Browsing by Subject "Stormwater"

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  • Niemi, Tero; Kokkonen, Teemu; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki; Koivusalo, Harri (2019)
    Constructing hydrological models for large urban areas is time consuming and laborious due to the requirements for high-resolution data and fine model detail. An open-source algorithm using adaptive subcatchments is proposed to automate Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) construction. The algorithm merges areas with homogeneous land cover and a common outlet into larger subcatchments, while retaining small-scale details where land cover or topography is more heterogeneous. The method was tested on an 85-ha urban catchment in Helsinki, Finland. A model with adaptive subcatchments reproduced the observed discharge at the catchment outlet with high model-performance indices emphasizing the strength of the proposed method. Computation times of the adaptive model were substantially lower than those of a corresponding model with uniformly sized high-resolution subcatchments. Given that high-resolution land cover and topography data are available, the proposed algorithm provides an advanced method for implementing SWMM models automatically even for large urban catchments without a substantial manual workload. Simultaneously, the high-resolution land cover details of the catchments can be maintained where they matter the most. (c) 2019 American Society of Civil Engineers.
  • Taka, Maija; Sillanpaa, Nora; Niemi, Tero; Warsta, Lassi; Kokkonen, Teemu; Setälä, Heikki (2022)
    Urban hydrology is characterized by increased runoff and various pollutant sources. We studied the spatio-temporal patterns of stormwater metal (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) concentrations and loads in five urbanized and one rural catchment in Southern Finland. The two-year continuous monitoring revealed a non-linear seasonal relationship between catchment urban intensity and metal export. For runoff, seasonal variation decreased with increasing imperviousness. The most urbanized catchments experienced greatest temporal variation in metal concentrations: the annual Cu and Zn loads in most of the studied urbanized catchments were up to 86 times higher compared to the rural site, whereas Fe loads in the urbanized catchments were only circa 29% of the rural load. Total metal levels were highest in the winter, whereas the winter peak of dissolved metal concentrations was less pronounced. The collection of catchment characteristics explained well the total metal concentrations, whereas for the dissolved concentrations the explanatory power was weaker. Our catchment-scale analysis revealed a mosaic of mainly diffuse pollutant sources and calls for catchment-scale management designs. As urban metal export occurred across seasons, solutions that operate also in cold conditions are needed.
  • Song, Jianzhi; Srivastava, Varsha; Kohout, Tomas; Sillanpää, Mika; Sainio, Tuomo (2021)
    The treatment of stormwater to remove and recover nutrients has received increasing interest. The objective of this study was to develop a novel adsorbent that is easy to handle, has good adsorption capacity, and is economical to use. A novel nanocomposite of montmorillonite (MT)-anchored magnetite (Fe3O4) was synthesised by co-precipitation as an adsorbent for ammonium. The MT/Fe3O4 nanocomposite had pore sizes (3–13 nm) in the range of narrow mesopores. The dispersion of the anchored Fe3O4 was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanocomposite exhibited higher affinity towards ammonium than the original MT. The Langmuir isotherm model was found to be the most suitable model to explain the ammonium adsorption behaviour of the nanocomposite. The maximum adsorption capacity for ammonium was 10.48 mg/g. The adsorption mechanism was a combination of ion exchange and electrostatic interaction. In an authentic stormwater sample, the synthesised adsorbent removed 64.2% of ammonium and reduced the amount of heavy metal contaminants including Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the ammonium loading on MT/Fe3O4 during adsorption functionalised the adsorbent surface. Additionally, the spent nanocomposite showed potential for rare earth elements (REEs) adsorption as a secondary application, especially for the selective adsorption of Sc3+. The versatile application of montmorillonite-anchored magnetite nanocomposite makes it a promising adsorbent for water treatment. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].