Browsing by Subject "Swimming"

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  • Päivinen, Marja; Keskinen, Kari; Putus, Tuula; Kujala, Urho M.; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Tikkanen, Heikki O. (2021)
    Background Respiratory symptoms are common in competitive swimmers. However, among these and in swimmers at other activity levels the swimming distance, the total spent time in swimming halls and their medical background varies. Our objectives were, first, to assess their medical histories and the associations with respiratory symptoms among swimmers in different activity groups and then second, to study the pulmonary function findings and related medications in competitive swimmers who exercise in swimming hall environments the most. Methods First, 1118 participants consisting of 133 competitive-, 734 fitness- and 251 occasional swimmers answered questionnaires concerning their medical background, their respiratory symptoms in connection to swimming distance and their amount of time spent in swimming halls. Secondly, in 130 competitive swimmers, pulmonary function was tested by spirometry and a specific questionnaire was used to assess respiratory symptoms, medical histories and prescribed medication. Results Respiratory symptoms were reported by 18% of the studied swimmers. Competitive swimmers had significantly more symptoms than fitness- and occasional swimmers. Naturally competitive swimmers swum more than 2000 m and stayed by the pool more than 90 min, longer than the other activity groups of swimmers. Spirometry testing showed airway obstruction in 15 swimmers, which was 12% of the 130 competitive swimmers. 21 of them, had physician-diagnosed asthma and 16 of these individuals had prescribed medication for it. Conclusions Competitive swimmers had the highest swimming hall exposure and reported significantly more respiratory symptoms. A high prevalence of airway obstruction findings in competitive swimmers with asthma and allergies suggests a need for future recommendations for regular testing and special medical care for competitive swimmers.
  • Päivinen, Marja; Keskinen, Kari; Tikkanen, Heikki (2021)
    Background A special improvement in pulmonary function is found in swimmers. In clinical testing the airway reactivity is observed at certain exercise intensity and target ventilation. However, in highly trained swimmers exercising in water the reactions may not function the same way. The aim was to study the combined effects of the water environment and swimming on pulmonary function and the associations with perceived symptoms. Methods First, 412 competitive swimmers completed questionnaires concerning respiratory symptoms at different swimming intensities. Then, pulmonary function testing was performed in 14 healthy elite swimmers. Spirometry and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured on land and in water before and after swimming. While swimming, minute ventilation (VE) tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency (fb) were measured during competition speed swimming. Results Swimmers reported the most symptoms at competition speed intensity swimming. In the transition from the land into the water swimming body position, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory capacity (FVC) (FEV1/FVC) decreased by a mean (SD) 5.3 % (3) in females and by 2.2 % (5) in males. During competition speed intensity swimming, the minute ventilation (VE) had a mean of 72 and 75 % of calculated maximal voluntary ventilation (cMVV) in females and in males, respectively. Conclusions Spirometry showed sex differences in water compared to land measurements. These differences should be considered when the effects of swimming are observed. During the intensity that triggered the symptoms the most, the VE was approximately 20 % higher than the target ventilations for clinical testing. These findings encourages specific modifications of clinical testing protocols for elite swimmers.
  • Päivinen, Marja; Keskinen, Kari; Tikkanen, Heikki (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background A special improvement in pulmonary function is found in swimmers. In clinical testing the airway reactivity is observed at certain exercise intensity and target ventilation. However, in highly trained swimmers exercising in water the reactions may not function the same way. The aim was to study the combined effects of the water environment and swimming on pulmonary function and the associations with perceived symptoms. Methods First, 412 competitive swimmers completed questionnaires concerning respiratory symptoms at different swimming intensities. Then, pulmonary function testing was performed in 14 healthy elite swimmers. Spirometry and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured on land and in water before and after swimming. While swimming, minute ventilation (VE) tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency (fb) were measured during competition speed swimming. Results Swimmers reported the most symptoms at competition speed intensity swimming. In the transition from the land into the water swimming body position, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory capacity (FVC) (FEV1/FVC) decreased by a mean (SD) 5.3 % (3) in females and by 2.2 % (5) in males. During competition speed intensity swimming, the minute ventilation (VE) had a mean of 72 and 75 % of calculated maximal voluntary ventilation (cMVV) in females and in males, respectively. Conclusions Spirometry showed sex differences in water compared to land measurements. These differences should be considered when the effects of swimming are observed. During the intensity that triggered the symptoms the most, the VE was approximately 20 % higher than the target ventilations for clinical testing. These findings encourages specific modifications of clinical testing protocols for elite swimmers.