Browsing by Subject "Stability"

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  • Timperley, Christopher M.; Forman, Jonathan E.; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Al-Amri, Abdullah Saeed; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Baulig, Augustin; Borrett, Veronica; Cariño, Flerida A.; Curty, Christophe; Berrutti, David González; Kovarik, Zrinka; Martínez-Álvarez, Roberto; Mikulak, Robert; Mourão, Nicia Maria Fusaro; Ponnadurai, Ramasami; Neffe, Slawomir; Raza, Syed K.; Rubaylo, Valentin; Takeuchi, Koji; Tang, Cheng; Trifirò, Ferruccio; Mauritz van Straten, Francois; Vanninen, Paula S.; Zaitsev, Volodymyr; Waqar, Farhat; Zina, Mongia Saïd; Blum, Marc-Michael; Gregg, Hugh; Fischer, Elena; Sun, Siqing; Yang, Pei (2018)
    Abstract The Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has provided advice on the long-term storage and stability of samples collected in the context of chemical weapons investigations. The information they compiled and reviewed is beneficial to all laboratories that carry out analysis of samples related to chemical warfare agents and is described herein. The preparation of this report was undertaken on request from the OPCW Director-General. The main degradation products for chemicals on the Schedules in the Annex on Chemicals of the Chemical Weapons Convention are tabulated. The expertise of the 25 scientists comprising the SAB, a review of the scientific literature on environmental and biomedical sample analysis, and answers to a questionnaire from chemists of nine OPCW Designated Laboratories, were drawn upon to provide the advice. Ten recommendations to ensure the long-term storage and stability of samples collected in relation to the potential use of chemical weapons were provided and are repeated here for the consideration of all laboratories worldwide.
  • Liu, Fengyuan; Kariluoto, Susanna; Edelmann, Minnamari; Piironen, Vieno (2021)
    Cereals and legumes are rich in folate. However, due to the instability of folate, processing and digestion can induce significant folate loss. In this paper, folate bioaccessibility of faba bean, oat, rye and wheat flours and pastes was studied using a static in vitro digestion model. Folate bioaccessibility depended on food matrices, varying from 42% to 67% in flours and from 40% to 123% in pastes. Digestion was associated with the inter conversion of formyl folates, as well as the increase of oxidised vitamers and decrease of reduced vitamers. Especially in faba bean, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate showed surprisingly good stability both in digestion and heat treatment, resulting in high bioaccessibility. The physiological concentration of ascorbic acid did not stabilise folate in digestion; however, a higher level helped to maintain reduced vitamers. Heat treatment (10-min paste making) could improve folate bioaccessibility by liberating folate from the food matrices and by altering folate vitamer distribution.
  • Kotaniemi, Karoliina V. M.; Heliövaara, Arja; Kotaniemi, Miika; Stoor, Patricia; Leikola, Junnu; Palotie, Tuula; Suojanen, Juho (2019)
    Background: Three-dimensionally (3D) designed osteotomies and customised osteosynthesis are rapidly becoming standard in maxillofacial reconstructive and deformity surgery. Patient-specific implants (PSIs) have been in use for a few years in orthognathic surgery as well. In Le Fort I osteotomy, wafer-free fixation of the maxillary segment can be performed by individually manufactured cutting and drill guides together with PSIs. Aim: This retrospective study was performed to compare the postoperative skeletal stability of the maxillary segment fixed by patient-specific implants versus mini-plates after Le Fort I osteotomy. Patients: Fifty-one patients were divided into subgroups according to the fixation method and the advancement of the sub-spinal point. The postoperative skeletal stability of the maxillary segment was evaluated from lateral cephalometric radiographs one year postoperatively. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the postoperative skeletal stability of the PSI and mini-plate fixed maxillae. Prospective studies, possibly with 3D fusion analysis, are warranted to confirm the results. Conclusion: The choice between the two fixation methods does not seem to affect the postoperative skeletal stability of the maxillary segments. (C) 2019 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mikkonen, Kirsi Susanna; Merger, Dimitri; Kilpeläinen, Petri; Murtomäki, Lasse; Schmidt, Ulrike S.; Wilhelm, Manfred (2016)
    Materials manufacturing industries seek efficient, economic, and sustainable compounds for stabilizing dispersed systems such as emulsions. In this study, novel, abundant biobased hydrocolloids spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM) and birch glucuronoxylans (GX) were obtained from a forestry biorefining process and characterized as versatile stabilizers of rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions. For the first time, GGM and GX isolated by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of spruce and birch saw meal, respectively, were studied in emulsions. The PHWE wood hemicelluloses—polysaccharides with relatively low molar mass—facilitated the formation of emulsions with small average droplet size and efficiently prevented droplet coalescence. GGM and GX lowered the surface tension of emulsions’ oil–water interface and increased the viscosity of the continuous phase. However, viscosity of the wood hemicellulose-based systems was low compared to that of commercial polymeric stabilizers. GGMstabilized emulsions with varying oil volume fractions were characterized in terms of their rheological properties, including large amplitude oscillation shear (LAOS) measurements, and compared to emulsions prepared with a classical small-molecular surfactant, Tween20. The physical emulsion stabilization mechanisms of GGM and GX are suggested as steric repulsion assisted by Pickering-type stabilization. Wood hemicelluloses have potential as highly promising future bioproducts for versatile industrial applications involving colloidal systems and soft materials.
  • Stukelj, Jernej; Agopov, Mikael; Yliruusi, Jouko; Strachan, Clare J.; Svanbäck, Sami (2020)
    Poor solubility of crystalline drugs can be overcome by amorphization - the production of high-energy disordered solid with improved solubility. However, the improved solubility comes at a cost of reduced stability; amorphous drugs are prone to recrystallization. Because of recrystallization, the initial solubility enhancement is eventually lost. Therefore, it is important to understand the recrystallization process during storage of amorphous materials and its impact on dissolution/solubility. Here, we demonstrate the use of image-based single-particle analysis (SPA) to consistently monitor the solubility of an amorphous indomethacin sample over time. The results are compared to the XRPD signal of the same sample. For the sample stored at 22 degrees C/23 % relative humidity (RH), full crystallinity as indicated by XRPD was reached around day 40, whereas a solubility corresponding to that of the. crystalline form was measured with SPA at day 25. For the sample stored at 22 degrees C/75 % RH, the XRPD signal indicated a rapid initial phase of crystallization. However, the sample failed to fully crystallize in 80 days. With SPA, solubility slightly above that of the crystalline. form was measured already on the second day. To conclude, the solubility measured with SPA directly reflects the solid-state changes occurring on the particle surface. Therefore, it can provide vital information - in a straightforward manner while requiring only minuscule sample amounts - for understanding the effect of storage conditions on the dissolution/solubility of amorphous materials, especially important in pharmaceutical science.
  • Rannik, Üllar; Vesala, Timo; Peltola, Olli; Novick, Kimberly A.; Aurela, Mika; Järvi, Leena; Montagnani, Leonardo; Mölder, Meelis; Peichl, Matthias; Pilegaard, Kim; Mammarella, Ivan (2020)
    The choice of coordinate system to calculate eddy covariance fluxes becomes particularly relevant at complex measurement sites. The traditional way is to perform double rotation (DR) of the coordinate system i.e., to calculate turbulent fluxes in a coordinate system that is aligned with the flow streamlines within the flux averaging period (e.g., Kaimal and Finnigan, 1994). The second approach, the so-called planar-fitted (PF) coordinate system, averages the flow over a longer period of time, in practice a month or more. The PF method allows to derive an intercept coefficient of the vertical wind speed which can be attributed to the offset of the sonic anemometer or the average vertical flow related to meteorological conditions. We evaluated the variants of the PF methods using data from a variety of sites ranging from complex urban and forest sites to nearly ideal forest and peatland sites. At complex sites, we found that the intercept of the vertical wind speed derived from the PF method is a function of wind direction, time of day and/or stability. The sector-wise PF (SPF) method frequently led to insignificant statistical relationships. We tested a continuous PF (CPF) method where the relationship establishing the coordinate frame was represented as the continuous function in the form of Fourier series. The method enabled to obtain the PF with lower uncertainty as compared to the SPF method, by selecting necessary number of harmonics for each site based on confidence intervals of estimated parameters. Therefore, we recommend to use the CPF method in cases when the number of observations in some wind direction interval is low or the obtained SPF is insignificant due to large variance in measurements. We also showed that significant systematic difference can exist in cumulative turbulent fluxes between the DR and PF methods over a longer period of time. Derived vertical advection of carbon dioxide exhibited large variability with wind direction due to topography at complex sites and therefore, without considering horizontal advection, cannot be used to improve the net ecosystem exchange estimation during nocturnal, low turbulence conditions.
  • Levo, Emil; Granberg, Fredric; Utt, Daniel; Albe, Karsten; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2019)
    In search of materials with better properties, polycrystalline materials are often found to be superior to their respective single crystalline counterparts. Reduction of grain size in polycrystalline materials can drastically alter the properties of materials. When the grain sizes reach the nanometer scale, the improved mechanical response of the materials make them attractive in many applications. Multicomponent solid-solution alloys have shown to have a higher radiation tolerance compared with pure materials. Combining these advantages, we investigate the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline multicomponent alloys. We find that these alloys withstand a much higher irradiation dose, compared with nanocrystalline Ni, before the nanocrystallinity is lost. Some of the investigated alloys managed to keep their nanocrystallinity for twice the irradiation dose as pure Ni.
  • Edelmann, Minnamari; Chamlagain, Bhawani Shankar; Santin, Marco; Kariluoto, Susanna; Piironen, Vieno (2016)
  • Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Bublikov, G. S.; Kuznetsova, I. M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav; Turoverov, K. K. (2017)
    Near-infrared fluorescent proteins (NIR FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes and their mutants with different location of Cys residues, which able to bind a biliverdin chromophore, or without these Cys residues were studied using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, NIR fluorescence and circular dichroism. It was shown that a covalent binding of the biliverdin chromophore to a Cys residue via thioether group substantially stabilizes the spatial structure of NIR FPs. The stability of the protein structure and the chromophore association strength strongly depends on the location of Cys residues and decreases in the following order: a protein with Cys residues in both domains, a protein with Cys in PAS domains, and a protein with Cys in GAF domains. NIR FPs without Cys residues capable to covalently attach biliverdin have the lowest stability, comparable to NIR FP apoforms. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Lajunen, Tatu; Nurmi, Riikka; Wilbie, Danny; Ruoslahti, Teemu; Johansson, Niklas G.; Korhonen, Ossi; Rog, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex; Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto (2018)
    Light triggered drug delivery systems offer attractive possibilities for sophisticated therapy, providing both temporal and spatial control of drug release. We have developed light triggered liposomes with clinically approved indocyanine green (ICG) as the light sensitizing compound. Amphiphilic ICG can be localized in different compartments of the liposomes, but the effect of its presence, on both triggered release and long term stability, has not been studied. In this work, we report that ICG localization has a significant effect on the properties of the liposomes. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating of the liposomes leads to binding and stabilization of the ICG molecules on the surface of the lipid bilayer. This formulation showed both good storage stability in buffer solution (at +4-37 degrees C) and adequate stability in serum and vitreous (at +37 degrees C). The combination of ICG within the lipid bilayer and PEG coating lead to poor stability at elevated temperatures of +22 degrees C and +37 degrees C. The mechanisms of the increased instability due to ICG insertion in the lipid bilayer was elucidated with molecular dynamics simulations. Significant PEG insertion into the bilayer was induced in the presence of ICG in the lipid bilayer. Finally, feasibility of freeze-drying as a long term storage method for the ICG liposomes was demonstrated. Overall, this is the first detailed study on the interactions of lipid bilayer, light sensitizer (ICG) and PEG coating on the liposome stability. The localization of the light triggering agent significantly alters the structure of the liposomes and it is important to consider these aspects in triggered drug delivery system design.
  • Piitulainen, Harri; Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Mäenpää, Helena; Rantalainen, Timo (2021)
    There is limited evidence about gait stability and its alteration by concurrent motor and cognitive tasks in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We examined gait stability and how it is altered by constrained cognitive or motor task in CP and their typically developed (TD) controls. Gait kinematics were recorded using inertial-measurement units (IMU) from 18 patients with hemiplegia (13.5 +/- 2.4 years), 12 with diplegia (13.0 +/- 2.1 years), and 31 TD controls (13.5 +/- 2.2 years) during unconstrained gait, and motor (carrying a tray) and cognitive (word naming) task constrained gait at preferred speed (similar to 400 steps/task). Step duration, its standard deviation and refined-compound-multiscale entropy (RCME) were computed independently for vertical and resultant horizontal accelerations. Gait complexity was higher for patients with CP than TD in all tasks and directions (p <0.001-0.01), being pronounced in vertical direction, cognitive task and for diplegic patients (p <0.05-0.001). The gait complexity increased more (i.e. higher dual-task cost) from the unconstrained to the constrained gait in CP compared to TD (p <0.05). Step duration was similar in all groups (p > 0.586), but its variation was higher in CP than TD (p <0.001-0.05), and during the constrained than unconstrained gait in all groups (p <0.01-0.001). The gait in children with CP was more complex and the dual-task cost was higher primarily for children with diplegic CP than TD during cognitive task, indicating that attentional load hinders their gait more. This raises the hypothesis that more attention and cortical resources are needed to compensate for the impaired gait in children with CP. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Simpson, Samantha; Kaislasuo, Janina; Guller, Seth; Pal, Lubna (2020)
    Background: The role of cytokines in various disease states is a burgeoning field of academic study and clinical application, however there are no consensus documents on how certain cytokines should be stored prior to quantification. This information is especially of interest to researchers assembling a biobank or clinicians who have to transport specimens to a different location in order to be tested. Objective: To review the literature and synthesize prior findings on cytokine storage and freeze/thaw stability. Design: We searched PubMed for articles related to cytokine storage stability. All articles were analyzed for cytokines studied, source of reported cytokine concentration (i.e., human whole blood or serum, concentrations from other species or bodily sources were excluded), and reported statistical results. Results: We identified and synthesized results of 23 peer-reviewed articles which published data on the storage and freeze/thaw stability of 33 different cytokines and chemokines. Conclusion: There is a wide variety of reported cytokine storage and freeze/thaw stability. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha are the most widely studied cytokines in regard to temperature stability. In a few cytokines, a clear consensus can be reached as to storage safety at particular temperatures, but in most, more research needs to be done and we advise the clinician or researcher to use caution in interpreting cytokine concentration results after a long period of storage or several freeze/thaw cycles.
  • Waldén, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Global environmental challenges have increased the demand for materials originating from renewable sources. Fungal cell biomass (FCB) is an enzyme industry byproduct, of which protein-polysaccharide composition could provide such material. The aim of this master’s thesis was to investigate functionality of FCB in two dispersions: emulsion and foam. Three fractions (FCB-W, FCB-N and FCB-E) were prepared and their solubility, zeta potential and particle size were studied to understand their behavior in dispersions. The hypothesis was that FCB fractions could form stable emulsions and foams, which was measured by emulsion stability and foam layer volume over time. Supporting the hypothesis, FCB fractions formed moderately stable emulsions. Especially FCB-N fraction showed potential to form stable O/W emulsion. Creaming and sedimentation were the main instabilities observed during storage, without coalescence. Contrary to the hypothesis, FCB fractions did not form stable foams, however FCB-W fraction produced better foam structure. Non-foaming could be advantageous during emulsification. Differences in dispersion stabilities could be explained by different protein-polysaccharide compositions of the fractions influencing their solubility, zeta potential and particle size, thus differentiating their interactions and functionality in dispersions. To conclude, FCB fractions have potential to provide more sustainable emulsifiers for industry. To optimize its functionality in emulsions, further research of the effect of particle size reduction or alkaline pH on emulsion stability is necessary, whereas deeper understanding of the role of proteins in foaming ability could reveal further possibilities for utilization of FCB.
  • Valoppi, Fabio; Wang, Yu-Jie; Alt, Giulia; Peltonen, Leena; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2021)
    Among different cereals, oat is becoming more popular due to its unique composition and health benefits. The increase in oat production is associated with an increase in related side streams, comprising unutilized biomass that is rich in valuable components, such as polysaccharides, proteins, and antioxidants. To valorize such biomass, it is fundamental that side streams enter back into the food production chain, in respect of the circular economy model. Here, we propose the use of soluble and insoluble oat-production side-stream in suspensions and emulsions, avoiding any further extraction, fractionation, and/or chemical derivatization. Our approach further increases the value of these side streams. To this aim, we first studied the effect of thermal and mechanical processes on the behavior and properties of both soluble and insoluble oat side-stream fractions in water and at air/water interface. Then, we characterized the emulsifying and stabilizing abilities of these materials in oil-in-water emulsions. Interestingly, we found that the insoluble fraction was able to form stable suspensions and emulsions after mechanical treatment. The oil droplets in the emulsions were stabilized by anchoring at the surface of the insoluble particles. On the other hand, the soluble fraction formed only stable viscous solutions. Finally, we demonstrated that the two fractions can be combined to increase the storage stability of the resulting emulsion. Our results highlight that oat production side streams can be used as novel bio-based emulsifiers, showing the great potential behind the underutilized cereal-side-stream biomass.