Browsing by Subject "Subarachnoid hemorrhage"

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  • Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Satila, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzen, Janek (2016)
    Nimodipine is an L-type calcium channel blocker and is used to treat vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its putative mechanism of action is relaxation of smooth muscle cells in cerebral arteries. In addition, nimodipine may have pleiotropic effects against vasospasm. Systemic hypotension is an adverse effect when patients are treated with oral or intravenous nimodipine. Intracranial administration of nimodipine formulations may produce higher concentration of nimodipine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than is possible to achieve orally or intravenously, while resulting in lower incidence of systemic hypotension. The aim of this study was to provide information on plasma and CSF levels of nimodipine in beagle dogs as a comparative data for development of experimental intracranial treatment modalities. Plasma levels of nimodipine were measured after current 30 and 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine (Nimotop(A (R)) 30 mg tablets), a single intravenous bolus 0.72 mg/dog of nimodipine (Nimotop(A (R)) 0.2 mg/ml infusion solution) and CSF levels after 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine. CSF/Plasma concentration ratio of nimodipine after oral administration of 60 mg at 1 h was 0.013 +/- A 0.0005. The mean terminal elimination half-life of nimodipine after i.v. bolus dose 0.72 mg was 1.8 h and mean plasma clearance was 40.3 and 3.4 l/h/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 22 %. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time of administration until the last measurable plasma concentration increased in a dose-proportional manner comparing the exposure parameters at oral doses of 30 and 60 mg. Individual variation in the kinetic profile of nimodipine was measured.
  • Lindbohm, Joni; Korja, Miikka; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko (2018)
    Background and aims: Studies report that both high and low total cholesterol (TC) elevates SAH risk. There are few prospective studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and apparently none concerns apolipoproteins A and B. We aimed to clarify the association between lipid profile and SAH risk. Methods: The National FINRISK study provided risk-factor data recorded at enrolment between 1972 and 2007. During 1.52 million person-years of follow-up until 2014, 543 individuals suffered from incident hospitalized SAH or outside-hospital-fatal SAH. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios and multiple imputation predicted ApoA1, ApoB, and LDL-C values for cohorts from a time before apolipoprotein-measurement methods were available. Results: One SD elevation (1.28 mmol/l) in TC elevated SAH risk in men (hazard ratio (HR) 1.15 (95% CIs 1.00-1.32)). Low HDL-C levels increased SAH risk, as each SD decrease (0.37 mmol/l) in HDL-C raised the risk in women (HR 1.29 (95% CIs 1.07-1.55)) and men (HR 1.20 (95% CIs 1.14-1.27)). Each SD increase (0.29 g/l) in ApoA1 decreased SAH risk in women (HR 0.85 (95% CIs 0.74-0.97)) and men (HR 0.88 (95% CIs 0.76-1.02)). LDL-C (SD 1.07 mmol/l) and ApoB (SD 0.28 g/l) elevated SAH risk in men with HR 1.15 (95% CIs 1.01-1.31) and HR 1.26 (95% CIs 1.10-1.44) per one SD increase. Age did not change these findings. Conclusions: An adverse lipid profile seems to elevate SAH risk similar to its effect in other cardiovascular diseases, especially in men. Whether SAH incidence diminishes with increasing statin use remains to be studied. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Lehikoinen, Rasmus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tausta: Subaraknoidaalivuoto (SAV) on akuutisti henkeäuhkaava tila, ja sen insidenssi on noin 9/100 000 henkilövuotta. SAV:n tärkeimmät riskitekijät ovat tupakointi, korkea verenpaine, alkoholin liikakäyttö ja naissukupuoli. SAV:n sairastaneilla ja siitä selvinneillä potilailla on aikaisemman tutkimustiedon valossa pitkässä seurannassa ylikuolleisuutta. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää laajemmin ylikuolleisuuden syitä. Menetelmät: Vertailimme keskenään vuosien 1996-2016 aneurysmaattisen SAV:n saaneiden potilaiden ja muun suomalaisen väestön kuolinsyitä ikä, sukupuoli, sairaanhoitopiiri ja ajanjakso vakioituna. Käytimme Tilastokeskuksen 54-luokkaista kuolemansyyluokitusta tarkentaen kuitenkin aivoverisuonitautien diagnooseja, jotta näiden syiden tarkempi analysointi olisi mahdollista. Tulokset: Kaikki aivoperäiset kuolemansyyt olivat yliedustettuina vertailuryhmään nähden: SAV:hen liittyvien ongelmien lisäksi nousivat siis esiin myös aivoinfarktit SMR (standardized mortality ratio, vakioitu kuolleisuussuhde) 2,19 (95%LV=1,57-2,97), spontaanit aivoverenvuodot SMR 4,42 (3,23-5,92) sekä näiden myöhäisvaikutukset. Aivoperäisten syiden osalta SMR pysyi merkitsevästi taustaväestöä suurempana koko seuranta-ajan. Ei-aivoperäisistä syistä ylikuolleisuutta aneurysmaattisen SAV:n sairastaneilla potilailla aiheuttivat kurkunpään, henkitorven ja keuhkon syöpä SMR 1,89 (1,43-2,44), dementia ja Alzheimerin tauti SMR 1,52 (1,16-1,96), iskeemiset sydäntaudit SMR 1,67 (1,43-1,94), muut paitsi reumaattiset ja alkoholiset sydäntaudit SMR 1,57 (1,03-2,28) sekä tapaturmat ja väkivalta SMR 1,39 (1,02-1,84). Pohdinta: Tutkimuksemme perusteella SAV on yhteydessä korkeampaan vaskulaarikuolleisuuteen. Erityisesti aivoverisuonien sairaudet ovat yliedustettuina, mutta myös muiden kardiovaskulaarisyiden rooli on selkeä. SAV:ta voitaneen siis pitää, ainakin osittain, merkkinä huonontuneesta verenkiertoelimistön tilasta, ja näiden potilaiden kohdalla tulisikin kiinnittää erityistä huomiota kardiovaskulaarisairauksien riskitekijöiden tehokkaaseen hallintaan.
  • Raj, R.; Bendel, S.; Reinikainen, M.; Hoppu, S.; Laitio, R.; Ala-Kokko, T.; Curtze, S.; Skrifvars, M. B. (2018)
    Background: Neurocritical illness is a growing healthcare problem with profound socioeconomic effects. We assessed differences in healthcare costs and long-term outcome for different forms of neurocritical illnesses treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We used the prospective Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database to identify all adult patients treated for traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at university hospital ICUs in Finland during 2003-2013. Outcome variables were one-year mortality and permanent disability. Total healthcare costs included the index university hospital costs, rehabilitation hospital costs and social security costs up to one year. All costs were converted to euros based on the 2013 currency rate. Results: In total 7044 patients were included (44% with TBI, 13% with ICH, 27% with SAH, 16% with AIS). In comparison to TBI, ICH was associated with the highest risk of death and permanent disability (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1-3.2 and OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1), followed by AIS (OR 1.9, 95% CI 15-23 and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8) and SAH (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1 and OR 0. 8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9), after adjusting for severity of illness. SAH was associated with the highest mean total costs ((sic)51,906) followed by ICH ((sic)47,661), TBI ((sic)43,916) and AIS ((sic)39222). Cost per independent survivor was lower for TBI ((sic)58,497) and SAH ((sic)96,369) compared to AIS ((sic)104,374) and ICH ((sic)178,071). Conclusion: Neurocritical illnesses are costly and resource-demanding diseases associated with poor outcomes. Intensive care of patients with TBI or SAH more commonly result in independent survivors and is associated with lower total treatments costs compared to ICH and AIS.
  • Imperial Coll Longon; Lindgren, Antti; Burt, Sarah; Turner, Ellie Bragan; Meretoja, Atte; Lee, Jin-Moo; Hemmen, Thomas M.; Alberts, Mark; Lemmens, Robin; Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E. (2019)
    Background Inverse association between hospital case-volume and case-fatality has been observed for various nonsurgical interventions and surgical procedures. Aims To study the impact of hospital case-volume on outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods We included aSAH patients who underwent aneurysm coiling or clipping from tertiary care medical centers across three continents using the Dr Foster Stroke GOAL database 2007-2014. Hospitals were categorized by annual case-volume (low volume: 70/year). Primary outcome was 14-day in-hospital case-fatality. We calculated proportions, and used multiple logistic regression to adjust for age, sex, differences in comorbidity or disease severity, aneurysm treatment modality, and hospital. Results We included 8525 patients (2363 treated in low volume hospitals, 3563 treated in intermediate volume hospitals, and 2599 in high-volume hospitals). Crude 14-day case-fatality for hospitals with low case-volume was 10.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.2-11.7%), for intermediate volume 7.0% (95% CI 6.2-7.9%; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.63 (95%CI 0.47-0.85)) and for high volume 5.4% (95% CI 4.6-6.3%; adjusted OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.74)). In patients with clipped aneurysms, adjusted OR for 14-day case-fatality was 0.46 (95% CI 0.30-0.71) for hospitals with intermediate case-volume and 0.42 (95% CI 0.25-0.72) with high case-volume. In patients with coiled aneurysms, adjusted OR was 0.77 (95% CI 0.55-1.07) for hospitals with intermediate case-volume and 0.56 (95% CI 0.36-0.87) with high case-volume. Conclusions Even within a subset of large, tertiary care centers, intermediate and high hospital case-volume is associated with lower case-fatality after aSAH regardless of treatment modality, supporting centralization to higher volume centers.
  • Kamarainen, Olli-Pekka; Huttunen, Jukka; Lindgren, Antti; Lang, Maarit; Bendel, Stepani; Uusaro, Ari; Parviainen, Ilkka; Koivisto, Timo; Isoniemi, Helena; Jääskeläinen, Juha E. (2018)
    To analyze the organ donation action in population-based neurointensive care of acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and to seek factors that would improve the identification of potential organ donors (PODs) and increase the donor conversion rate (DCR) after aSAH. The Kuopio Intracranial Aneurysm Database, prospective since 1995, includes all aSAH patients admitted to the Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) from its defined Eastern Finnish catchment population. We analyzed 769 consecutive acute aSAH patients from 2005 to 2015, including their data from the Finnish Transplantation Unit and the national clinical registries. We analyzed PODs vs. actual donors among the 145 (19%) aSAH patients who died within 14 days of admission. Finland had implemented the national presumed consent (opt-out) within the study period in the end of 2010. We retrospectively identified 83 (57%) PODs while only 49 (34%) had become actual donors (total DCR 59%); the causes for non-donorship were 15/34 (44%) refusals of consent, 18/34 (53%) medical contraindications for donation, and 1/34 (3%) failure of recognition. In 2005-2010, there were 11 refusals by near relatives with DCR 52% (29/56) and only three in 2011-2015 with DCR 74% (20/27). Severe condition on admission (Hunt and Hess grade IV or V) independently associated with the eventual POD status. Nearly 20% of all aSAH patients acutely admitted to neurointensive care from a defined catchment population died within 14 days, almost half from cardiopulmonary causes at a median age of 69 years. Of all aSAH patients, 11% were considered as potential organ donors (PODs). Donor conversion rate (DCR) was increased from 52 to 74% after the national presumed consent (opt-out). Implicitly, DCR among aSAH patients could be increased by admitting them to the intensive care regardless of dismal prognosis for the survival, along a dedicated organ donation program for the catchment population.
  • Luostarinen, Teemu; Virta, Jyri; Satopää, Jarno; Bäcklund, Minna; Kivisaari, Riku; Korja, Miikka; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    Background To ensure adequate intensive care unit (ICU) capacity for SARS-CoV-2 patients, elective neurosurgery and neurosurgical ICU capacity were reduced. Further, the Finnish government enforced strict restrictions to reduce the spread. Our objective was to assess changes in ICU admissions and prognosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods Retrospective review of all consecutive patients with TBI and aneurysmal SAH admitted to the neurosurgical ICU in Helsinki from January to May of 2019 and the same months of 2020. The pre-pandemic time was defined as weeks 1-11, and the pandemic time was defined as weeks 12-22. The number of admissions and standardized mortality rates (SMRs) were compared to assess the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on these. Standardized mortality rates were adjusted for case mix. Results Two hundred twenty-four patients were included (TBIn= 123, SAHn= 101). There were no notable differences in case mix between TBI and SAH patients admitted during the Covid-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic. No notable difference in TBI or SAH ICU admissions during the pandemic was noted in comparison with early 2020 or 2019. SMRs were no higher during the pandemic than before. Conclusion In the area of Helsinki, Finland, there were no changes in the number of ICU admissions or in prognosis of patients with TBI or SAH during the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Juvela, Seppo; Korja, Miikka (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies have suggested that aneurysm morphology is a risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether various morphological indices of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) predict a future rupture. METHODS: A total of 142 patients with UIAs diagnosed between 1956 and 1978 were followed prospectively until SAH, death, or the last contact. Morphological UIA indices from standard angiographic projections were measured at baseline and adjusted inmulti-variable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for established risk factors for SAH. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 3064 person-years, 34 patients suffered from an aneurysm rupture. In multivariable analyses, aneurysm volume, volume-to-ostium area ratio, and the bottleneck factor separately as continuous variables predicted aneurysm rupture. All the morphological indices were higher (P <.01) after the rupture than before. In final multivariable analyses, current smoking (adjusted hazard ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.03-6.10, P = .044), location in the anterior communicating artery (4.28, 1.38-13.28, P = .012), age (inversely; 0.95 per year, 0.91-1.00, P = .043), and UIA diameter >= 7 mm at baseline (2.68, 1.16-6.21, P = .021) were independent risk factors for a future rupture. Aneurysm growth during the follow-up was associated with smoking (P <.05) and SAH (P <.001), but not with the aneurysm indices. CONCLUSION: Of the morphological indices, UIA volume seems to predict a future rupture. However, as volume correlates with the maximum diameter of the aneurysm, it seems to add little to the predictive value of the maximum diameter. Retrospective studies using indices that are measured after rupture are of little value in risk prediction.
  • Robba, Chiara; Poole, Daniele; McNett, Molly; Asehnoune, Karim; Boesel, Julian; Bruder, Nicolas; Chieregato, Arturo; Cinotti, Raphael; Duranteau, Jacques; Einav, Sharon; Ercole, Ari; Ferguson, Niall; Guerin, Claude; Siempos, Ilias I.; Kurtz, Pedro; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Mancebo, Jordi; Mascia, Luciana; McCredie, Victoria; Nin, Nicolas; Oddo, Mauro; Pelosi, Paolo; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.; Neto, Ary Serpa; Seder, David B.; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Suarez, Jose I.; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Citerio, Giuseppe; Stevens, Robert D. (2020)
    Purpose To provide clinical practice recommendations and generate a research agenda on mechanical ventilation and respiratory support in patients with acute brain injury (ABI). Methods An international consensus panel was convened including 29 clinician-scientists in intensive care medicine with expertise in acute respiratory failure, neurointensive care, or both, and two non-voting methodologists. The panel was divided into seven subgroups, each addressing a predefined clinical practice domain relevant to patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with ABI, defined as acute traumatic brain or cerebrovascular injury. The panel conducted systematic searches and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method was used to evaluate evidence and formulate questions. A modified Delphi process was implemented with four rounds of voting in which panellists were asked to respond to questions (rounds 1-3) and then recommendation statements (final round). Strong recommendation, weak recommendation, or no recommendation were defined when > 85%, 75-85%, and <75% of panellists, respectively, agreed with a statement. Results The GRADE rating was low, very low, or absent across domains. The consensus produced 36 statements (19 strong recommendations, 6 weak recommendations, 11 no recommendation) regarding airway management, non-invasive respiratory support, strategies for mechanical ventilation, rescue interventions for respiratory failure, ventilator liberation, and tracheostomy in brain-injured patients. Several knowledge gaps were identified to inform future research efforts. Conclusions This consensus provides guidance for the care of patients admitted to the ICU with ABI. Evidence was generally insufficient or lacking, and research is needed to demonstrate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of different management approaches.
  • Schwartz, Christoph; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Hafez, Ahmad; Numminen, Jussi; Lehecka, Martin; Niemela, Mika (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Mirror distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms (DACAAs) are a rare finding in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, with only a few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 40-year-old man was admitted for sudden-onset headache, nausea and vomiting, and transient right arm hypoesthesia. Computed tomography scan showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage with intracerebral hemorrhage within the interhemispheric fissure, but computed tomography angiography failed to identify any aneurysms. Subsequent digital subtraction angiography with three-dimensional reconstructions revealed 1.5-mm-diameter mirror DACAAs on the A3 segments. However, the definite rupture site remained unidentifiable. After interdisciplinary consultation, endovascular treatment was favored, and complete occlusion of both DACAAs was achieved by coiling without stent placement. During coiling of the right DACAA, a thrombus in the right callosomarginal artery formed, and treatment with abciximab (ReoPro) was initiated to dissolve the thrombus. After treatment, the patient presented with right leg paresis; however, computed tomography did not show any ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage increase, or vasospasm. Over the following days, the leg paresis improved, and the patient achieved increased mobilization. He was transferred for further rehabilitation 16 days after hemorrhage. The leg paresis had recovered to a grade 3/5. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid identification of the rupture site in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple aneurysms is crucial for initiating optimal treatment. In patients with mirror aneurysms in close proximity to each other, this is not easily accomplished, complicating treatment decisions. Although clipping has been the standard for DACAA occlusion, coiling should be taken into consideration as a viable alternative.
  • Välimäki, Vilja; Luostarinen, Teemu; Satopää, Jarno; Raj, Rahul; Virta, Jyri J. (2021)
    Background The mean age of actively treated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients is increasing. We aimed to compare outcomes and prognostic factors between older and younger SAH patients. Methods A retrospective single-center analysis of aneurysmal SAH patients admitted to a neuro-ICU during 2014-2019. We defined older patients as >= 70 years and younger patients as
  • Rautalin, Ilari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korja, Miikka (2020)
    As the number of obese people is globally increasing, reports about the putative protective effect of obesity in life-threatening diseases, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), are gaining more interest. This theory-the obesity paradox-is challenging to study, and the impact of obesity has remained unclear in survival of several critical illnesses, including SAH. Thus, we performed a systematic review to clarify the relation of obesity and SAH mortality. Our study protocol included systematic literature search in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases, whereas risk-of-bias estimation and quality of each selected study were evaluated by the Critical Appraisal Skills Program and Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. A directional power analysis was performed to estimate sufficient sample size for significant results. From 176 reviewed studies, six fulfilled our eligibility criteria for qualitative analysis. One study found paradoxical effect (odds ratio, OR = 0.83 (0.74-0.92)) between morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 40) and in-hospital SAH mortality, and another study found the effect between continuously increasing BMI and both short-term (OR = 0.90 (0.82-0.99)) and long-term SAH mortalities (OR = 0.92 (0.85-0.98)). However, according to our quality assessment, methodological shortcomings expose all reviewed studies to a high-risk-of-bias. Even though two studies suggest that obesity may protect SAH patients from death in the acute phase, all reviewed studies suffered from methodological shortcomings that have been typical in the research field of obesity paradox. Therefore, no definite conclusions could be drawn.
  • Virta, Jyri J.; Satopää, Jarno; Luostarinen, Teemu; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    BACKGROUND: The number of elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) has increased. We aimed to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of such patients in a tertiary university hospital during a 5-year period. METHODS: A retrospective single-center analysis was performed of patients with aSAH >= 70 years old admitted to a tertiary neuro-ICU during January 2014-May 2019 based on medical records and computed tomography scans. The primary outcome was functional outcome at 12 months. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 1-3 and institutionalized). RESULTS: Of 117 included patients, 49% had a favorable outcome at 12 months, and mortality was 41%. In multivariable analysis, poor-grade aSAH and intraventricular hemorrhage were predictors of poor outcome (odds ratio, 4.7, 95% confidence interval, 1.7-12.5 and odds ratio, 2.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-7.2, respectively). None of the patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) motor score of 1-3 three days after admission was alive at 12 months. In contrast, 65% of those with a GCS motor score 6 had favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Half of elderly patients with aSAH admitted to a neuro-ICU were able to live at home after 12 months. Mortality was significant, but the number of severely disabled patients was low. Clinical status atadmission was the strongest predictor of outcome, whereas intraventricular hemorrhage increased the risk of poor outcome as well. GCS motor score 3 days after admission seemed to predict mortality and outcome.
  • Juvela, Seppo (2020)
    The purpose was to obtain a reliable scoring for growth of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in a long-term follow-up study from variables known at baseline and to compare it with the ELAPSS (Earlier subarachnoid hemorrhage, Location of the aneurysm, Age > 60 years, Population, Size of the aneurysm, and Shape of the aneurysm) score obtained from an individual-based meta-analysis. The series consists of 87 patients with 111 UIAs and 1669 person-years of follow-up between aneurysm size measurements (median follow-up time per patient 21.7, range 1.2 to 51.0 years). These were initially diagnosed between 1956 and 1978, when UIAs were not treated in our country. ELAPSS scores at baseline did not differ between those with and those without aneurysm growth. The area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating curve (ROC) of the ELAPSS score for predicting long-term growth was fail (0.474, 95% CI 0.345-0.603), and the optimal cut-off point was obtained at >= 7 vs. = 4 vs.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Colasanti, Roberto; Fotakopoulos, George; Elera-Florez, Humberto; Hernesniemi, Juha (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Treatment of multiple intracranial aneurysms is particularly demanding and even more so in a developing country where access to specialized centers may be prevented by different factors. METHODS: Single-stage surgical treatment of 7 cerebral aneurysms was performed in a 58-year-old woman from the northern Peruvian Andes. RESULTS: All 7 aneurysms were successfully and safely clipped through 2 lateral supraorbital craniotomies. The double clip technique was used in 3 aneurysms to prevent any residual aneurysmai neck. CONCLUSIONS: Good teamwork and correct application of microsurgical principles may allow effective treatment in complex neurosurgical cases even in resourcechallenged environments.
  • Achren, Alexander; Raj, Rahul; Siironen, Jari; Laakso, Aki; Marjamaa, Johan (2022)
    Background Spontaneous angiogram-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered a benign illness with little of the aneurysmal SAH-related complications. We describe the clinical course, SAH-related complications, and outcome of patients with angiogram-negative SAH. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all adult patients admitted to a neurosurgical intensive care unit during 2004-2018 due to spontaneous angiogram-negative SAH. Our primary outcome was a dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 3 months. We assessed factors that associated with outcome using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 108 patients included, 84% had a favorable outcome (GOS 4-5), and mortality was 5% within 1 year. The median age was 58 years, 51% were female, and 93% had a low-grade SAH (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grading I-III). The median number of angiograms performed per patient was two. Thirty percent of patients showed radiological signs of acute hydrocephalus, 28% were acutely treated with an external ventricular drain, 13% received active vasospasm treatment and 17% received a permanent shunt. In the multivariable logistic regression model, only acute hydrocephalus associated with unfavorable outcome (odds ratio = 4.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-15.73). Two patients had a new bleeding episode. Conclusion SAH-related complications such as hydrocephalus and vasospasm are common after angiogram-negative SAH. Still, most patients had a favorable outcome. Only acute hydrocephalus was associated with unfavorable outcome. The high rate of SAH-related complications highlights the need for neurosurgical care in these patients.
  • Humaloja, Jaana; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Raj, Rahul; Wilkman, Erika; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Bendel, Stepani; Reinikainen, Matti; Litonius, Erik (2021)
    Background In neurocritically ill patients, one early mechanism behind secondary brain injury is low systemic blood pressure resulting in inadequate cerebral perfusion and consequent hypoxia. Intuitively, higher partial pressures of arterial oxygen (PaO2) could be protective in case of inadequate cerebral circulation related to hemodynamic instability. Study purpose We examined whether the association between PaO2 and mortality is different in patients with low compared to normal and high mean arterial pressure (MAP) in patients after various types of brain injury. Methods We screened the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database for mechanically ventilated adult (>= 18) brain injury patients treated in several tertiary intensive care units (ICUs) between 2003 and 2013. Admission diagnoses included traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and acute ischemic stroke. The primary exposures of interest were PaO2 (recorded in connection with the lowest measured PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio) and the lowest MAP, recorded during the first 24 h in the ICU. PaO2 was grouped as follows: hypoxemia (<8.2 kPa, the lowest 10th percentile), normoxemia (8.2-18.3 kPa), and hyperoxemia (> 18.3 kPa, the highest 10th percentile), and MAP was divided into equally sized tertiles (<60, 60-68, and > 68 mmHg). The primary outcome was 1-year mortality. We tested the association between hyperoxemia, MAP, and mortality with a multivariable logistic regression model, including the PaO2, MAP, and interaction of PaO2*MAP, adjusting for age, admission diagnosis, premorbid physical performance, vasoactive use, intracranial pressure monitoring use, and disease severity. The relationship between predicted 1-year mortality and PaO2 was visualized with locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves (Loess) for different MAP levels. Results From a total of 8290 patients, 3912 (47%) were dead at 1 year. PaO2 was not an independent predictor of mortality: the odds ratio (OR) for hyperoxemia was 1.16 (95% CI 0.85-1.59) and for hypoxemia 1.24 (95% CI 0.96-1.61) compared to normoxemia. Higher MAP predicted lower mortality: OR for MAP 60-68 mmHg was 0.73 (95% CI 0.64-0.84) and for MAP > 68 mmHg 0.80 (95% CI 0.69-0.92) compared to MAP <60 mmHg. The interaction term PaO2*MAP was nonsignificant. In Loess visualization, the relationship between PaO2 and predicted mortality appeared similar in all MAP tertiles. Conclusions During the first 24 h of ICU treatment in mechanically ventilated brain injured patients, the association between PaO2 and mortality was not different in patients with low compared to normal MAP.
  • Raj, Rahul; Rautio, Riitta; Pekkola, Johanna; Rahi, Melissa; Sillanpää, Mikko; Numminen, Jussi (2019)
    BACKGROUND: The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device is a new treatment modality developed for broad-necked unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) but shows potential for the treatment of ruptured IAs as well. Our aim was to describe 6-month aneurysm obliteration rates, clinical outcomes, and procedure-related complications after WEB treatment for ruptured IAs from 2 academic centers. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study, including all consecutive patients treated with the WEB device (WEB single layer and single-layer sphere) for a ruptured IA causing acute subarachnoid hemorrhage between 2014 (start of use) and 2017. Primary outcome was angiographic aneurysm obliteration (Beaujon Occlusion Scale Score) rate. Secondary outcomes were early re-bleedings, complications, and patient outcome (death and modified Rankin Scale). RESULTS: A total of 33 patients with ruptured IAs were treated 0-4 days from IA rupture. Of 27 survivors, 6-month angiographic follow-up was available for 26 patients, of whom 81% showed complete occlusion. Of the 27 survivors, 24 patients (89%) had a favorable neurologic outcome at 6 months after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two aneurysms were retreated (8% of all). There was 1 fatal procedure-related complication. No early aneurysm re-bleedings were noted. CONCLUSIONS: For anatomically suitable ruptured IAs, WEB device treatment seems to be safe and results in acceptable occlusion rates. Still, larger studies with long-term results are needed before recommendations can be made.