Browsing by Subject "Surface roughness"

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  • Arriga, Nicola; Rannik, Ullar; Aubinet, Marc; Carrara, Arnaud; Vesala, Timo; Papale, Dario (2017)
    Footprint models, which simulate source area for scalar fluxes, are fundamental tools for a correct interpretation of micromoeteorological flux measurements and ecosystem exchange inferred from such data. Over the last two decades models of varying complexity have been developed, but all of them suffer from a significant lack of experimental validation. In this study two different experimental tests have been conducted with the aim of offering validation: a manipulation of the vegetation cover and an artificial tracer emission. In the first case the extension of the flux source has been changed progressively by successive cuts of vegetation, while in the second case by varying the distance of a tracer emission line respect to the measurement point. Results have been used to validate two analytical and a numerical footprint models. The experimental data show a good agreement with footprint models and indicate a limited extension of the flux source area, with approximately 75% of the sources confined within a range of 10-20 times the effective measurement height, i.e. the measurement height above the zero plane displacement. Another interesting result was the strong dependence on the surface roughness of both experimental estimates and numerical simulations of footprint. The effect of surface roughness on experimental results and models outputs was comparable to the effect of atmospheric stability. This indicates that surface roughness and turbulence conditions may play a significant role in source area location, in particular above inhomogeneous surfaces with change in roughness, as in the case of the manipulation experiment. Consequently a careful site specific quantification of these parameters seems to be fundamental to obtain realistic footprint estimates and significantly improve eddy covariance flux interpretation at complex sites.
  • Forsman, Nina; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koivula, Hanna; Tuure, Matilda; Kääriäinen, Pirjo; Österberg, Monika (2020)
    Environmental benign cellulosic textiles are hampered by their tendency to absorb water, which restricts their use in functional clothing. Herein we describe a method to functionalize textile surfaces using thin, open coatings based on natural wax particles and natural polymers rendering cellulosic fabrics water-repellent while retaining their feel and breathability. The impact of curing temperature, cationic polymer and fabric properties on wetting and long-term water-repellency were studied using contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The wetting properties were correlated to roughness of the textiles using white light interferometer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the surface chemical composition, leading to fundamental understanding of the effect of annealing on the wax layer. Breathability was evaluated by water vapor permeability. The optimal curing temperature was 70 °C. The developed coating performed well on different natural textiles, and better than commercial alternatives. A set of garment prototypes were produced using the coating.
  • Karme, Aleksis; Kallonen, Aki; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti (2015)
    Laser additive manufacturing is an established and constantly developing technique. Structural assessment should be a key component to ensure directed evolution towards higher level of manufacturing. The macroscopic properties of metallic structures are determined by their internal microscopic features, which are difficult to assess using conventional surface measuring methodologies. X-ray microtomography (CT) is a promising technique for three-dimensional non-destructive probing of internal composition and build of various materials. Aim of this study is to define the possibilities of using CT scanning as quality control method in LAM fabricated parts. Since the parts fabricated with LAM are very often used in high quality and accuracy demanding applications in various industries such as medical and aerospace, it is important to be able to define the accuracy of the build parts. The tubular stainless steel test specimens were 3D modelled, manufactured with a modified research AM equipment and imaged after manufacturing with a high-power, high-resolution CT scanner. 3D properties, such as surface texture and the amount and distribution of internal pores, were also evaluated in this study. Surface roughness was higher on the interior wall of the tube, and deviation from the model was systematically directed towards the central axis. Pore distribution showed clear organization and divided into two populations; one following the polygon model seams along both rims, and the other being associated with the concentric and equidistant movement path of the laser. Assessment of samples can enhance the fabrication by guiding the improvement of both modelling and manufacturing process.