Browsing by Subject "Standards"

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  • Hui, David; Mori, Masanori; Meng, Yee-Choon; Watanabe, Sharon M.; Caraceni, Augusto; Strasser, Florian; Saarto, Tiina; Cherny, Nathan; Glare, Paul; Kaasa, Stein; Bruera, Eduardo (2018)
    Palliative care referral is primarily based on clinician judgment, contributing to highly variable access. Standardized criteria to trigger automatic referral have been proposed, but it remains unclear how best to apply them in practice. We conducted a Delphi study of international experts to identify a consensus for the use of standardized criteria to trigger automatic referral. Sixty international experts stated their level of agreement for 14 statements regarding the use of clinician-based referral and automatic referral over two Delphi rounds. A consensus was defined as an agreement of ae70% a priori. The response rate was 59/60 (98%) for the first round and 56/60 (93%) for the second round. Twenty-six (43%), 19 (32%), and 11 (18%) respondents were from North America, Asia/Australia, and Europe, respectively. The panel reached consensus that outpatient palliative care referral should be based on both automatic referral and clinician-based referral (agreement = 86%). Only 18% felt that referral should be clinician-based alone, and only 7% agreed that referral should be based on automatic referral only. There was consensus that automatic referral criteria may increase the number of referrals (agreement = 98%), facilitate earlier palliative care access, and help administrators to set benchmarks for quality improvement (agreement = 86%). Our panelists favored the combination of automatic referral to augment clinician-based referral. This integrated referral framework may inform policy and program development.
  • Laukkarinen, Teemu; Kuusinen, Kati; Mikkonen, Tommi (2018)
    Abstract Context: Regulatory authorities require proofs from critical systems manufacturers that the software in their products is developed in accordance to prescribed development practices before accepting the product to the markets. This is challenging when using DevOps, where continuous integration and deployment are the default practices, which are not a good match with the regulatory software development standards. Objective: We aim to bring DevOps and regulated software development closer to each other. First, we want to make it easier for developers to develop regulated software with tools and practices they are familiar with. Second, we want to allow regulatory authorities to build confidence on solutions provided by manufacturers by defining a mapping between DevOps and regulatory software development. Method: We performed a literature survey and created research suggestions using exploratory research. Results: Tighter integration between development tools, requirements management, version control and deployment pipeline would simplify the creation of regulatory compliant development practices. Conclusions: Regulations could be improved for more agile and incremental method in quality approval, the final step before the actual deployment of the software. Improved development practices and tool integration, created in cooperation by tool vendors, system providers, and regulatory authorities, could support developers who are not comfortable with fixed, and rigid practices of regulated software development.
  • Kaura, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    EU-China search for common understanding on what activities should be considered “green” and eligible for financing by green bonds started recently. Common understanding could, according to negotiation parties, facilitate greater cross-border flow of green finance. As China and EU together lead the global green bond market, a common understanding could even enhance much sought after harmonization of green bond rules at global level. This study examines how realistic and influential the search mission for common EU-China green bond language is, filling gap in research on green bonds in the EU-China context. Analysis is based on multimethod approach combining qualitative standard comparison, interviews and media analysis. The work is carried out applying a liberal two level game approach (Putnam, 1988), from the field of International Political Economy, which has proved useful when analysing domestic-international dynamics present in international negotiations on e.g. energy, climate and environmental policy. Based on the analysis, where China balances with fear of slowing economy, growing energy demand and urgency to fight pollution, the EU can already afford to focus on the climate change combat. This difference is reflected, based on the analysis, in the regulations the two regions have recently developed for green bonds. With preferences not aligning, it may prove difficult to find aligning views on the types of projects eligible for green bond financing. This means that the domestic win sets (Putnam, 1988) of the two regions don´t currently overlap implying that a common EU-China agreement on green bond rules may at the moment be impossible. However, even with a fully aligning views on green bond definitions and rules, the cross-border green finance between the EU and China would likely not increase significantly as there are other market barriers that hinder the flow at present. Nevertheless, having the EU-China dialogue was still viewed to enhance climate change cooperation and raise awareness.
  • Morone, Piergiuseppe; D'amato, Dalia (2019)
    As bio-based chemicals become more technically and financially competitive, spurring the further development of the chemical industry, they are also presented as more sustainable alternatives to petrol-based chemicals. We argue that an ad hoc and coordinated regulatory and standards framework channeling sustainability efforts would legitimize sustainability claims for bio-based products.