Browsing by Subject "Substance use disorder"

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  • Levola, Jonna M.; Sailas, Eila S.; Saamanen, Timo S.; Turunen, Leena M.; Thomson, Annika C. (2019)
    Background: The focus of emergency room (ER) treatment is on acute medical crises, but frequent users of ER services often present with various needs. The objectives of this study were to obtain information on persistent frequent ER service users and to determine reasons for their ER service use. We also sought to determine whether psychiatric diagnoses or ongoing use of psychiatric or substance use disorder treatment services were associated with persistent frequent ER visits. Methods: A cohort (n = 138) of persistent frequent ER service users with a total of 2585 ER visits during a two-year-period was identified. A content analysis was performed for 10% of these visits. Register data including International Classification of Primary Care 2 (ICPC-2) -codes and diagnoses were analyzed and multivariable models were created in order to determine whether psychiatric diagnoses and psychosocial reasons for ER service use were associated with the number of ER visits after adjusting for covariates. Results: Patients who were younger, had a psychiatric diagnosis and engaged in ongoing psychiatric and other health services, had more ER visits than those who were not. Having a psychiatric diagnosis was associated with the frequency of ER visits in the multivariable models after adjusting for age, gender and ongoing use of psychiatric or substance use disorder treatment services. Reasons for ER-service use according to ICPC-2 -codes were inadequately documented. Conclusions: Patients with psychiatric diagnoses are overrepresented in this cohort of persistent frequent ER service users. More efficient treatments paths are needed for patients to have their medical needs met through regular appointments.
  • Laine, Riku; Myrskylä, Mikko; Kaskela, Teemu; Pitkänen, Tuuli (2022)
    Background The first few weeks’ post-imprisonment are associated with high mortality, particularly among individuals with a history of substance use. Excess risk may vary by societal context due to a range of penal systems and substance use patterns. Using data on Finnish individuals who had sought treatment for substance use, we studied the association between criminal sanctions with cause-specific mortality. Methods The database contained 10887 individuals who had sought treatment between 1990 and 2009. Their treatment data were combined with register data on imprisonments and community sanctions and weekly mortality between 1992 and 2015. Mortality was analysed using discrete-time survival models. We controlled for age and sociodemographic factors, and analysed whether education, type of substance used and the type of latest sentence modified the associations. Findings Mortality was high in the first two weeks after sanctions (all-cause odds ratio [OR] 2.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67-4.07; drug-related deaths OR 8.52, 95% CI 4.64-15.7). Excess risk declined over time (OR after 12 weeks: 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.31). Most of the excess risk was attributable to external causes. Mortality was low during imprisonment, but not during community sanctions. The patterns were similar by level of education, substance use and the type of latest sentence. Conclusions Community sanctions were not associated with mortality among people with substance use disorders. Mortality was low during imprisonment, but high post-release. Criminal sanctions should be better utilised as intervention touchpoints and follow-up resources should target prisoners with substance use treatment history to reduce post-release mortality.