Browsing by Subject "Stroke"

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  • Öman, Olli; Mäkelä, Teemu; Salli, Eero; Savolainen, Sauli; Kangasniemi, Marko (Springer International Publishing, 2019)
    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of ischemic stroke detection from computed tomography angiography source images (CTA-SI) using three-dimensional convolutional neural networks. Methods CTA-SI of 60 patients with a suspected acute ischemic stroke of the middle cerebral artery were randomly selected for this study; 30 patients were used in the neural network training, and the subsequent testing was performed using the remaining 30 patients. The training and testing were based on manually segmented lesions. Cerebral hemispheric comparison CTA and non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) were studied as additional input features. Results All ischemic lesions in the testing data were correctly lateralized, and a high correspondence to manual segmentations was achieved. Patients with a diagnosed stroke had clinically relevant regions labeled infarcted with a 0.93 sensitivity and 0.82 specificity. The highest achieved voxel-wise area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93, and the highest Dice similarity coefficient was 0.61. When cerebral hemispheric comparison was used as an input feature, the algorithm performance improved. Only a slight effect was seen when NCCT was included. Conclusion The results support the hypothesis that an acute ischemic stroke lesion can be detected with 3D convolutional neural network-based software from CTA-SI. Utilizing information from the contralateral hemisphere appears to be beneficial for reducing false positive findings.
  • Heinonen, Tommi; Korvenoja, Antti; Pekkonen, Eero (2021)
    Alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (alpha-PVP) is a designer drug, the mechanism of action of which resembles that of cocaine and amphetamine. New data about the side effects of alpha-PVP are emerging. We present a case report of an acute ischemic stroke following the recreational use of alpha-PVP. The ischemic lesions were located in the middle cerebral artery and deep watershed areas of the left cerebral hemisphere. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy were initiated, and the patient was discharged with only a mild right hemiparesis.
  • Saviluoto, Anssi; Harve-Rytsälä, Heini; Lääperi, Mitja; Kirves, Hetti; Jantti, Helena; Nurmi, Jouni (2020)
    Background Identifying stroke and other intracranial lesions in patients with a decreased level of consciousness may be challenging in prehospital settings. Our objective was to investigate whether the combination of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and age could be used to identify intracranial lesions. Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study including patients with a decreased level of consciousness who had their airway secured during prehospital care. Patients with intracranial lesions were identified based on the final diagnoses at the end of hospitalization. We investigated the ability of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and age to identify intracranial lesions and derived a decision instrument. Results Of 425 patients, 127 had an intracranial lesion. Patients with a lesion were characterized by higher systolic blood pressure, lower heart rate and higher age (P <0.0001 for all). A systolic blood pressure >= 140 mmHg had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 7.0), and > 170 mmHg had an OR of 8.2 (95% CI 4.5-15.32) for an intracranial lesion (reference: <140 mmHg). A heart rate <100 beats/min had an OR of 3.4 (95% CI 2.0 to 6.0, reference: >= 100). Age 50-70 had an OR of 4.1 (95% CI 2.0 to 9.0), and > 70 years had an OR of 10.2 (95% CI 4.8 to 23.2), reference: <50. Logarithms of ORs were rounded to the nearest integer to create a score with 0-2 points for age and blood pressure and 0-1 for heart rate, with an increasing risk for an intracranial lesion with higher scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the instrument was 0.810 (95% CI 0.850-0.890). Conclusions An instrument combining systolic blood pressure, heart rate and age may help identify stroke and other intracranial lesions in patients with a decreased level of consciousness in prehospital settings.
  • Vanninen, Ritva; Putaala, Jukka; Bode, Michaela; Nyman, Mikko; Pekkola, Johanna; Manninen, Hannu (2016)
  • Mustanoja, Satu; Pekkola, Johanna (2016)
    Akuu­tin ai­vo­val­ti­mo­tu­kok­sen las­ki­mon­si­säis­tä liuo­tus­hoi­toa voi­daan an­taa nel­jän ja puo­len tun­nin ku­lues­sa oi­rei­den alus­ta. Hoi­to on aloi­tet­ta­va he­ti, kun vas­ta-ai­heet on pois­sul­jet­tu. Jos po­ti­laan ai­vo­ve­ren­kier­to­häi­riön oi­reet ovat vai­keat, ei suu­ren ai­vo­val­ti­mon tu­kok­sen las­ki­mon­si­säi­nen liuo­tus­hoi­to yleen­sä rii­tä. Sen li­säk­si har­ki­taan en­do­vas­ku­laa­ri­hoi­to­na lä­hin­nä me­kaa­nis­ta trom­bek­to­miaa kuu­den tun­nin ku­lues­sa. En­do­vas­ku­laa­ri­hoi­toa har­ki­taan myös sil­loin, kun las­ki­mon­si­säi­sel­le liuo­tus­hoi­dol­le on vas­ta-ai­he: INR-ar­vo yli 1,7 tai po­ti­las käyt­tää sään­nöl­li­ses­ti uut­ta ve­re­no­hen­nus­lää­ket­tä da­bi­gat­raa­nia, ri­va­rok­sa­baa­nia tai ­apik­sa­baa­nia. Pää­tös en­do­vas­ku­laa­ri­hoi­don aloit­ta­mi­ses­ta teh­dään ylio­pis­to­sai­raa­las­sa mo­niam­ma­til­li­ses­ti, ja toi­men­pi­teen ai­hees­ta päät­tää neu­ro­lo­gi yh­des­sä sen suo­rit­ta­van ra­dio­lo­gin kans­sa. Hoi­dos­ta on an­net­tu uu­si oh­jeis­tus, jo­ka kos­kee neu­ro­lo­gian päi­vys­tä­jien li­säk­si myös päi­vys­tyk­sen eri­koi­sa­laa, ku­ten kes­kus­sai­raa­la­ta­soi­sia päi­vys­tä­jiä. Päi­vys­tyk­sel­li­seen AVH-hoi­toon lä­het­tä­mi­sen kri­tee­rit säi­ly­vät en­nal­laan ja hoi­don va­lin­taan ote­taan kan­taa ylio­pis­to­sai­raa­loi­den päi­vys­tys­pis­teis­sä.
  • Pohjola, Anni; Lehto, Hanna; Hafez, Ahmad; Oulasvirta, Elias; Koroknay-Pál, Päivi; Laakso, Aki (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the posterior fossa are demanding lesions that often present with rupture. Studies including outcome analyses in surgically operated patients with ruptured infratentorial AVMs are scarce. Certain anatomic and demographic features have shown associations with postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Eighty-six patients with infratentorial AVM were collected from our AVM database. Fifty-four patients were admitted from 1990 onward, and their demographic, lesion, and treatment characteristics were analyzed. The cohort was further refined to 38 consecutive patients with surgically treated ruptured infratentorial AVM admitted to our center between 1990 and 2014, and statistical analyses of factors influencing outcomes were conducted. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (69%) had a favorable outcome at early follow-up and 24 (67%) had a favorable outcome at final follow-up. Factors associated with poor outcome in early recovery on univariate analyses were deep venous drainage of the lesion (odds ratio (OR 5.3; P = 0.037) and high Hunt & Hess score (P = 0.003). In the multivariate model, independent predictors for poor outcome were deep venous drainage (OR, 14.5; P = 0.010) and older age at admission (OR, 1.06; P = 0.028). The sole independent predictor for poor outcome at last follow-up was deep venous drainage (OR, 5.00; P = 0.046). The total follow-up time was 370 person-years. CONCLUSIONS: AVMs of the posterior fossa usually present with rupture and thus require prompt clinical treatment. The majority of surgically treated patients recover favorably. Our data show that venous drainage patterns have the greatest influence on the patient's postoperative condition. Other influencing factors include the severity of hemorrhage and patient age at admission.
  • Pekny, Milos; Wilhelmsson, Ulrika; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Pekna, Marcela (2019)
    Stroke is an acute insult to the central nervous system (CNS) that triggers a sequence of responses in the acute, subacute as well as later stages, with prominent involvement of astrocytes. Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis in the acute stage of stroke limit the tissue damage and contribute to the restoration of homeostasis. Astrocytes also control many aspects of neural plasticity that is the basis for functional recovery. Here, we discuss the concept of intermediate filaments (nanofilaments) and the complement system as two handles on the astrocyte responses to injury that both present attractive opportunities for novel treatment strategies modulating astrocyte functions and reactive gliosis.
  • Mäkelä, Teemu; Öman, Olli; Hokkinen, Lasse M I; Wilppu, Ulla; Salli, Eero; Savolainen, Sauli; Kangasniemi, Marko (2022)
    In stroke imaging, CT angiography (CTA) is used for detecting arterial occlusions. These images could also provide information on the extent of ischemia. The study aim was to develop and evaluate a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based algorithm for detecting and segmenting acute ischemic lesions from CTA images of patients with suspected middle cerebral artery stroke. These results were compared to volumes reported by widely used CT perfusion-based RAPID software (IschemaView). A 42-layer-deep CNN was trained on 50 CTA volumes with manually delineated targets. The lower bound for predicted lesion size to reliably discern stroke from false positives was estimated. The severity of false positives and false negatives was reviewed visually to assess the clinical applicability and to further guide the method development. The CNN model corresponded to the manual segmentations with voxel-wise sensitivity 0.54 (95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.63), precision 0.69 (0.60-0.76), and Sorensen-Dice coefficient 0.61 (0.52-0.67). Stroke/nonstroke differentiation accuracy 0.88 (0.81-0.94) was achieved when only considering the predicted lesion size (i.e., regardless of location). By visual estimation, 46% of cases showed some false findings, such as CNN highlighting chronic periventricular white matter changes or beam hardening artifacts, but only in 9% the errors were severe, translating to 0.91 accuracy. The CNN model had a moderately strong correlation to RAPID-reported T-max > 10 s volumes (Pearson's r = 0.76 (0.58-0.86)). The results suggest that detecting anterior circulation ischemic strokes from CTA using a CNN-based algorithm can be feasible when accompanied with physiological knowledge to rule out false positives.
  • Martiskainen, Mika; Oksala, Niku; Pohjasvaara, Tarja; Kaste, Markku; Oksala, Anni; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Erkinjuntti, Timo (2014)
  • Roine, Susanna; Pöyhönen, Minna; Baumann, Marc; Junna, Maija; Kalimo, Hannu; Miao, Qing; Mykkänen, Kati; Tikka, Saara; Tuisku, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti (2010)
  • Cadilhac, Dominique A.; Dewey, Helen M.; Denisenko, Sonia; Bladin, Christopher F.; Meretoja, Atte (2019)
    BackgroundHospital costs for stroke are increasing and variability in care quality creates inefficiencies. In 2007, the Victorian Government (Australia) employed clinical facilitators for three years in eight public hospitals to improve stroke care. Literature on the cost implications of such roles is rare. We report changes in the costs of acute stroke care following implementation of this program.MethodsObservational controlled before-and-after cohort design. Standardised hospital costing data were compared pre-program (financial year 2006-07) and post-program (2010-11) for all admitted episodes of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) using ICD-10 discharge codes. Costs in Australian dollars (AUD) were adjusted to a common year 2010. Generalised linear regression models were used for adjusted comparisons.ResultsA 20% increase in stroke and TIA episodes was observed: 2624 pre-program (age>75years: 53%) and 3142 post-program (age>75years: 51%); largely explained by more TIA admissions (up from 785 to 1072). Average length of stay reduced by 22% (pre-program 7.3days to post-program 5.7days, p
  • NAVIGATE ESUS Steering Comm (2018)
    Background: The New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial vs. ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE-ESUS) trial is a randomized phase-III trial comparing rivaroxaban versus aspirin in patients with recent ESUS. Aims: We aimed to describe the baseline characteristics of this large ESUS cohort to explore relationships among key subgroups. Methods: We enrolled 7213 patients at 459 sites in 31 countries. Prespecified subgroups for primary safety and efficacy analyses included age, sex, race, global region, stroke or transient ischemic attack prior to qualifying event, time to randomization, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Results: Mean age was 66.9 +/- 9.8 years; 24% were under 60 years. Older patients had more hypertension, coronary disease, and cancer. Strokes in older subjects were more frequently cortical and accompanied by radiographic evidence of prior infarction. Women comprised 38% of participants and were older than men. Patients from East Asia were oldest whereas those from Latin America were youngest. Patients in the Americas more frequently were on aspirin prior to the qualifying stroke. Acute cortical infarction was more common in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, whereas prior radiographic infarctions were most common in East Asia. Approximately forty-five percent of subjects were enrolled within 30 days of the qualifying stroke, with earliest enrollments in Asia and Eastern Europe. Conclusions: NAVIGATE-ESUS is the largest randomized trial comparing antithrombotic strategies for secondary stroke prevention in patients with ESUS. The study population encompasses a broad array of patients across multiple continents and these subgroups provide ample opportunities for future research.
  • Aikio, R.; Laaksonen, K.; Sairanen, A; Parkkonen, E.; Abou Elseoud, A.; Kujala, J.; Forss, N. (2021)
    In healthy subjects, motor cortex activity and electromyographic (EMG) signals from contracting contralateral muscle show coherence in the beta (15-30 Hz) range. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is considered a sign of functional coupling between muscle and brain. Based on prior studies, CMC is altered in stroke, but functional significance of this finding has remained unclear. Here, we examined CMC in acute stroke patients and correlated the results with clinical outcome measures and corticospinal tract (CST) integrity estimated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). During isometric contraction of the extensor carpi radialis muscle, EMG and magneto encephalographic oscillatory signals were recorded from 29 patients with paresis of the upper extremity due to ischemic stroke and 22 control subjects. CMC amplitudes and peak frequencies at 13-30 Hz were compared between the two groups. In the patients, the peak frequency in both the affected and the unaffected hemisphere was significantly (p < 0.01) lower and the strength of CMC was significantly (p < 0.05) weaker in the affected hemisphere compared to the control subjects. The strength of CMC in the patients correlated with the level of tactile sensitivity and clinical test results of hand function. In contrast, no correlation between measures of CST integrity and CMC was found. The results confirm the earlier findings that CMC is altered in acute stroke and demonstrate that CMC is bidirectional and not solely a measure of integrity of the efferent corticospinal tract.
  • Leo, Vera; Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Linnavalli, Tanja; Tervaniemi, Mari; Laine, Matti; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo (2019)
    Sung melody provides a mnemonic cue that can enhance the acquisition of novel verbal material in healthy subjects. Recent evidence suggests that also stroke patients, especially those with mild aphasia, can learn and recall novel narrative stories better when they are presented in sung than spoken format. Extending this finding, the present study explored the cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect by determining whether learning and recall of novel sung vs. spoken stories show a differential pattern of serial position effects (SPEs) and chunking effects in non-aphasic and aphasic stroke patients (N = 31) studied 6 months post-stroke. The structural neural correlates of these effects were also explored using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and deterministic tractography (DT) analyses of structural MRI data. Non-aphasic patients showed more stable recall with reduced SPEs in the sung than spoken task, which was coupled with greater volume and integrity (indicated by fractional anisotropy, FA) of the left arcuate fasciculus. In contrast, compared to non-aphasic patients, the aphasic patients showed a larger recency effect (better recall of the last vs. middle part of the story) and enhanced chunking (larger units of correctly recalled consecutive items) in the sung than spoken task. In aphasics, the enhanced chunking and better recall on the middle verse in the sung vs. spoken task correlated also with better ability to perceive emotional prosody in speech. Neurally, the sung > spoken recency effect in aphasic patients was coupled with greater grey matter volume in a bilateral network of temporal, frontal, and parietal regions and also greater volume of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). These results provide novel cognitive and neurobiological insight on how a repetitive sung melody can function as a verbal mnemonic aid after stroke.
  • Moliis, Henrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Background and purpose: Cognitive impairment is a common and well-known consequence of supratentorial infarct, but its prevalence and severity after infratentorial infarct is unclear. We compared the frequency and prognostic value of domain-specific cognitive deficits after supratentorial and infratentorial infarct. Methods: In a consecutive cohort of first-ever stroke patients (N=244) admitted to Helsinki University Hospital, 37 patients had an infratentorial infarct. Patients were assessed by a neuropsychologist 3 months post-stroke in 9 cognitive domains, and functional disability was assessed at 15 months. Frequencies of cognitive deficits were compared using the Pearson chi-square test. The association between cognitive deficits and functional disability at the 15-month follow-up was analysed using logistic regression. Results: There was no significant difference between the frequency of cognitive deficits in patients with infratentorial vs supratentorial infarct. Altogether 73% of patients with infratentorial infarct and 82.1% of patients with supratentorial infarct had impairment in at least one cognitive domain, and 42.3% in the infratentorial group and 47.3% in the supratentorial group had deficits in 3 or more cognitive domains. In the infratentorial group, only visuoconstructional and spatial functions showed at least a convincing trend of association with functional disability at 15 months (OR 9.0, 95%CI 1.3-62.5, p=0.027). In the supratentorial group, both executive functions and attention (OR 2,9, 95%CI 1.5-5.8, p=0.002) and visuoconstructional and spatial functions (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.5-5.7, p=0.001) showed this association. Conclusion: Cognitive deficits are as common in infratentorial as in supratentorial infarct, and it is important to recognize them to meet the needs of rehabilitation.
  • Sarkamo, Teppo (2018)
    Music has the capacity to engage auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional functions across cortical and subcortical brain regions and is relatively preserved in aging and dementia. Thus, music is a promising tool in the rehabilitation of aging-related neurological illnesses, such as stroke and Alzheimer disease. As the population ages and the incidence and prevalence of these illnesses rapidly increases, music-based interventions that are enjoyable and effective in the everyday care of the patients are needed. In addition to formal music therapy, musical leisure activities, such as music listening and singing, which patients can do on their own or with a caregiver, are a promising way to support psychological well-being during aging and in neurological rehabilitation. This review article provides an overview of current evidence on the cognitive, emotional, and neural effects of musical leisure activities both during normal aging and in the rehabilitation and care of stroke patients and people with dementia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Satopaa, Jarno; Mustanoja, Satu; Meretoja, Atte; Putaala, Jukka; Kaste, Markku; Niemela, Mika; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Strbian, Daniel (2017)
    Background and aims: We evaluated the accuracy of 19 published prognostic scores to find the best tool for predicting mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: A retrospective single-center analysis of consecutive patients with ICH (n = 1013). After excluding patients with missing data (n = 131), we analyzed 882 patients for 3-month (primary outcome), in-hospital, and 12-month mortality. We analyzed the strength of the individual score components and calculated the c-statistics, Youden index, sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value (NPV and PPV) for the scores. Finally, we included every score component in a multivariable model to analyze the maximum predictive value of the data elements combined. Results: Observed in-hospital mortality was 23.6%, 3-month mortality was 31.0%, and 12-month mortality was 35.3%. For in-hospital mortality, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) performed equally good as the best score for the other outcomes, the ICH Functional Outcome Score (ICH-FOS). The c-statistics of the scores varied from 0.6293 (95% CI 0.587-0.672) to 0.8802 (0.855-0.906). With all variables from all the scores in a multivariable regression model, the c-statistics did not improve, being 0.89 (0.867-0.913). Using the Youden index cutoff for the ICH-FOS score, the sensitivity (73%), specificity (90%), PPV (76%), and NPV (88%) for the primary outcome were good. Conclusions: A plethora of scores exists to help clinicians estimate the prognosis of an acute ICH patient. The NIHSS can be used to quantify the risk of in-hospital death while the ICH-FOS performed best for the other outcomes. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ahmed, Niaz; Audebert, Heinrich; Turc, Guillaume; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Christensen, Hanne; Sacco, Simona; Sandset, Else Charlotte; Ntaios, George; Charidimou, Andreas; Toni, Danilo; Pristipino, Christian; Koehrmann, Martin; Kuramatsu, Joji B.; Thomalla, Geotz; Mikulik, Robert; Ford, Gary A.; Marti-Fabregas, Joan; Fischer, Urs; Thoren, Magnus; Lundstrom, Erik; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; van der Worp, H. Bart; Matusevicius, Marius; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Milionis, Haralampos; Rubiera, Marta; Hart, Robert; Moreira, Tiago; Lantz, Maria; Sjostrand, Christina; Andersen, Grethe; Schellinger, Peter; Kostulas, Konstantinos; Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant; Keselman, Boris; Korompoki, Eleni; Purrucker, Jan; Khatri, Pooja; Whiteley, William; Berge, Eivind; Mazya, Michael; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Mustanoja, Satu; Rasmussen, Mads; Soderqvist, Asa Kuntze; Escudero-Martinez, Irene; Steiner, Thorsten (2019)
    The purpose of the European Stroke Organisation-Karolinska Stroke Update Conference is to provide updates on recent stroke therapy research and to give an opportunity for the participants to discuss how these results may be implemented into clinical routine. The meeting started 22 years ago as Karolinska Stroke Update, but since 2014 it is a joint conference with European Stroke Organisation. Importantly, it provides a platform for discussion on the European Stroke Organisation guidelines process and on recommendations to the European Stroke Organisation guidelines committee on specific topics. By this, it adds a direct influence from stroke professionals otherwise not involved in committees and work groups on the guideline procedure. The discussions at the conference may also inspire new guidelines when motivated. The topics raised at the meeting are selected by the scientific programme committee mainly based on recent important scientific publications. This year's European Stroke Organisation-Karolinska Stroke Update Meeting was held in Stockholm on 11-13 November 2018. There were 11 scientific sessions discussed in the meeting including two short sessions. Each session except the short sessions produced a consensus statement (Full version with background, issues, conclusions and references are published as web-material and at and ) and recommendations which were prepared by a writing committee consisting of session chair(s), scientific secretary and speakers. These statements were presented to the 250 participants of the meeting. In the open meeting, general participants commented on the consensus statement and recommendations and the final document were adjusted based on the discussion from the general participants Recommendations (grade of evidence) were graded according to the 1998 Karolinska Stroke Update meeting with regard to the strength of evidence. Grade A Evidence: Strong support from randomised controlled trials and statistical reviews (at least one randomised controlled trial plus one statistical review). Grade B Evidence: Support from randomised controlled trials and statistical reviews (one randomised controlled trial or one statistical review). Grade C Evidence: No reasonable support from randomised controlled trials, recommendations based on small randomised and/or non-randomised controlled trials evidence.
  • Penttilä, Tero; Lehto, Mika; Niiranen, Jussi; Mehtälä, Juha; Khanfir, Houssem; Lassila, Riitta; Raatikainen, Pekka (2019)
    Females with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been suggested to carry a higher risk for thromboembolic events than males. We compared the residual risk of stroke, bleeding events, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Data from several nationwide registries and laboratory databases were linked with the civil registration number of the patients. A total of 54568 patients with data on the quality of warfarin treatment (time in therapeutic range) 60days prior to the events were included (TTR60). Gender differences in the endpoints were reported for the whole population, pre-specified age groups, and different TTR60 groups. During the 3.21.6years follow-up, there were no differences in the adjusted risk of stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.911.03, P=0.304] between the genders. Cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.780.88, P <0.001) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.750.83, P <0.001) were lower in women when compared with men. There were no differences in the risk of stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality between the genders in the TTR60 categories except for those with TTR60 <50%. Bleeding events were less frequent in females (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.490.56, P <0.001). There were no differences in the risk of stroke between female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and risk of bleeding events were lower in females. Hence, female gender was not a risk marker for adverse outcomes in AF patients with proper warfarin therapy.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp (2018)
    Aims/hypothesisThe aim of this study was to assess the potential dose-dependent effects of smoking on the risk of CHD, heart failure and stroke in individuals with type 1 diabetes.MethodsThe study included 4506 individuals with type 1 diabetes who were participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) study. Intensity of smoking was estimated by packs per day and cumulative smoking by pack-years. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of incident CHD, heart failure or stroke during follow-up.ResultsOne pack per day significantly increased the risk of incident CHD in current smokers compared with never smokers (HR 1.45 [95% CI 1.15, 1.84]), after adjustment for age, sex, HbA(1c), hypertension, duration of diabetes and BMI. The risk of CHD in former smokers was similar to the risk in never smokers. The risk of incident heart failure was 1.43 (95% CI 1.03, 1.97) in current smokers per one pack per day and 1.37 (95% CI 1.05, 1.77) in former smokers, while the risk of incident stroke was 1.70 (95% CI 1.26, 2.29) and 1.49 (95% CI 1.14, 1.93), respectively. After further adjustments for lipids, however, the difference in the risk of heart failure in current and former smokers was no longer significant. Cumulative smoking data were similar to smoking intensity data.Conclusions/interpretationThere is a dose-dependent association between smoking and cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes. In men in particular, the risk of incident stroke remains high even after smoking cessation and is increased in current and former smokers independently of other risk factors.