Browsing by Subject "Stress"

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  • Sääksjärvi, Katri; Lehto, Elviira; Lehto, Reetta; Suhonen, Eira; Leppänen, Marja; Michels, Nathalie; Saha, Mari; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Pajulahti, Riikka; Heiman-Lindh, Anu; Sainio, Taina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva; Sajaniemi, Nina (2021)
    Associations between hair cortisol concentration (HCC), diurnal salivary cortisol (sCort) and alpha-amylase (sAA), and temperament dimensions were examined among 3-6-year-old Finnish children (n = 833). Children's hair samples were collected at preschool, while parents collected five saliva samples from children during one weekend day and completed a questionnaire assessing child's temperament dimensions i.e. surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control (HCC, n = 677; AUCg of sAA, n = 380; AUCg of sCort, n = 302; temperament dimensions, n = 751). In linear regression analysis, diurnal sCort associated positively with HCC, the association persisting after adjustments (beta 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.42). In logistic regression analysis, increasing scores in effortful control associated with higher likelihood of having high HCC (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.07-2.03), the association slightly attenuating to non-significant after adjustments. Otherwise, no clear indication for associations between temperament and stress-related biomarkers were found.
  • Martikainen, Silja (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    This thesis examines the associations between personality traits and sleep quantity and quality in young adults. Additionally the possible effects of birth status on these associations are examined. The data used in this thesis is part of a birth cohort study (Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults). The personality traits are based on the five-factor model of personality. The sleep quantity and quality are based on actigraphy assessments. Four hypothesis were made about the personality and sleep associations: (1) neuroticism is related to a lesser quality of sleep, (2) there will be more significant associations between personality traits and sleep quality than between personality traits and sleep quantity, (3) the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) as well as, (4) the Small for Gestational Age (SGA) status will affect the associations. Linear regressions were used to study the associations between personality traits and sleep quality and quantity. Whenever an association was significant, it was tested whether this association was moderated first, by the VLBW and second, by the SGA status of the participant. The results were mostly in line with previous research especially demonstrating the negative association between neuroticism and the quality of sleep and suggesting that vulnerability to stress decreases sleep quality. Also it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with better sleep quality and extraversion was associated with lower sleep quantity. In addition SGA status moderated the personality and sleep associations. It is proposed that there are two factors behind the interaction. First, prenatally developing mechanisms have an effect on the development of sleep as well as personality. Second, differences in the postnatal environment, for instance the parenting practices, can account for this finding. Future research could focus especially on what kind of prenatal disturbances SGA infants have in the development of mechanisms related to sleep and personality. Also focusing on the differences in parental interaction might shed more light on the results.
  • Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Männistö, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2016)
  • Diniz, Cassiano R.A.F.; Casarotto, Plinio C.; Resstel, Leonardo; Samia, R.L. Joca (2018)
    Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are assumed to be maladaptive responses to stress and antidepressants are thought to counteract such responses by increasing BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) levels. BDNF acts through TrkB (tropomyosin-related receptor kinase B) and plays a central role in neuroplasticity. In contrast, both precursor proBDNF and BDNF propeptide (another metabolic product from proBDNF cleavage) have a high affinity to p75 receptor (p75R) and usually convey apoptosis and neuronal shrinkage. Although BDNF and proBDNF/propeptide apparently act in opposite ways, neuronal turnover and remodeling might be a final common way that both act to promote more effective neuronal networking, avoiding neuronal redundancy and the misleading effects of environmental contingencies. This review aims to provide a brief overview about the BDNF functional role in antidepressant action and about p75R and TrkB signaling to introduce the "continuum-sorting hypothesis." The resulting hypothesis suggests that both BDNF/proBDNF and BDNF/propeptide act as protagonists to fine-tune antidepressant-dependent neuroplasticity in crucial brain structures to modulate behavioral responses to stress.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Viding, Essi; Dobewall, Henrik; Kaseva, Kaisa; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka (2021)
    We investigated (i) the predictive relationships of compassion with negative emotionality (a marker of susceptibility to stress) and vital exhaustion (a marker of chronic stress response) and (ii) the effect of compassion on the developmental courses of negative emotionality and vital exhaustion over a follow-up from early adulthood to middle age. We used the prospective Young Finns data (n = 1031-1495, aged 20-50). Compassion was evaluated in 1997, 2001, and 2012; and vital exhaustion and negative emotionality in 2001, 2007, and 2012. The predictive paths from compassion to vital exhaustion and negative emotionality were stronger than vice versa: high compassion predicted lower vital exhaustion and lower negative emotionality. The effect of high compassion on lower vital exhaustion and lower negative emotionality was evident from early adulthood to middle age. Overall, high compassion appears to protect against dimensions of stress from early adulthood to middle age, whereas this study found no evidence that dimensions of stress could reduce disposition to feel compassion for others' distress over a long-term follow-up.
  • Lehtamo, Sanna; Juuti, Kalle; Inkinen, Janna; Lavonen, Jari (2018)
    Background: There is a lack of students enrolling in upper secondary school physics courses. In addition, many students discontinue the physics track, causing a lack of applicants for university-level science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programmes. The aim of this research was to determine if it is possible to find a connection between academic emotions in situ and physics track retention at the end of the first year of upper secondary school using phone-delivered experience sampling method. We applied experience sampling delivered by phone to one group of students in one school. The sample comprised 36 first-year upper secondary school students (median age 16) who enrolled in the last physics course of the first year. Students' academic emotions during science learning situations were measured using phones three times during each of four physics lessons. Results: The logistic regression analysis showed that lack of stress predicted retention in the physics track. Conclusions: Via questionnaires delivered by phone, it is possible to capture students' academic emotions in situ, information on which may help teachers to support students emotionally during their physics studies. In addition, reflecting their situational academic emotions, students could perhaps make better-informed decisions concerning their studies in STEM subjects.
  • Lehtamo, Sanna; Juuti, Kalle; Inkinen, Janna; Lavonen, Jari (Springer International Publishing, 2018)
    Abstract Background There is a lack of students enrolling in upper secondary school physics courses. In addition, many students discontinue the physics track, causing a lack of applicants for university-level science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programmes. The aim of this research was to determine if it is possible to find a connection between academic emotions in situ and physics track retention at the end of the first year of upper secondary school using phone-delivered experience sampling method. We applied experience sampling delivered by phone to one group of students in one school. The sample comprised 36 first-year upper secondary school students (median age 16) who enrolled in the last physics course of the first year. Students’ academic emotions during science learning situations were measured using phones three times during each of four physics lessons. Results The logistic regression analysis showed that lack of stress predicted retention in the physics track. Conclusions Via questionnaires delivered by phone, it is possible to capture students’ academic emotions in situ, information on which may help teachers to support students emotionally during their physics studies. In addition, reflecting their situational academic emotions, students could perhaps make better-informed decisions concerning their studies in STEM subjects.
  • Eriksson, C. J. P.; Etelälahti, T. J.; Apter, S. J. (2017)
    A number of studies have shown that stress and an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are associated with increased voluntary alcohol drinking. Recently, associations have been found between activated HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in alcohol-preferring AA and non-preferring ANA, F2 (crossbred second generation from original AA and ANA), and Wistar rats. The aim of the present study has been to determine the role of corticosterone and alcohol-related testosterone-effects in subsequent alcohol drinking in AA, ANA, F2 and Wistar rats. The present study comprises of four substudies presenting new analyses of existing data, by which correlations between basal corticosterone levels, changes in testosterone levels during alcohol intoxications and subsequent voluntary alcohol consumption are investigated. The results displayed positive correlations between basal corticosterone levels and subsequent alcohol-mediated testosterone elevations, which was positively associated with voluntary alcohol consumption. The results also showed a negative correlation between basal corticosterone levels and alcohol-mediated testosterone decreases, which was negatively associated with alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the present study displays novel results, according to which the HPA axis, one hand, relates to testosterone elevation (potentially causing and/or strengthening reinforcement) during alcohol intoxication, which in turn may relate to higher voluntary alcohol consumption (AA rats). Vice versa, the HPA axis may also relate to alcohol-mediated testosterone decrease (causing testosterone reduction and disinforcement) and low-alcohol drinking (ANA, F2 and Wistar rats). In addition, the present results showed that alcohol-mediated testosterone changes may also, independently of the HPA axis, correlate with voluntary alcohol drinking, which indicate the impact of genetic factors. Thus, the role of the HPA-axis may be more related to situational stress than to intrinsic factors. In further studies, it should be investigated, whether the present results also apply to stress and human alcohol drinking.
  • Iozzo, Patricia; Holmes, Megan; Schmidt, Mathias V.; Cirulli, Francesca; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Berry, Alessandra; Balsevich, Georgia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Liistro, Tiziana; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Eriksson, Johan G.; Seckl, Jonathan (2014)
  • Sjögren, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Vårdarbetet har utgjort ett centralt forskningsområde inom stressforskningen. Få studier på området har ändå utförts ur ett diskursivt perspektiv. Syftet med den här undersökningen var att undersöka hur vårdpersonal inom den institutionella äldreomsorgen diskursivt konstruerar stress och stresshantering samt att granska ett hurdant agentskap vårdarna tillåts genom dessa konstruktioner. Materialet bestod av 20 semistrukturerade intervjuer som utförts med vårdare inom en offentlig äldreboendeorganisation i Nyland. Intervjuerna analyserades med hjälp av den foucauldianska diskursanalysen. Ur materialet växer det fram två dominerande diskurser: en normaliserande stressdiskurs och individualiserande stresshanteringsdiskurs. Genom dessa diskurser subjektspositioneras vårdarna till subjektspositionen av en professionell och handlingskraftig vårdare: en vårdare som förväntas se stress i vårdarbetet som normalt och hantera eventuell stress på egen hand. Vårdarna identifierar samt disidentifierar sig med den erbjudna subjektspositionen men saknar makt i att motsätta sig de diskursiva konstruktionerna helt. De dominerande diskurserna är så pass starka att de låser in vårdarna i den erbjudna subjektspositionen trots motstånd. Implikationerna för vårdarnas agentskap är att agentskapet begränsas till en individuell nivå. Vårdarna kan välja mellan att acceptera att stress är en del av arbetet och hantera eventuell stress på egenhand eller att lämna arbetet/branschen, men har inte möjlighet att ändra på arbetets uppläggning eller kräva mer stöd från organisationen. Studien lyfter ändå fram hur saker och ting kunde vara annorlunda. Vårdarbetet kunde vara upplagt på ett sätt som motarbetar/minskar stress och organisationer kunde ta till effektivare alternativ för att motarbeta/minska arbetstagares stress.
  • Nordentoft, Mads; Rod, Naja H.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Pedersen, Line R. M.; Cleal, Bryan; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nexo, Mette A.; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Sterud, Tom; Vahtera, Jussi; Rugulies, Reiner (2020)
    Objective: To examine the prospective relation between effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods: We included 50,552 individuals from a national survey of the working population in Denmark, aged 30-64 years and diabetes-free at baseline. Effort-reward imbalance was defined, in accordance with the literature, as a mismatch between high efforts at work (e.g. high work pace, time pressure), and low rewards received in return (e.g. low recognition, job insecurity) and assessed as a continuous and a categorical variable. Incident type 2 diabetes was identified in national health registers. Using Cox regression we calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for estimating the association between effort-reward imbalance at baseline and risk of onset of type 2 diabetes during follow-up, adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status, cohabitation, children at home, migration background, survey year and sample method. Results: During 136,239 person-years of follow-up (mean = 2.7 years) we identified 347 type 2 diabetes cases (25.5 cases per 10,000 person-years). For each one standard deviation increase of the effort-reward imbalance score at baseline, the fully adjusted risk of type 2 diabetes during follow-up increased by 9% (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.98-1.21). When we used effort-reward imbalance as a dichotomous variable, exposure to effort-reward imbalance was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes with a HR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02-1.58). Conclusion The results of this nationwide study of the Danish workforce suggest that effort-reward imbalance at work may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
  • Flink, Henrik; Nordahl, Oscar; Hall, Marcus; Rarysson, Anton; Bergstrom, Kristofer; Larsson, Per; Petersson, Erik; Merila, Juha; Tibblin, Petter (2021)
    The practice within recreational fisheries to release captured fish back to the wild, known as catch-and-release (C&R), is an increasingly important strategy to protect fish stocks from overexploitation. However, C&R is a stressor and since animal reproduction is particularly sensitive to stress there is reason to suspect that such a practice induces sublethal fitness consequences. Here, we investigated whether and how C&R fishing influenced the reproductive potential in an anadromous population of Northern pike (Esox lucius). First, female pike were exposed to authentic C&R using rod-and-reel fishing in a coastal foraging habitat prior to the spawning period. Next, we observed the migration to the freshwater spawning habitat and compared both the timing of arrival and maturity stage between C&R-treated and control individuals. Finally, to evaluate effects on the quality and viability of eggs we stripped captured control and recaptured C&R-treated females, measured egg dry mass to assess nutrient content, conducted artificial fertilisations and incubated eggs in a controlled laboratory experiment. We found no evidence of C&R causing alterations in either arrival time, maturity stage, or the quality and viability of fertilised eggs. In combination, our results suggest that long-term effects of C&R-induced stress on key reproductive traits of pike, if any, are minor.
  • Heponiemi, Tarja; Hypponen, Hannele; Vehko, Tuulikki; Kujala, Sari; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Vanska, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko (2017)
    Background: Poorly functioning, time-consuming, and inadequate information systems are among the most important work-related psychosocial factors causing stress in physicians. The present study examined the trend in the perceived stress that was related to information systems (SRIS) among Finnish physicians during a nine-year follow-up. In addition, we examined the associations of gender, age, employment sector, specialization status, leadership position, on-call burden, and time pressure with SRIS change and levels. Methods: A longitudinal design with three survey data collection waves (2006, 2010 and 2015) based on a random sample of Finnish physicians in 2006 was used. The study sample included 1095 physicians (62.3% women, mean age 54.4 years) who provided data on SRIS in every wave. GLM repeated measures analyses were used to examine the associations between independent variables and the SRIS trend during the years 2006, 2010, and 2015. Results: SRIS increased during the study period. The estimated marginal mean of SRIS in 2006 was 2.80 (95% CI = 2.68-2.92) and the mean increase was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.30-0.61) points from 2006 to 2010 and 0.25 (95% CI = 0.11-0.39) points from 2010 to 2015. Moreover, our results show that the increase was most pronounced in primary care, whereas in hospitals SRIS did not increase between 2010 and 2015. SRIS increased more among those in a leadership position. On-call duties and high time-pressures were associated with higher SRIS levels during all waves. Conclusions: Changing, difficult, and poorly functioning information systems (IS) are a prominent source of stress among Finnish physicians and this perceived stress continues to increase. Organizations should implement arrangements to ease stress stemming from IS especially for those with a high workload and on-call or leadership duties. To decrease IS-related stress, it would be important to study in more detail the main IS factors that contribute to SRIS. Earlier studies indicate that the usability and stability of information systems as well as end-user involvement in system development and work-procedure planning may be significant factors.
  • Siitonen, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Ponnistusvirtsankarkailu on naisilla yleinen ja kiusallinen vaiva. Sen ensilinjan hoito on fysioterapia, jonka tehon esitetään kirjallisuudessa olevan 50 %:n luokkaa. Tässä tutkimuksessa oli tarkoituksena selvittää HUS Naistensairaalan tarjoaman fysioterapian vaikuttavuutta tarkastelemalla fysioterapiassa käyneiden potilaiden tyytyväisyyttä ja päätymistä virtsankarkailutoimenpiteeseen. Potilasaineisto käsittää 156 naista ja se on kerätty takautuvasti HUS Naistensairaalassa vuonna 2012 ponnistusvirtsankarkailun tai ponnistusvoittoisen sekamuotoisen virtsankarkailun takia fysioterapiassa käyneistä. Taustatiedoiltaan potilaat olivat keskimäärin hieman alle 50-vuotiaita, premenopausaalisia, normaalipainoindeksin ylärajalla ja kärsivät melko puhtaasta ponnistusvirtsankarkailusta. Tulokset analysoitiin SPSS-tilastointiohjelmalla. Päätulosmuuttujana käytettiin virtsankarkailutoimenpiteeseen päätyvien osuutta ja lopulta useampi kuin joka kolmas potilaista päätyi toimenpiteeseen. Valtaosa potilaista koki kuitenkin hyötyneensä fysioterapiasta ainakin jonkin verran. Riskitekijöiksi fysioterapian epäonnistumiselle nousivat vaikea-asteinen virtsankarkailu, aiempi epäonnistunut fysioterapia ja tupakointi. Kokonaisuudessaan tutkimuksen perusteella vaikuttaisi siltä, että fysioterapiaan lähetettävät potilaat tulisi valikoida entistä harkitummin potilaan ponnistusvirtsankarkailun vaikeusaste ja motivaatio huomioiden, jotta fysioterapian niukat resurssit voitaisiin kohdentaa vain sitä objektiivisesti tarvitseville. Myös fysioterapeutin ja hoitavan lääkärin yhteistyötä tulisi mahdollisesti lisätä.
  • Stefanowicz, Karolina; Lannoo, Nausicaä; Zhao, Yafei; Eggermont, Lore; Van Hove, Jonas; Al Atalah, Bassam; Van Damme, Els J M (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background A small group of F-box proteins consisting of a conserved F-box domain linked to a domain homologous to the glycan-binding protein has been identified within the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, the so-called F-box-Nictaba protein, encoded by the gene At2g02360, was shown to be a functional lectin which binds N-acetyllactosamine structures. Here, we present a detailed qRT-PCR expression analysis of F-box-Nictaba in Arabidopsis plants upon different stresses and hormone treatments. Results Expression of the F-box-Nictaba gene was enhanced after plant treatment with salicylic acid and after plant infection with the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000). β-glucuronidase histochemical staining of transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed preferential activity of the At2g02360 promoter in trichomes present on young rosette leaves. qRT-PCR analyses confirmed high expression of F-box-Nictaba in leaf trichomes. A. thaliana plants overexpressing the gene showed less disease symptoms after Pst DC3000 infection with reduced bacterial colonization compared to infected wild type and F-box-Nictaba knock-out plants. Conclusions Our data show that the Arabidopsis F-box-Nictaba gene is a stress-inducible gene responsive to SA, bacterial infection and heat stress, and is involved in salicylic acid related plant defense responses. This knowledge enriched our understanding of the physiological importance of F-box-Nictaba, and can be used to create plants with better performance in changing environmental conditions.
  • Sirkkala, Maaret (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Hammaslääkärin työtä ja hammaslääketieteen opintoja pidetään yleisesti stressaavina. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitä asioita Helsingin Yliopiston hammaslääketieteen kliinisen vaiheen opiskelijat pitävät opinnoissaan suurimpina stressin aiheuttajina ja kuormittajina. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin laatimalla kyselylomake, joka jaettiin kaikille Helsingin yliopiston kliinisen vaiheen opiskelijoille. Useissa kansainvälisissä tutkimuksissa suurimmiksi stressinaiheuttajiksi hammaslääketieteen opinnoissa on todettu tentit, työmäärän aiheuttama paine, konfliktit opetushenkilökunnan tai laitoksen kanssa, vapaa-ajan puute ja opintosuoritteiden kerääminen. Osa näistä samoista stressinaiheuttajista osoittautui myös Helsingin hammaslääketieteen opiskelijoiden suurimmiksi stressin aiheuttajiksi. Helsingin yliopiston hammaslääketieteen opiskelijoiden keskuudessa suurimmaksi yksittäiseksi stressin aiheuttajaksi koettiin suoritteiden kerääminen. Tutkimuksesta saatuja tuloksia käytetään hyödyksi 3. vuosikurssin opiskelijoille laadittavaa Kandiopasta varten.
  • Heikkinen, Sanna; Miettinen, Joonas; Pukkala, Eero; Koskenvuo, Markku; Malila, Nea; Pitkaniemi, Janne (2017)
    Background: It has been suggested that long-term activation of the body's stress-response system and subsequent overexposure to stress hormones may be associated with increased morbidity. However, evidence on the impact of major life events on mortality from breast cancer (BC) remains inconclusive. The main aim of this study is to investigate whether major negatively or positively experienced life events before or after diagnosis have an effect on BC-specific mortality in women who have survived with BC for at least 2 years. Methods: We conducted a case fatality study with data on life events from a self-administered survey and data on BC from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Cox models were fitted to estimate BC mortality hazard ratios (MRs) between those who have undergone major life events and those who haven't. Results: None of the pre-diagnostic negative life events had any effect on BC-specific mortality. Regarding post-diagnostic events, the effect was greatest in women with moderate scores of events. As for event-specific scores, increased BC mortality was observed with spouse unemployment, relationship problems, and death of a close friend. By contrast, falling in love and positive developments in hobbies were shown to be associated with lower BC mortality (MRs 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49-0.92 and 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57-0.96, respectively). In an analysis restricted to recently diagnosed cases (2007), also death of a child and of a mother was associated with increased BC mortality. Conclusions: Some major life events regarding close personal relationships may play a role in BC-specific mortality, with certain negative life events increasing BC mortality and positive events decreasing it. The observed favorable associations between positive developments in romantic relationships and hobbies and BC mortality are likely to reflect the importance of social interaction and support. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Maatta, Suvi; Lehto, Reetta; Nislin, Mari; Ray, Carola; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Sajaniemi, Nina; Roos, Eva; DAGIS Res Grp (2015)
    Background: Effective interventions that target socioeconomic status (SES) differences to avoid the potential widening of inequalities in health are needed. Children at preschool age is a valuable intervention target since sedentary behaviors, physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and sleep habits, jointly called the energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), are established in early childhood and tend to persist later in life. The interventions are most effective, when they focus on evidence-based factors. One potential factor associated with EBRBs and SES is children's stress regulation, which receives special attention in this study. Based on the socioecological approach, the combinations of multiple levels (e.g. individual, environmental, societal) of analysis and diverse methodologies (e.g. surveys, observations, biological measurements) are used to assess the healthfulness of environments (e.g. social, physical, learning, policy) in preschool and family settings. The intervention aimed to diminish SES differences in EBRBs is then conducted in the preschool setting. Methods/design: The DAGIS study is divided into two phases. The first phase comprises focus group interviews and a cross-sectional survey. Parents and preschool personnel in low SES neighborhoods participated in interviews about children's sedentary behaviors, dietary behaviors, and PA in 2014. In the cross-sectional survey beginning in autumn 2015, preschools will be recruited from a random sample of preschools in 3-5 municipalities in Southern Finland. A total of 800 children will wear an accelerometer for seven days. Children's hair and saliva samples will be taken. Parents and preschool personnel will complete questionnaires on EBRBs, social and physical environments and SES factors. The quality of preschool environment is also observed. In the second phase, an intervention targeting to narrowing SES differences in EBRBs is conducted. The effects of the intervention will be evaluated in randomised controlled trial. The implementation of the intervention will also be evaluated. Conclusion: If effective, this unique preschool-based study will be able to narrow the SES differences in preschool children's EBRBs. This study is anticipated to identify the most important modifiable factors in preschool and family environmental settings associated with children's EBRBs, especially in children from low SES backgrounds.
  • Laaksonen, Sauli; Jokelainen, Pikka; Pusenius, Jyrki; Oksanen, Antti (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Slaughter reindeer are exposed to stress caused by gathering, handling, loading and unloading, and by conditions in vehicles during transport. These stress factors can lead to compromised welfare and trauma such as bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, and abnormal odour in carcasses, and causing condemnations in meat inspection and lower meat quality. We investigated the statistical association of slaughter transport distance with these indices using meat inspection data from years 2004–2016, including inspection of 669,738 reindeer originating from Finnish reindeer herding areas. Results Increased stress and decreased welfare of reindeer, as indicated by higher incidence of carcass condemnation due to bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, or abnormal odour, were positively associated with systems involving shorter transport distances to abattoirs. Significant differences in incidence of condemnations were also detected between abattoirs and reindeer herding cooperatives. Conclusions This study indicates that in particular the short-distance transports of reindeer merit more attention. While the results suggest that factors associated with long distance transport, such as driver education, truck design, veterinary supervision, and specialist equipment, may be favourable to reducing pre-slaughter stress in reindeer when compared with short distance transport systems, which occur in a variety of vehicle types and may be done by untrained handlers. Further work is required to elucidate the causal factors to the current results.