Browsing by Subject "Sustainability"

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  • Härkönen, S.; Neumann, M.; Mues, V.; Berninger, F.; Bronisz, K.; Cardellini, G.; Chirici, G.; Hasenauer, H.; Koehl, M.; Lang, M.; Merganicova, K.; Mohren, F.; Moiseyev, A.; Moreno, A.; Mura, M.; Muys, B.; Olschofsky, K.; Del Perugia, B.; Rorstad, P. K.; Solberg, B.; Thivolle-Cazat, A.; Trotsiuk, V.; Mäkelä, A. (2019)
    FORMIT-M is a widely applicable, open-access, simple and flexible, climate-sensitive forest management simulator requiring only standard forest inventory data as input. It combines a process-based carbon balance approach with a strong inventory-based empirical component. The model has been linked to the global forest sector model EFI-GTM to secure consistency between timber cutting and demand, although prescribed harvest scenarios can also be used. Here we introduce the structure of the model and demonstrate its use with example simulations until the end of the 21st century in Europe, comparing different management scenarios in different regions under climate change. The model was consistent with country-level statistics of growing stock volumes (R-2=0.938) and its projections of climate impact on growth agreed with other studies. The management changes had a greater impact on growing stocks, harvest potential and carbon balance than projected climate change, at least in the absence of increased disturbance rates.
  • Jenkins, Jamie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Arctic environment is unique and hosts many economic opportunities. The environment is fragile and is home to many different animals, plants and indigenous people. The area has undergone periods of remilitarisation since the end of the cold war, and this is impacting local communities economically, environmentally and their social development. This research has been undertaken to assess the impact that military activity is having on these local communities. A literature review was undertaken in 3 key areas: Arctic sustainability, military sustainability and Arctic militarisation to identify relevant indicators that impact sustainable development. Sustainable development was defined using the 3 pillars from the Brundtland report, as economic, environmental and social. These indicators were collated to create a conceptual framework that was used to analyse two case study cities in the Arctic. These two cities were Fairbanks, in Alaska, and Severomorsk in Russia. These were chosen as economically and socially, they are very different, but they share the main similarity of being militarised Arctic cities. This meant the framework was tested on two different cities and in two different environments to test the validity and usefulness. The two case studies were built from reports, census information, statistical information and government reports. Although quantification was outside the scope of this research, observations were found from the data. Economically, the impact is positive. Military activity generates jobs, growth, infrastructure and military spending. The environmental impact is clearly negative. Military activity contaminates groundwater, soil, water and the local environment. The social impact is more ambiguous. Military activity helps foster community development but can impact personnel health. A discussion was undertaken on the effectiveness of the framework and improvement areas. The framework provided a good overall picture of activity but could be improved in some areas. These areas include reducing subjectivity in the construction phase, improved environmental data and time series data. The research was limited by time constraints and data availability in some impact areas.
  • Jonsson, Ragnar; Rinaldi, Francesca; Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Hurmekoski, Elias; Cazzaniga, Noemi; Robert, Nicolas; Camia, Andrea (2021)
    This study adds to the scientific literature dealing with the climate change mitigation implications of wood substitution. Its main scientific contribution rests with the modelling approach. By fully integrating forest resource and wood-product markets modelling in quantitative scenario analysis, we account for international trade in wood products as well as impacts on EU forests and forest-based sector employment of an increased EU uptake of wood-based construction and/or biochemicals and biofuels. Our results confirm the crucial role of the sawmilling industry in the forest-based bioeconomy. Thus, boosting wood-based construction in the EU would be most effective in increasing EU production and employment—in logging and solid wood-products manufacturing, but also in sectors using sawmilling byproducts as feedstock. Vertical integration in wood-based biorefineries should thus be advantageous. The positive EU climate-change mitigation effects of increased carbon storage in harvested wood products (HWP) and material substitution from increased wood construction are more than offset by reduced net forests carbon sinks by 2030, due to increased EU harvests. Further, increased EU imports, resulting in lower consumption of sawnwood outside the EU, would reduce extra-EU long-life HWP carbon storage and substitution of GHG-intensive materials, highlighting the need for concerted international climate change mitigation
  • Viholainen, Noora; Kylkilahti, Eliisa; Autio, Minna; Pöyhönen, Juho; Toppinen, Anne (2021)
    Lowering environmental impacts by material choices is proposed as a way to promote urban sustain ability transition, and one solution is building more wooden multi-storey constructions (WMCs). In the construction industry, however, there is a strong path dependency towards applying well-established construction materials and methods, as well as partnerships. To gain understanding of network-based collaboration, learning and end-user involvement in novel wooden construction business, the study uses qualitative methods and employs business ecosystem approach in the analysis. The studied WMC business case revealed that barriers of collaborative business ecosystem development include both the lack of clarity in the shared goals between actors and weak end-user involvement. Moreover, neither companies nor end-users fully recognize sustainability aspects around WMC. Enabling factors such as smooth communication and building trust among business actors during planning and building were recognised. The study suggests that a broader business ecosystem approach, including the living and use of the building, offers a mindset shift for developing sustainability-driven logic alongside profitable construction business and creating value for consumers. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Fukushima, Caroline S.; Tricorache, Patricia; Toomes, Adam; Stringham, Oliver C.; Rivera-Téllez, Emmanuel; Ripple, William J.; Peters, Gretchen; Orenstein, Ronald I.; Morcatty, Thais Q.; Longhorn, Stuart J.; Lee, Chien; Kumschick, Sabrina; de Freitas, Marco Antonio; Duffy, Rosaleen V.; Davies, Alisa; Cheung, Hubert; Cheyne, Susan M.; Bouhuys, Jamie; Barreiros, João P.; Amponsah-Mensah, Kofi; Cardoso, Pedro (2021)
    Illegal or unsustainable wildlife trade (IUWT) currently presents one of the most high-profile conservation challenges. There is no “one-size-fits-all” strategy, and a variety of disciplines and actors are needed for any counteractive approach to work effectively. Here, we detail common challenges faced when tackling IUWT, and we describe some available tools and technologies to curb and track IUWT (e.g. bans, quotas, protected areas, certification, captive-breeding and propagation, education and awareness). We discuss gaps to be filled in regulation, enforcement, engagement and knowledge about wildlife trade, and propose practical solutions to regulate and curb IUWT, paving the road for immediate action.
  • Isoaho, K.; Burgas, D.; Janasik, N.; Mönkkönen, M.; Peura, Maiju; Hukkinen, J. (2019)
    This paper explores whether the perceptions of forest owners and professionals could be nudged towards more sustainable management practices by adjusting a policy text's metaphorical content. Recent research has demonstrated a link between information interventions and preference change, but there is a need to further explore individuals' reactions to information on forest-based ecosystem services and to link these to the design of policy instruments. We contribute to narrowing this gap by nudging the content of a policy text comparing rotation forest management (RFM) and continuous cover forestry (CCF), and exposing it to forest stakeholders. The research is carried out in Finland, the so-called 'forest nation' of Europe, whose economy and culture is closely tied to forests. The results highlight a deep-rooted opinion divide between Finnish forest owners and professionals: the professionals reacted significantly more negatively towards policy text emphasising continuous cover practice than forest owners. Our results support the use of linguistic nudging as a complement to other policy instruments, but they also highlight the challenges of using one-fits-all approaches to make policies more palatable. In our study, the stakeholders' different reaction to nudge was also explained by their age, and type and degree of prior knowledge on forest management.
  • Repo, Petteri; Matschoss, Kaisa (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2018)
    Abstract In recent years, citizen involvement has been increasingly recognised as a source of complementary insights to expert-based foresight. This article analyses citizen visions on desirable and sustainable futures gathered in three recent European involvement projects and reviews how the methodology of topic modelling can be applied to identify commonalities in the visions and how the identified topics are distributed across the citizen involvement projects. A common topic addressing a European citizen desire for wide-ranging societal development with an emphasis on education was identified in the modelling. In addition, three specific topics that correspond to the foci of each involvement project were evident: ‘local production’, ‘cultural variety’ and ‘concerned collectives’. Hence, the results indicate that there are further opportunities for further citizen involvement activities and that specifically focused open-ended envisioning events can contribute to unique sets of citizen-induced topics for the future. These results are particularly useful for the institutionalisation of citizen involvement in foresight studies.
  • Matschoss, Kaisa; Pietilä, Maria; Rask, Mikko; Suni, Tanja (2020)
    Co-creation principles have become prominent in the scientific disciplines that aim to respond to global sustainability challenges especially in the global south. This paper analyses a co-creation pilot of global change research in the novel context of a Nordic country, Finland. The pilot was organised to learn how to create a future agenda for a complex and transdisciplinary research field of global change. This paper analyses its conceptualisation in Finland, how did the series of engagement events increase the capacities of participants and how did the process contribute to a change towards a new, societally responsible way of co-creating global change research. The study found that co-creation suits well for the translation of important societal questions into global research agendas and for networking actors to cocreation activities. Based on the study, we argue that co-creation offers a socially acceptable approach to address socially critical topics to design transdisciplinary social and sustainability research.
  • Mähönen, Jukka Tapio (2020)
    Corporate reporting and governance are interlinked: Accounting and reporting inventions created the modern company, and without the modern company there is no entity from which to report. Due to its raison d’etre, reporting remained finance-centered, to protect financial capital providers. From the 1970’s, the question of the interests of ‘stakeholders’ emerged, with attempts of ‘social reporting’, ‘corporate social responsibility’, ‘environmental’, and ‘social and environmental’ and finally ‘integrated’ accounting and reporting. These trends are reflected also in the European Union legal framework, both in regulation of especially financial intermediaries and the ‘non-financial’ reporting. This article is based on an extensive literature review, research conducted in the Sustainable Market Actors for Responsible Trade (SMART) project, and socio-legal and economic empirical research based conceptual analysis of the impact of these reporting systems and their relationship to financial accounting and reporting. The result of the research is that sustainability is reduced to focus on institutional investors and other members in the investment supply chain, and climate change issues only, and new regulatory solutions are required. Based on the most recent developments in EU law and in European jurisdictions, possible paths forward are envisaged to encourage sustainability in reporting and assurance, and through that, in governance. As an outcome a set of regulatory reform proposals are given based on the SMART recommendations.
  • Kazerani Garcia, Afsane Aurora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and erosive, unsustainable industrial fat-production methods pose two of the biggest threats to human health in great part of our planet. CVDs and obesity have been linked to diets high in fat and low in dietary fibre, pushing food manufacturers to adapt to more sustainable ingredients. For this reason, this research developed and researched about a new and sustainable plant-based oleogel intended to act as a substitute for saturated and hydrogenated fats. Its characterization was conducted through several techniques, including optical and field emission electron scanning microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. The results showed that the build-up of the formation of the new oleogel was possible, while ensuring that both processing requirements and ingredients are readily available at food manufacturing plants, globally. These findings pose a great opportunity for plant-based fat-replacement formulations, through a sustainable approach. Considering previous studies, this novel system could potentially help in reducing the burden of obesity and CVDs, turning it into a functional food component. Further research on food applications and digestibility models could give more insight on the future applications of this fat-replacement system.
  • La Notte, Alessandra; D'amato, Dalia; Mäkinen, Hanna; Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Liquete, Camino; Egoh, Benis; Geneletti, Davide; Crossman, Neville (2017)
    Ecosystem services research faces several challenges stemming from the plurality of interpretations of classifications and terminologies. In this paper we identify two main challenges with current ecosystem services classification systems: i) the inconsistency across concepts, terminology and definitions, and; ii) the mix up of processes and end-state benefits, or flows and assets. Although different ecosystem service definitions and interpretations can be valuable for enriching the research landscape, it is necessary to address the existing ambiguity to improve comparability among ecosystem-service-based approaches. Using the cascade framework as a reference, and Systems Ecology as a theoretical underpinning, we aim to address the ambiguity across typologies. The cascade framework links ecological processes with elements of human well-being following a pattern similar to a production chain. Systems Ecology is a long-established discipline which provides insight into complex relationships between people and the environment. We present a refreshed conceptualization of ecosystem services which can support ecosystem service assessment techniques and measurement. We combine the notions of biomass, information and interaction from system ecology, with the ecosystem services conceptualization to improve definitions and clarify terminology. We argue that ecosystem services should be defined as the interactions (i.e. processes) of the ecosystem that produce a change in human well-being, while ecosystem components or goods, i.e. countable as biomass units, are only proxies in the assessment of such changes. Furthermore, Systems Ecology can support a re-interpretation of the ecosystem services conceptualization and related applied research, where more emphasis is needed on the underpinning complexity of the ecological system.
  • Green, Jennifer; Weck, Oliver; Suarez, Pablo (2013)
    Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management
  • Salmivaara, Laura; Lombardini (former Lombardini-Riipinen), Chiara; Lankoski, Leena (2021)
    This study examines the relative importance of social norms among other motives in driving sustainable food choice. It distinguishes between injunctive and descriptive social norms, as well as between reported actual choice and intended future choice. The study uses binary logistic regression models and survey data (N =348) from five workplace restaurants in Helsinki, Finland where a novel, local and environmentally friendly dish, roach fish patties, was being launched. Workplace restaurants account for a significant share of food con-sumption in Finland and are a relevant context for investigating the impact of social norms as the food choice is highly observable. The study reveals that perceived descriptive norms are significantly associated with both actual and intended food choice while perceived injunctive social norms are not related to either. It also finds that in the case of actual choice, the impact of perceived descriptive norms is weaker compared to that of other motives, such as habit, visual appeal, value for money, and ability to satiate hunger. In the case of intended choice, only taste has a stronger impact than the descriptive norm. Further, the analysis situates the motives for food choice in the larger theoretical discussion of System 1 and 2 decision processes and of the impact of visceral factors on food choice, and finds that visceral-factor-related motives have a stronger impact on actual choice than on intended choice. The study shows how the role of social norms in sustainable food choice is more nuanced than presented in previous literature. It concludes that there can be scope for steering food choice towards greater sustainability through a skilled mobilization of descriptive norms.
  • Häyrinen, Liina Elli Elina; Mattila, Osmo Pekka Antero; Berghäll, Sami Alvar; Närhi, Markus Kristian; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina (2017)
    The transformation of the forest sector toward a bioeconomy calls for finding new sources of competitive advantage for the whole sector to retain its future viability. Non-industrial private forest owners are an important group of actors in the Finnish forest-based sector, as they supply 80% of industrial roundwood and control numerous other tangible and intangible forest-based ecosystem services. Our study analyzes forest owner views on the future use of forests in Finland, their perceptions on the evolving sectorial interlinkages and the position of the forest sector now and in the future bioeconomy. The data were collected in two phases: through telephone interviews of forest owners (n=278) and four focus group (FG) discussions (n=17), and were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The interviews showed that forest owners consider the highest potential for strengthening the sector toward bioeconomy to come from collaboration with energy and construction businesses. During the FG phase, we identified new possibilities founded on forest-based recreational services, cooperation with nature-based tourism and in increasing value-added wood products. In total, forest owners as a high-involvement group emphasized future value creation to be based upon forest ecosystem services and in diversifying the utilization of forests beyond the dominant raw material-driven mindset.
  • Nordman, Jenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis examines actual and potential human rights impacts of fashion industry. The main approach on subject is from the viewpoint of business and human rights, but corporate social responsibility and sustainability are utilised and discussed as well. Fashion industry in the thesis is defined in an encompassing manner, including productions, marketing and retailing of clothes, footwear, accessories, and cosmetics. Fashion industry is the second largest sector of industry in the world. Many different areas of human rights, recognised in international human rights instruments, are impacted directly and indirectly through actions and functions of fashion industry. ‘Race to the bottom’ and fast fashion phenomenon have pushed down the prices and quality of fashion merchandise during the past decades. Fashion industry is labour-intensive and low prices are often the result of poor working conditions and remunerations that are significantly below living wages. Child labour, forced labour, dangerous working conditions and lack of unionisation are common and result to widespread egregious human rights violations in the manufacturing and production of the raw materials in fashion industry. Industry’s use of natural resources is often reckless and wasteful, and overproduction has resulted to discarding and destroying large quantities of unsold merchandise. More direct human rights impacts, relating to fashion industry and environment, can occur through use and disposal of chemicals and dyes in the manufacturing processes that can have an affect on the living standards and health of the surrounding communities. Different forms of discrimination have been commonly manifested within the industry. There have been numerous lawsuits on discrimination and harassment in workplaces in fashion industry. Statistics, as well as researches based on interviews, show diversity to be realised poorly in the fashion business. Portraying harmful and offensive stereotypes in marketing practices and advertisement reflects problems of discrimination that are deep rooted in the company cultures of the industry and portrays lack of awareness on the issue. Right to property is often infringed in the fashion industry, since copying designs is a common custom. Most well-known cases are between major fashion labels, but in this work, the focus is on rights of small designers and on cultural property of distinct culturally unified groups of people. Taking intellectual property without permission from independent designer can potentially infringe their right to property as well standard of living and using cultural property of a distinct community can be an offensive on the group’s dignity, beliefs and traditions as well as infringement on their economic rights. In this thesis these issues are approached with a somewhat holistic manner. The main tool is the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and a loose template of human rights impact assessment, based on the principles, but issues are processed from multiple focus points. There are currently various voluntary models for responsible business practices as well as national laws and different initiatives on corporate social responsibility, business and human right and sustainable business conduct. This fragmentation makes it essential to approach the issue with an all-inclusive method.
  • Toivonen, Ritva; Lilja, Anna; Vihemäki, Heini; Toppinen, Anne (2021)
    The forest sector can play a major role in the transformation to a sustainable bioeconomy, driven by climate change, population growth, and accelerated urbanization. However, in most contexts, the industrial wood construction markets, as a promising field for sustainable bioeconomy, are still at a niche level. The analysis in this study concerns the preferred future export markets for industrial wood construction for the Finnish wood construction industry, as viewed by a panel of industrial, policy and academic experts. The aim is to identify promising export markets for Finland, and to identify required pathways by 2030. A qualitative participatory backcasting method was applied to explore the future visions of the industrial wood construction (IWC) sector and its export markets, as well as the pathways from the current towards the envisioned future. Thirty-five experts formed a panel which produced five visions of the development of industrial wood construction sector exports from Finland, covering the period 2020-2030. All the visions foresaw that the domestic market needs to develop first, to build up the competencies needed to fuel the growth in the exports. Asia, particularly China with its rapidly growing markets, and Europe, with its growing sustainability awareness, commonly appeared as the most promising areas for export growth. The resulting visions differed in terms of export portfolios, varying from more traditional wood materials and products to product-service-solutions. The policy measures identified to accelerate the envisioned growth included harmonization of product and building standards and regulations in the Nordic region and beyond, developing the educational base, and using of digital solutions in building new networks and communication in the IWC sector.
  • Malkamäki, Arttu J. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis aims to assess the state and development of beekeeping in Uruguay. Uruguay exports more than 90% of its honey and supplies regularly to the demanding markets in the EU and the US. As marginalized actors in the global honey chain, the beekeepers' livelihoods are largely dependent on the shifts of globalization, predominantly on the patterns of global economy. Proliferation of voluntary certification schemes such as Fairtrade International and European Union Organic Farming have become evident features of these patterns. Adoption of voluntary certification schemes has impacted particularly the development trajectories of smallholders, which is why particular attention in this thesis was laid on them. It was, however, quickly understood the development is dependent on several factors on different levels. To conceptualize these levels, value chain governance and voluntary certification schemes in them were seen shaping the livelihood outcomes of the smallholders. Combining governance and horizontal livelihood approaches, which represents the main innovation of this thesis, was used to identify action points and upgrading strategies feasible for the beekeepers as actors engaged in the global honey chain. In addition, this thesis further highlights the context of beekeeping as a livelihood, honey as a commodity with certain features and market dynamics, as well as Uruguay as the main geographical scope. Research methods were qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with four different respondent groups along the global honey chain: importers of honey in the EU; representatives of local institutions and export agencies in Uruguay; and the beekeepers themselves, which of some were organized in cooperatives. From the collected data, the development trajectories were analyzed deductively to identify the viable strategies to improve sustainable livelihood outcomes. Based on results, the global honey chain was found buyer-driven since the buyers bear the most powerful role. The structure replicates features of market and captive types of governance, suggesting there is a high degree of power asymmetry and coordination. Higher coordination, however, favors successful upgrading. By identifying the activities performed by actors in the chain, the action point was found in the production node due to the recent increase in activities. High costs of inputs and low margins throughout the chain were observed, particularly in the export node. Beekeepers' baseline conditions were determined as access to livelihood assets, which were found generally weak. State of the fundamental aspect of beekeeping, access to natural assets, was found alarming. The decreased floral resources in Uruguay are due to the rapid proliferation of changes in land use, accelerated by the main vulnerability causing shocks in production and with implications on prices: the climate variability. A key finding, however, was that the proliferation of Eucalyptus grandis in Uruguay has created a dependency by compensating the losses in production based on other flowerings. Furthermore, the emergence of pests has brought risk of losing colonies and increasing costs in treatment and prevention. Natural assets set the main constraint over sustainability of beekeeping in Uruguay, but possibilities to compensate smallholders was found among social assets, which clearly were not optimized at their current levels. This notion largely represents the main conclusion in this thesis: horizontal contractualization of the beekeepers through collective action is the only strategy with a reasonable balance between revenues and risks. In all other scenarios, the risks are likely to become unbearable, unless an external agent would be willing to guarantee the risks up to some point to initiate the process. Collective action was found as a precondition of vertical contractualization, which could include affiliation in voluntary certification schemes. Fairtrade International was predominantly found as a more attractive scheme, but could in this context benefit only a large cooperative with already good resources. Affiliation in a certification scheme, however, would not remove the main constraints faced by the sector in Uruguay, which are the decreasing production per hive and the costs running relatively faster than the prices received, resulting in a decreasing profitability. Whereas more beekeepers are excluded from the chain, the ones remaining practice beekeeping largely based on love and tradition. Future research is suggested to take a more sophisticated approach to cost-benefit analyses to support further decision-making on the level of the beekeepers, as well as on the level of policy-makers. In addition, prospective approaches to develop and assess the potential of systems such as payments for ecosystem services in the context of beekeeping are highly recommended.
  • Luukkanen, J.; Kaivo-oja, J.; Vähäkari, N.; O’Mahony, T.; Korkeakoski, M.; Panula-Ontto, J.; Phonhalath, K.; Nanthavong, K.; Reincke, K.; Vehmas, J.; Hogarth, Nicholas (2019)
    A novel 'Sustainability Window' (SuWi) approach is applied for simultaneous analysis of the pillars of sustainable development; social, environmental and economic, of Lao PDR. This new method employs a variety of indicators for a comprehensive and holistic analysis of sustainable development and green inclusive economy. The analysis is grounded in the assumption that economic development is required for social development, but that simultaneously development needs to be guarded or limited to protect the environment that underpins it. As all three dimensions of sustainable development are interlinked, a comprehensive analysis requires an analytical approach that is simultaneous. The analyses provide information on minimum levels of economic development that are needed to fulfil social sustainability criteria, in tandem with the maximum economic development that avoids breaching environmental sustainability criteria. If actual economic growth lies between these minima and maxima, we can interpret that development is more sustainable with respect to the relationships embodied by the selected social and environmental indicators. The main source of data is the database of the Sustainable Society Index (SSI) developed by the Sustainable Society Foundation (SSF). The indicators used by SSI have been chosen for the Sustainability Window analysis as they can be used to assess both 'weak' and 'strong' interpretations of sustainability. Weak sustainability is defined operationally as no increase in the environmental or carbon emissions intensity of the economy, while strong sustainability is defined as no increase in absolute emissions. Further, a novel Environmental Efficiency Gap analysis has been included in the Sustainability Window. This provides information about the necessary improvement in GDP production efficiency with respect to environmental emissions. Sustainability Window combined with Environmental Efficiency Gap analysis, provides critical knowledge for planners and decision makers. It provides strategic indications of how to aim for social and environmental sustainability through economic investment and growth targets. These new methods can be used in transdisciplinary research of sustainable development and can also assist in national and regional comparisons. In the case of Lao PDR, the analysis needs to be broadened for more fundamental understanding of the gaps and weaknesses. SuWi can be used to assess the sustainable development needed to address the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. The SuWi does not provide direct policy recommendations as such, but helps to inform decision makers about the direction of development pathways towards these key goals. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Ujainen, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The global trends have been guiding hotels to move to a green direction for years, and nowadays hotels are expected to maintain sustainability programs as a regular feature of their business. As the topic is receiving much more attention in hospitality, it is important to consider guests reactions to sustainable practices in hotels. In addition, customer participation is important of the implementation of green practices in hotels. The objective of this study is to investigate consumers’ general attitudes toward green hotels. Specifically, the study seeks to demonstrate how consumers evaluate green practices in hotels and how a hotel’s green image influences consumer decision- making. According to the findings of this thesis, consumers are willing to stay in green hotels and prefer green hotels. Survey study results demonstrate that respondents have positive or very positive attitudes toward green hotel image. This points out that green attributes can bring more value to the brand, and differentiate it from other hotel brands. Based on the literature review and survey study, this thesis distinguished three common green hotel marketing benefits, which are new market opportunities, green brand benefits, and competitive advantage which is achieved by product enhancement. Thus, this thesis demonstrates that there is market for green hotels and the best way to attract customers is to create green hotel brands that emphasize good and consistent value of the green hotel.