Browsing by Subject "Spirulina platensis"

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  • Lamminen, Marjukka Elina; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, Anni Ilona Karoliina; Kokkonen, Tuomo Juhani; Simpura, Ilkka Antero; Jaakkola, Seija Liisa; Vanhatalo, Aila Orvokki (2017)
    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate microalgae as a protein supplement in the nutrition of lactating dairy cows in relation to unsupplemented and rapeseed meal supplemented diets. In both experiments multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows were fed separately fixed amount of cereal-sugar beet pulp based concentrate (11 kg/d in Exp. 1 and 12 kg/d in Exp. 2), and grass silage ad libitum. In Exp. 1, six cows (212 days in milk; DIM) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. Diets were supplemented isonitrogenously with rapeseed meal (pelleted rapeseed supplement, RSS), mixture of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae (1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis; ALG) or a mixture of RSS and ALG (1:1 on crude protein (CP) basis; RSS-ALG). In Exp. 2, four intact cows and four rumen cannulated cows (190 DIM) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments consisted of basal diet without protein supplement (NEG) or supplemented similarly as in Exp. 1 with the exception of RSS-ALG and ALG containing only S. platensis. Protein supplementation increased fibre and N digestibility but did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) or milk yield. The substitution of rapeseed by microalgae did not affect total DMI or milk yield in neither of the experiments, but changed the quality of DMI in Exp.2 by linearly decreasing concentrate:forage ratio of the diet due to poorer palatability of microalgae. The efficiency of N utilisation (NUE) in milk production varied from moderate (Exp. 1) to high (Exp. 2), and in Exp. 2 was decreased by both protein supplementation and microalgae inclusion in the diet. Protein supplementation or microalgae inclusion in the diet did not affect ruminal pH or major volatile fatty acids in Exp. 2, but both increased ruminal NH3-N concentration. There was likely a shortage of N for rumen microbes on NEG in Exp. 2 as indicated by low milk urea N and increased microbial N flow on protein supplemented diets. In both experiments, only minor differences were observed in plasma metabolites when microalgae substituted rapeseed. Even though arterial histidine concentrations were high, arterial histidine and carnosine concentrations (Exp. 1 and 2) and milk protein yields (Exp. 2) decreased by microalgae inclusion suggesting that histidine supply may become suboptimal on microalgae supplemented diets. Experiments demonstrated the suitability of microalgae as protein supplement for dairy cows, however, the protein value of microalgae is likely slightly lower than that of rapeseed meal.
  • Lamminen, Marjukka Elina; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, Anni Ilona Karoliina; Kokkonen, Tuomo Juhani; Jaakkola, Seija Liisa; Vanhatalo, Aila Orvokki (2019)
    This experiment was conducted to evaluate different microalgae species as protein supplements in the nutrition of lactating dairy cows in comparison to soya bean meal. Four multiparous lactating Finnish Ayrshire cows (112 days in milk) were used in a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square study. Cows were fed separately fixed amount of cereal-sugar beet pulp based concentrate (12.5 kg/d) and grass silage ad libitum. Experimental treatments consisted of four isonitrogenous protein supplements: soya bean meal (SOY), Spirulina platensis (SPI), Chlorella vulgaris (CHL) and a mixture of C. vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana (1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis; CHL-NAN). The substitution of soya bean meal by microalgae did not affect the quantity of total DM intake (DMI), but changed the composition of DMI by decreasing the concentrate:forage ratio of the diet (P=0.054) owing to the poorer palatability of microalgae. Intake of methionine was increased (P<0.01) and that of histidine decreased (P<0.01) with microalgae diets compared to SOY, but no significant changes in arterial concentrations were observed. The digestibility of nutrients, milk or energy corrected milk (ECM) yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Though, owing to SPI, algae diets resulted in numerically +2.2 kg/d higher ECM yield than SOY. Microalgae diets tended to result in higher milk fat (P=0.073), arterial acetic acid (P=0.055) and non-esterified fatty acid (P=0.060) concentrations than SOY. Milk fat (P<0.05) and arterial acetic acid (P=0.010) concentrations were increased and milk fat yield tended to increase (P=0.098) on SPI compared to CHL and CHL-NAN. Urinary nitrogen excretion was also lower (P<0.05) for microalgae diets than for SOY. Microalgae diets resulted in higher secretion of Δ16:2 (P<0.05), cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 (α-linoleic acid; ALA) (P<0.05), cis-6, cis-9, cis-12 18:3 (P<0.05) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P<0.05) in milk than SOY. Secretion of cis-5, cis-8, cis-11, cis-14, cis-17 20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA) in milk tended to be higher on CHL and CHL-NAN than on SPI (P=0.060), and was higher on CHL-NAN than on CHL (P<0.05). Also the omega-6:omega-3 ratio was lower (P<0.05) for CHL-NAN than for CHL. The results suggest that microalgae are likely comparable protein feed to soya bean meal in dairy cow nutrition, especially if palatability of microalgae can be improved.
  • Mäkinen, Henna-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    In order to increase protein self-sufficiency and food production, it is necessary to study new protein feeds. Faba bean (Vicia faba) is a nitrogen-fixing plant, and thereby a good choice for versatile rotation of crops. Faba beans contain less crude protein and considerably more starch than rapeseed meal. Most of the faba bean protein degrades in rumen and it contains less methionine than rapeseed meal protein. Microalgae contain plenty of crude protein and their production requires less surface area than cultivation of field crops. Microalgae can also be grown in harsh climate conditions. However, microalgae have, in some of the earlier studies, reduced palatability of the diet. Aim of this Master’s Thesis was to compare rapeseed meal, faba bean seeds and Spirulina microalgae effects on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. Hypothesis were decreased feed intake when Spirulina was added to the diet; lower milk production with faba bean diet than with rapeseed diet; and increased milk production when a part of faba bean protein was replaced with Spirulina protein. The study was conducted at Viikki research farm at Helsinki during the spring of 2015. Eight multiparous ayrshire dairy cows were used. At the beginning of the study, on average 113 days were passed since calving of the cows. The study design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Cows of the other square were rumen fistulated. Treatments (rapeseed, rapeseed + Spirulina, faba bean, faba bean + Spirulina) were isonitrogenous. In microalgae treatments protein from Spirulina was used to substitute half of the protein from rapeseed or faba bean. Total mixed ration (TMR) included in addition to protein feeds grass silage, barley, molassed sugar beet pulp and vitamins and minerals. Cows received TMR ad libitum. There were no differences in dry matter intake (DMI) between rapeseed and faba bean treatments. According to the hypothesis, DMI was decreased with Spirulina diets. Hypothesis regarding milk production were also realised. Milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein and lactose yields were lower with faba bean than with rapeseed treatments. Adding Spirulina to diet increased milk yield in faba bean treatment, but decreased it in rapeseed treatment. Adding Spirulina to diet did not affect energy-corrected milk yield significantly. Spirulina did not affect fat yields, and it lowered the protein and lactose yields in rapeseed treatment, and increased them in faba bean treatment. Based on the findings of the study, faba bean and Spirulina are inferior protein feeds compared to rapeseed meal in grass silage and grain based diets. Faba bean protein’s high rumen degradability and low methionine concentration probably limit milk production. Spirulina and faba bean combined meet dairy cow’s amino acid needs better than faba bean alone. However, Spirulina’s negative impact on DMI may restrict its usage as a protein feed for dairy cows.
  • Rissanen, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of supplementary protein feeding of dairy cattle is to increase dry matter intake and milk yield. In Finland, rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. oleifera, Brassica napus L. oleifera) is commonly used protein feed in animal nutrition. However, low self-sufficiency of supplemental protein and a changing climate increase the need to find alternatives for conventional protein feeds. Micro algae might be potential protein feed for dairy cattle. The aim of the study was to evaluate if protein feeding and replacing rapeseed meal by micro algae Spirulina platensis as a protein supplement affect feed intake, milk production and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. The study was conducted in the Viikki research farm of the University of Helsinki. Eight multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (186 d in milk on average) were used in balanced, replicated 4x4 Latin square with 21-d periods. There were four experimental concentrate feedings (12 kg/d). The control treatment was negative control without a protein supplement. Three other treatments were supplemented isonitrogenously with rapeseed meal, Spirulina or a mixture of rapeseed meal and Spirulina (1:1 on the crude protein basis). Cows were offered 2nd cut grass silage (D-value 656 g/kg dry matter) ad libitum and concentrates were given separately. In the study, protein supplementation tended to increase silage intake compared to control feeding. However, treatment had no effect on total dry matter intake. The substitution of the rapeseed meal by Spirulina decreased concentrate intake and it also tended to decrease milk protein yield. There was no difference in milk, ECM or milk fat yield between the treatments. In milk production, lack of response to protein feeding might be explained by a shortage of energy in the rumen due to low D-value of the silage. Because the diets were low in fat, there were only minor changes in milk fatty acid composition. Changes in milk fatty acid composition reflected the differences in the fatty acid composition of the protein feeds. Substitution of the rapeseed meal by Spirulina decreased stearic acid (end-product of oleic acid ruminal biohydrogenation) but increased palmitic and γ-linolenic acid proportion in milk fat. Spirulina lipid contains γ-linolenic acid more than conventional animal feeds. According to this study, it is possible to replace rapeseed meal by Spirulina partly or completely without a decrease in total dry matter intake or milk yield on separate feeding. However, in this study protein supplementation did not increase dry matter intake or milk yield of dairy cattle in mid-lactation.
  • Lamminen, M.; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A.; Kokkonen, T.; Vanhatalo, A.; Jaakkola, S. (2019)
    Alternative protein sources such as microalgae and faba beans may have environmental benefits over rapeseed. We studied the effects of rapeseed meal (RSM) or faba beans (FB) as a sole protein feed or as protein feeds partially substituted with Spirulina platensis (spirulina) microalgae on milk production, N utilization, and AA metabolism of dairy cows. Eight multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (113 +/- 36.3 d in milk; mean +/- SD) were used in a balanced, replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 21-d periods. Four cows in one Latin square were rumen cannulated. Treatments were 2 isonitrogenously fed protein sources, RSM or rolled FB, or one of these sources with half of its crude protein substituted by spirulina (RSM-SPI and FB-SPI). Cows had ad libitum access to total mixed rations consisting of grass silage, barley, sugar beet pulp, minerals, and experimental protein feed. The substitution of RSM with FB did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) but decreased neutral detergent fiber intake and increased the digestibility of other nutrients. Spirulina in the diet decreased DMI and His intake. Spirulina had no effect on Met intake in cows on RSM diets but increased it in those on FB diets. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) and protein yields were decreased when RSM was substituted by FB. Milk and lactose yields were decreased in cows on the RSM-SPI diet compared with the RSM diet but increased in those on FB-SPI compared with FB. The opposite was true for milk fat and protein concentrations; thus, spirulina in the diet did not affect ECM. Feed conversion efficiency (ECM: DMI) increased in cows on FB diets with spirulina, whereas little effect was observed for those on RSM diets. The substitution of RSM by FB decreased arterial concentration of Met and essential AA. Spirulina in the diet increased milk urea N and ruminal NH4-N and decreased the efficiency of N utilization in cows on RSM diets, whereas those on FB diets showed opposite results. Met likely limited milk production in cows on the FB diet as evidenced by the decrease in arterial Met concentration and milk protein yield when RSM was substituted by FB. The results suggest the potential to improve milk production response to faba beans with supplementation of Met-rich feeds such as spirulina. This study also confirmed spirulina had poorer palatability than RSM and FB despite total mixed ration feeding and lower milk production when spirulina partially replaced RSM.