Browsing by Subject "Swine"

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  • Lassen, Brian; Geldhof, Peter; Hälli, Outi; Vlaminck, Johnny; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Heinonen, Mari (2019)
    During their migration through the pig's body, Ascaris suum larvae cause significant damage to the lungs. Little is known about the actual impact of this tissue damage on the occurrence and severity of respiratory problems in industrial pig fattening farms. In this study, we evaluated the link between the serological response to two different A. suum antigen preparations and respiratory or meat inspection outcomes. Two different serological tests were used that measure antibodies against either the A. suum haemoglobin molecule or complete homogenate of the 3rd stage larva that migrate through the lungs. Firstly, serum samples were analysed that were collected from 19 herds in which the cause of acute clinical respiratory symptoms was either Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, A. suum, or a miscellaneous cause. This was done to test whether serological results could confirm pathological findings. Secondly, serum samples from 60 herds of finishing pigs with a history of high or low frequency of pleuritis at meat inspection (MI), but without acute respiratory symptoms at the time of sampling, were also submitted for serological evaluation using both tests. Regression models were used to search for potential associations between the proportion of pigs testing seropositive with MI results, in particular pathological changes related to the lungs. The results of both ELISAs were strongly associated (P <0.001) with pigs belonging to a herd where the respiratory problems could be attributed to A. swim by histology, indicating that both tests can be used to diagnose clinical respiratory outbreaks due to A. suum. In the herds without acute clinical respiratory symptoms, a positive association was found between the proportion of pigs testing seropositive and the percentage of livers rejected due to milk spots and with whole carcass condemnations. No association was found between Ascaris serology and lung pathology (pneumonia and pleuritis) registered at MI, however, challenging the likely involvement of Ascaris in the development of these lesions.
  • Kavlak, Alper Tuna; Stranden, Erling; Lidauer, M. H.; Uimari, Pekka (2021)
    Pigs are housed in groups during the test period. Social effects between penmates may affect average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BF), feed conversion rate (FCR), and the feeding behaviour traits of pigs sharing the same pen. The aim of our study was to estimate the genetic parameters of feeding behaviour and production traits with statisticalmodels that include social genetic effects (SGEs). The data contained 3075 Finnish Yorkshire, 3351 Finnish Landrace, and 968 F1-crossbred pigs. Feeding behaviour traits were measured as the number of visits per day (NVD), time spent in feeding per day (TPD), daily feed intake (DFI), time spent in feeding per visit (TPV), feed intake per visit (FPV), and feed intake rate (FR). The test period was divided into five periods of 20 days. The number of pigs per pen varied from 8 to 12. Two model approaches were tested, i.e. a fixed group size model and a variable group size model. For the fixed group size model, eight random pigs per pen were included in the analysis, while all pigs in a pen were included for the variable group size model. The linear mixed-effectsmodel included sex, breed, and herd*year*season as fixed effects and group (batch*pen), litter, the animal itself (direct genetic effect (DGE)), and penmates (SGEs) as random effects. For feeding behaviour traits, estimates of the total heritable variation (T-2 +/- SE) and classical heritability (h(2) +/- SE, values given in brackets) from the variable group size model (e.g. period 1) were 0.34 +/- 0.13 (0.30 +/- 0.04) for NVD, 0.41 +/- 0.10 (0.37 +/- 0.04) for TPD, 0.40 +/- 0.15 (0.14 +/- 0.03) for DFI, 0.53 +/- 0.15 (0.28 +/- 0.04) for TPV, 0.66 +/- 0.17 (0.28 +/- 0.04) for FPV, and 0.29 +/- 0.13 (0.22 +/- 0.03) for FR. The effect of social interaction was minimal for ADG (T-2 = 0.29 +/- 0.11 and h(2) = 0.29 +/- 0.04), BF (T-2 = 0.48 +/- 0.12 and h(2) = 0.38 +/- 0.07), and FCR (T-2 = 0.37 +/- 0.12 and h(2) = 0.29 +/- 0.04) using the variable group size model. In conclusion, the results indicate that social interactions have a considerable indirect genetic effect on the feeding behaviour and FCR of pigs but not on ADG and BF. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Animal Consortium.
  • Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kart; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka (2017)
    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results: Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Conclusions: Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.
  • Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Conclusions Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.
  • Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Rahkila, Riitta; Oivanen, Leena; Wirta, Eeva-Riitta; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (2020)
    The post-mortem inspection of domestic pigs within the European Union was revised in 2014, primarily to include visual meat inspection of each carcase and offal. Palpations and incisions were removed from routine meat inspection procedures, as they are mostly used to detect pathological lesions caused by organisms irrelevant for public health, and instead can cause cross-contamination of carcases with foodborne pathogens. However, examination of all external surfaces of the carcase and organs, declaration of patho-physiological lesions as unfit for human consumption, and possibility for minimal handling of carcases and offals were held in place. In addition, the European Food Safety Authority suggested that palpation and incisions should be performed outside the slaughter line, but this was not incorporated in the revised legislation. We surveyed in 2014 the opinions of meat inspectors and veterinarians using an online questionnaire to determine what practical measures are required for the visual meat inspection procedure and when meat inspection staff consider additional palpations and incisions necessary. Based on the survey, turning the carcase and organs or technical arrangements such as mirrors were seen necessary to view all external surfaces. In addition, the pluck set cannot be trimmed on the side line. Local lesions, such as abscesses and lesions in the lymph nodes, signs of systemic infection and lymphoma, were the major lesions requiring additional post-mortem meat inspection procedures. Meat inspection personnel raised concerns on the poor quality of food chain information and export requirements demanding palpations and incisions. The efficient use of visual meat inspection requires legislation to better support the implementation and application of it, changes in the slaughter line layout and a possibility to classify incoming pig batches based on their risk.