Browsing by Subject "Structural MRI"

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  • Darki, Fahimeh; Massinen, Satu; Salmela, Elina; Matsson, Hans; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Klingberg, Torkel; Kere, Juha (2017)
    The axon guidance receptor, Robo1, controls the pathfinding of callosal axons in mice. To determine whether the orthologous ROBO1 gene is involved in callosal development also in humans, we studied polymorphisms in the ROBO1 gene and variation in the white matter structure in the corpus callosum using both structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. We found that five polymorphisms in the regulatory region of ROBO1 were associated with white matter density in the posterior part of the corpus callosum pathways. One of the polymorphisms, rs7631357, was also significantly associated with the probability of connections to the parietal cortical regions. Our results demonstrate that human ROBO1 may be involved in the regulation of the structure and connectivity of posterior part of corpus callosum.
  • Iso-Markku, Paula; Waller, Katja; Hautasaari, Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M.; Tarkka, Ina M. (2020)
    Regular physical activity (PA) offers positive effects on the human body. However, the effects of PA on cognition and in the brain are less clear. In this paper, we narratively review the relationship of PA with cognition and dementia, first from general perspective and then through genetically informed studies on the topic. Then we move on to imaging studies on exercise and brain anatomy first by presenting an overall picture of the topic and then discussing brain imaging studies addressing PA and brain structure in twins in more detailed way. Regarding PA and cognition or dementia, genetically informed studies are uncommon, even though the relationship between PA and cognitive ageing has been extensively studied. It is challenging to find twin pairs discordant for PA and dementia. Concerning brain imaging studies, among PA discordant young adult twin pairs, the more active co-twins showed larger gray matter volumes in striatal, prefrontal, and hippocampal regions and in electrophysiological studies automatic deviance-detection processes differed in brain regions involved with sensorimotor, visual and memory functions.