Browsing by Subject "Suomalais-ugrilaiset kielet ja kulttuurit"

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  • Holopainen, Sampsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation discusses the Indo-Iranian loanwords in the Uralic languages. The loanwords that have been suggested in earlier research are critically analyzed and commented based on modern views of Uralic and Indo-Iranian historical phonology and etymology. The etymologies are analyzed on the basis of the general methods of loanword research: arguments of phonology, distribution and semantics are taken into account. In addition to the analyzis of older etymological proposals, also some new etymologies are presented. Also the research history of the topic is discussed. The aim of this study is to establish rules for the sound substitutions and bring new light to the relative chronology of the loanwords. Because the phoneme systems of Proto-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Iranian and later Iranian languages were very different from those of Proto-Uralic and its daughter languages, the phonemes of the Indo-Iranian donor languages have been substituted in various ways in the Uralic languages. Differences reflect both conditional developments (different substitutions in different environments) and chronological differences, and it is often difficult to distinguish between the two. Special attention is also paid to the distribution of loanwords and the use of distribution as a criterion in dating the loanwords. Contrary to views expressed in many earlier works, it is shown that the distribution is not a very good criterion, as the distribution of loanwords within the Uralic language family forms a rather complicated picture due to loss of words in some branches. A notable problem is the parallel borrowing of same Indo-Iranian words to various branches of the Uralic family. It is not always easy to distinguish the parallel borrowings from the earlier loanwords into the common proto-language, and in earlier research the parallel loans have not received enough attention, despite their key importance to the chronology of the loanwords. The results of this study reinforce the stratigraphy of Indo-Iranian loanwords (Pre-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Indo-Iranian, Proto-Iranian and later Iranian loanwords) that has been prevalent in recent decays. However, it is shown that many of the substitution rules are open to different interpretations and some words are difficult to assign to a certain loanword layer. A notable result of this study is also that many of the etymologies presented in earlier works are uncertain or unconvincing, and there are also cases in which some other archaic Indo-European source is more probable donor language than Indo-Iranian.
  • Kaheinen, Kaisla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Syventävien opintojen tutkielmassani tarkastelen uralilaiseen kielikuntaan kuuluvan, vakavasti uhanalaisen nganasanin kielen itsekorjausta vuorovaikutuslingvistisestä näkökulmasta. Tutkielmani on alustava katsaus itsekorjauksen morfosyntaktiseen jäsentymiseen sekä pragmaattisiin merkityksiin nganasaninkielisessä keskustelussa ja kerronnassa. Tutkielmassani selvitän, millaisia kieliopillisia resursseja nganasanin puhujat käyttävät oman puheensa korjaamiseen ja vuorovaikutuksen jatkuvuuden ylläpitämiseen, minkä lisäksi tarkastelen korjausten keskeisimpiä pragmaattisia funktioita eli sitä, millaisia asioita puhujat pitävät korjausta vaativina ja miksi. Tutkielman aineisto koostuu Hampurin yliopiston puhutun nganasanin korpuksen (Nganasan Spoken Language Corpus 0.2) kerrontaa ja keskustelua sisältävistä tallenteista sekä Suomen kielen nauhoitearkistossa säilytettävästä Jevgeni Helimskin vuonna 1996 videoimasta aineistosta. Olen poiminut aineistosta itsekorjauksen sisältävät katkelmat, joita analysoin vuorovaikutuslingvistisin menetelmin. Itsekorjauksella tarkoitan tässä yhteydessä tilannetta, jossa puhuja keskeyttää oman muotoutumassa olevan puheensa käsitelläkseen siinä havaitsemaansa ongelmaa. Tarkastelun lähtökohtana ovat siis vuorovaikutuslingvistisen näkökulman mukaisesti puhujien omat reaktiot omaan ja toisen puheeseen. Aineistossa esiintyvät korjaukset on mahdollista luokitella sen mukaan, käsittelevätkö puhujat edeltävässä puheessa esille tulleita vai vasta tulevaan puheeseen ennakoimiaan ongelmia. Tutkimuksen perusteella nganasanin puhujat käyttävät vuorovaikutuksen ongelmien korjaamiseen rakenteellisesti pitkälti samankaltaisia korjaustoimintoja kuin aiemmin tutkittujen kielten puhujat. Nganasanissa esiintyy kuitenkin joitakin suuresta osasta aiemmin tutkittuja kieliä puuttuvia korjauksen keinoja kuten sanahaun kohteena olevan verbin tai nominin morfologiset päätteet saava täytesana. Koodinvaihtoon ja puutteelliseen kompetenssiin liittyvien itsekorjausten runsaus puolestaan heijastelee puhujien kieliasenteita. Tutkielma osoittaa, että vertailevan pragmatiikantutkimuksen mahdollistaminen vaatii nykyistä suuremman ja typologisesti moninaisemman kielijoukon tarkastelua, jotta harvinaiset tai eurooppalaisille kielille epätyypilliset piirteet eivät jäisi huomaamatta. Vuorovaikutuslingvistinen tarkastelu antaa lisäksi mahdollisuuden seurata kieliasenteiden vaikutuksia ja tuottamista puheessa. Entistä kokonaisvaltaisemman tutkimuksen mahdollistamiseksi keskusteluaineistojen keräämiseen tulisi kiinnittää enemmän huomiota jo kieliä dokumentoitaessa.
  • Puura, Ulriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation consists of four articles and an introductory chapter that describes the background of the study and draws together the main results of the independent articles. The study focuses on the perceptions of speakers of the Veps language on the importance of the Veps language in identifying as a Veps. Veps is a severely endangered language spoken in North-Western Russia in three different administrative areas. Currently there are less than 3,500 mostly elderly bilingual speakers of Veps. Theoretically, this research falls under critical ethnographic sociolinguistics (e.g. Heller & Pietikäinen & Pujolar 2018). Not only does the study discuss the metalanguage of speaking Veps and being Veps, it also foregrounds language ideologies behind these discourses. The language ideologies in turn affect the expectations about language maintenance and revitalization. Further, reflections of bilingualism and language revitalization are analysed in conversational code-switchings of two speakers from the same family. The data consists of Veps speakers’ interviews from 2006‒2011 and of newspaper material from 1993‒2016 from the only Veps language paper Kodima. The interview data are drawn from two research projects, the ELDIA project and the project the Veps language community in the 21st century. The researcher’s field notes were used as ethnographic background data. The study suggests that although the Veps language has been revitalized and standardized since the turn of the 1990s, the discourses of a common Veps ethnic identity have not reached all the speakers. Language endangerment and shift as well as simultaneous language revitalization bring about partly conflicting ideologies and constructions of language and ethnicity. Two different communities are discerned in the data: traditional speakers living in bilingual Veps villages and Veps intelligentsia developing the Veps language in Petrozavodsk, Karelia. The concepts of mother tongue, speakerhood and language acquisition are constructed differently in the discourses of these two groups. In addition, the official representation of Veps space, spread through the main minority media, the Kodima newspaper, differs from the subjective space constructed by traditional Veps speakers living in the villages. The former locates the Veps mainly in the Republic of Karelia and as part of the (trans)national minority people category, whereas the villagers’ view on being Veps is based on locality. Language standardixation and the purist ideologies behind it are reflected in the level of idiolects, as the micro-study on code-switching reveals. The Veps do not have high expectations for intergeneral language transmission or Veps language education, but they do expect the language to be conserved by the small activist group through documentation and new language products.