Browsing by Subject "Surface forces"

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  • An, Junxue; Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Korchagina, Evgeniya; Winnik, Francoise M.; Claesson, Per M. (2017)
    Equilibration in adsorbing polymer systems can be very slow, leading to different physical properties at a given condition depending on the pathway that was used to reach this state. Here we explore this phenomenon using a diblock copolymer consisting of a cationic anchor block and a thermoresponsive block of poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline), PIPOZ. We find that at a given temperature different polymer chain densities at the silica surface are achieved depending on the previous temperature history. We explore how this affects surface and friction forces between such layers using the atomic force microscope colloidal probe technique. The surface forces are purely repulsive at temperatures
  • Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N.; Harjumäki, Riina; Zhang, Xue; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Österberg, Monika (2019)
    Biomaterials of different nature have been and are widely studied for various biomedical applications. In many cases, biomaterial assemblies are designed to mimic biological systems. Although biomaterials have been thoroughly characterized in many aspects, not much quantitative information on the molecular level interactions between different biomaterials is available. That information is very important, on the one hand, to understand the properties of biological systems and, on the other hand, to develop new composite biomaterials for special applications. This work presents a systematic, quantitative analysis of self- and cross-interactions between films of collagen I (Col I), collagen IV (Col IV), laminin (LN-521), and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), that is, biomaterials of different nature and structure that either exist in biological systems (e.g., extracellular matrices) or have shown potential for 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. Direct surface forces and adhesion between biomaterials-coated spherical micro-particles and flat substrates were measured in phosphate-buffered saline using an atomic force microscope and the colloidal probe technique. Different methods (Langmuir-Schaefer deposition, spin-coating, or adsorption) were applied to completely coat the flat substrates and the spherical micro particles with homogeneous biomaterial films. The adhesion between biomaterials films increased with the time that the films were kept in contact. The strongest adhesion was observed between Col IV films, and between Col IV and LN-521 films after 30 s contact time. In contrast, low adhesion was measured between CNF films, as well as between CNF and LN-521 films. Nevertheless, a good adhesion between CNF and collagen films (especially Col I) was observed. These results increase our understanding of the structure of biological systems and can support the design of new matrices or scaffolds where different biomaterials are combined for diverse biological or medical applications.
  • Lucenius, Jessica; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Parikka, Kirsti; Österberg, Monika (2019)
    Plant-based polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose) are a very interesting option for the preparation of sustainable composite materials to replace fossil plastics, but the optimum bonding mechanism between the hard and soft components is still not well known. In this work, composite films made of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and various modified and unmodified polysaccharides (galactoglucomannan, GGM; hydrolyzed and oxidized guar gum, GGhydHox; and guar gum grafted with polyethylene glycol, GG-g-PEG) were characterized from the nano- to macroscopic level to better understand how the interactions between the composite components at nano/microscale affect macroscopic mechanical properties, like toughness and strength. All the polysaccharides studied adsorbed well on CNF, although with different adsorption rates, as measured by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Direct surface and friction force experiments using the colloidal probe technique revealed that the adsorbed polysaccharides provided repulsive forces–well described by a polyelectrolyte brush model – and a moderate reduction in friction between cellulose surfaces, which may prevent CNF aggregates during composite formation and, consequently, enhance the strength of dry films. High affinity for cellulose and moderate hydration were found to be important requirements for polysaccharides to improve the mechanical properties of CNF-based composites in wet conditions. The results of this work provide fundamental information on hemicellulose-cellulose interactions and can support the development of polysaccharide-based materials for different packaging and medical applications.