on normal values for inspiratory spirometry. The main aim of this study was to produce reference values for inspiratory spirometry for healthy Finnish adults.Inspiratory spirometry was preplanned to a sample of the Finnish spirometry reference values sample. Data was successfully retrieved from 368 healthy nonsmoking adults (132 males) between 19 and 83years of age. Reference equations were produced for forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced inspiratory volume in one second (FIV1), FIV1/FIVC, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and the ratios of FIV1/forced expiratory volume in one second and PIF/peak expiratory flow. The present values were compared to PIF values from previously used Finnish study of Viljanen etal. (1982) reference values and Norwegian values for FIV1, FIVC and FIV1/FIVC presented by Gulsvik etal. (2001). The predicted values from the Gulsvik etal. (2001), provided a good fit for FIVC, but smaller values for FIV1 with mean 108.3 and 109.1% of predicted values for males and females, respectively. PIF values were 87.4 and 91.2% of Viljanen etal. (1982) predicted values in males and females, respectively. Differences in measurement methods and selection of results may contribute to the observed differences. Inspiratory spirometry is technically more demanding and needs repeatability criteria to improve validity. New reference values are suggested to clinical use in Finland when assessing inspiratory spirometry. Utility of inspiratory to expiratory values indices in assessment of airway collapse need further study.
  • Backman, Helena; Eriksson, Berne; Hedman, Linnea; Stridsman, Caroline; Jansson, Sven-Arne; Sovijarvi, Anssi; Lindberg, Anne; Ronmark, Eva; Lundback, Bo (2016)
    Background: Attempts have been made to use dynamic spirometry to define restrictive lung function, but the definition of a restrictive spirometric pattern (RSP) varies between studies such as BOLD and NHANES. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of RSP among adults in northern Sweden based on different definitions. Methods: In 2008-2009 a general population sample aged 21-86y within the obstructive lung disease in northern Sweden (OLIN) studies was examined by structured interview and spirometry, and 726 subjects participated (71% of invited). The prevalence of RSP was calculated according to three different definitions based on pre-as well as post-bronchodilator spirometry: 1) FVC <80% & FEV1/FVC > 0.7 2) FVC <80% & FEV1/FVC > LLN 3) FVC <LLN & FEV1/FVC > LLN Results: The three definitions yielded RSP prevalence estimates of 10.5%, 11.2% and 9.4% respectively, when based on pre-bronchodilator values. The prevalence was lower when based on post-bronchodilator values, i.e. 7.3%, 7.9% and 6.6%. According to definition 1 and 2, the RSP prevalence increased by age, but not according to definition 3. The overlap between the definitions was substantial. When corrected for confounding factors, manual work in industry and diabetes with obesity were independently associated with an increased risk for RSP regardless of definition. Conclusions: The prevalence of RSP was 7-11%. The prevalence estimates differed more depending on the choice of pre-compared to post-bronchodilator values than on the choice of RSP definition. RSP was, regardless of definition, independently associated with manual work in industry and diabetes with obesity. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.; Kainu, Annette; Malmberg, Pekka; Guldbrand, Anna; Timonen, Kirsi; Piirilä, Päivi (2016)
    •Hil­jattain on jul­kaistu uu­det suoma­laiset ai­kuisten spi­ro­metrian vii­tearvot, joi­den mit­taukset kat­tavat myös vanhus­väestön 84 vuo­den ikään as­ti. •Uu­sien ar­vojen tulkin­nassa otetaan käyt­töön mi­tatun ar­von poik­keaman mää­rä viitear­vo­po­pu­laation ­kes­kiar­vosta z-yksik­köinä (sama kuin SD). Muu­toksen vaikeu­saste ar­vioidaan z-ar­von mu­kaan. •Nor­maalin va­riaation ala­raja on klii­ni­sissä tutki­muk­sissa kai­kille spi­ro­met­ria­muut­tu­jille sa­ma (z-ar­vona –1,65). Ter­veistä 95 % asettuu tä­män ra­jan ylä­puo­lelle. •Syn­ty­pe­rältään ulko­maa­laisten las­ten ja ai­kuisten tutki­muk­sissa suosi­tellaan käytet­tä­väksi uu­sia kansain­vä­lisiä GLI2012-vii­tear­voja. •Suo­ma­laisten las­ten tutki­muk­sissa suosi­tellaan käytet­tä­väksi edelleen van­hoja suoma­laisia viitear­voja, mut­ta nii­den klii­ni­sessä sovel­ta­mi­sessa suosi­tellaan nyt z-ar­vojen käyt­töä. •Ai­kuisten van­hat suoma­laiset vii­tearvot ei­vät ole perus­tuneet todel­lisiin mittaus­tu­loksiin yli 64-vuo­tiailla. Van­hojen ar­vojen käyt­tö on aiheut­tanut toden­nä­köi­sesti hengi­tys­tieobst­ruktion yli­diag­nos­tiikkaa vanhem­missa ikä­ryh­missä.
  • Lindström, Irmeli; Karvala, Kirsi; Karjalainen, Jussi; Kilpeläinen, Maritta; Piirilä, Päivi; Sauni, Riitta; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Suojalehto, Hille (2019)
    Työterveyshuollossa tehdään alku- ja määräaikaistarkastuksia työntekijöille, jotka altistuvat hengitysteitse astmaa aiheuttaville tekijöille. Keskeistä on selvittää hengitystieoireet. Oireettomille tehdään vain harvoin spirometria ja allergiatutkimukset. Spirometriaan liitetään aina bronkodilataatiokoe. Jos epäillään ammattitautia, potilas lähetetään tutkimuksiin Työterveyslaitokselle tai erikoissairaanhoitoon.
  • Päivinen, Marja; Keskinen, Kari; Tikkanen, Heikki (2021)
    Background A special improvement in pulmonary function is found in swimmers. In clinical testing the airway reactivity is observed at certain exercise intensity and target ventilation. However, in highly trained swimmers exercising in water the reactions may not function the same way. The aim was to study the combined effects of the water environment and swimming on pulmonary function and the associations with perceived symptoms. Methods First, 412 competitive swimmers completed questionnaires concerning respiratory symptoms at different swimming intensities. Then, pulmonary function testing was performed in 14 healthy elite swimmers. Spirometry and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured on land and in water before and after swimming. While swimming, minute ventilation (VE) tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency (fb) were measured during competition speed swimming. Results Swimmers reported the most symptoms at competition speed intensity swimming. In the transition from the land into the water swimming body position, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory capacity (FVC) (FEV1/FVC) decreased by a mean (SD) 5.3 % (3) in females and by 2.2 % (5) in males. During competition speed intensity swimming, the minute ventilation (VE) had a mean of 72 and 75 % of calculated maximal voluntary ventilation (cMVV) in females and in males, respectively. Conclusions Spirometry showed sex differences in water compared to land measurements. These differences should be considered when the effects of swimming are observed. During the intensity that triggered the symptoms the most, the VE was approximately 20 % higher than the target ventilations for clinical testing. These findings encourages specific modifications of clinical testing protocols for elite swimmers.
  • Päivinen, Marja; Keskinen, Kari; Tikkanen, Heikki (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background A special improvement in pulmonary function is found in swimmers. In clinical testing the airway reactivity is observed at certain exercise intensity and target ventilation. However, in highly trained swimmers exercising in water the reactions may not function the same way. The aim was to study the combined effects of the water environment and swimming on pulmonary function and the associations with perceived symptoms. Methods First, 412 competitive swimmers completed questionnaires concerning respiratory symptoms at different swimming intensities. Then, pulmonary function testing was performed in 14 healthy elite swimmers. Spirometry and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured on land and in water before and after swimming. While swimming, minute ventilation (VE) tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency (fb) were measured during competition speed swimming. Results Swimmers reported the most symptoms at competition speed intensity swimming. In the transition from the land into the water swimming body position, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory capacity (FVC) (FEV1/FVC) decreased by a mean (SD) 5.3 % (3) in females and by 2.2 % (5) in males. During competition speed intensity swimming, the minute ventilation (VE) had a mean of 72 and 75 % of calculated maximal voluntary ventilation (cMVV) in females and in males, respectively. Conclusions Spirometry showed sex differences in water compared to land measurements. These differences should be considered when the effects of swimming are observed. During the intensity that triggered the symptoms the most, the VE was approximately 20 % higher than the target ventilations for clinical testing. These findings encourages specific modifications of clinical testing protocols for elite swimmers.