Browsing by Subject "Systematic review"

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  • Esmaeilikia, Mahsa; Radun, Igor; Grzebieta, Raphael; Olivier, Jake (2019)
    A long-standing argument against bicycle helmet use is the risk compensation hypothesis, i.e., increased feelings of safety caused by wearing a helmet results in cyclists exhibiting more risky behaviour. However, past studies have found helmet wearing is not associated with risky behaviour, e.g., committing a traffic violation was positively associated with a lower frequency of helmet use. There is a lack of consensus in the research literature regarding bicycle helmet use and the risk compensation hypothesis, although this gap in knowledge was identified in the early 2000s. This is the first study to carry out a systematic review of the literature to assess whether helmet wearing is associated with risky behaviour. Two study authors systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature using five research databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, COMPENDEX, SCOPUS, and WEB OF SCIENCE) and identified 141 unique articles and four articles from other sources. Twenty-three articles met inclusion criteria and their findings were summarised. Eighteen studies found no supportive evidence helmet use was positively associated with risky behaviour, while three studies provided mixed findings, i.e., results for and against the hypothesis. For many of these studies, bicycle helmet wearing was associated with safer cycling behaviour. Only two studies conducted from the same research lab provided evidence to support the risk compensation hypothesis. In sum, this systematic review found little to no support for the hypothesis bicycle helmet use is associated with engaging in risky behaviour. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Moreira, Andre; Bonini, Matteo; Haahtela, Tari; Bonini, Sergio; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Agache, Ioana; Fonseca, Joao; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Delgado, Luis (2016)
    Background: Diet has been proposed to modulate the risk of asthma in children and adults. An increasing body of epidemiological studies have been published in the last year investigating the association between dietary intake and asthma. As part of the Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline Task Force on 'Lifestyle Interventions in Allergy and Asthma' funded by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, we will use a systematic approach to review the evidence from published scientific literature on dietary intake and asthma in children and adults. Methods: This systematic review will be carried out following the PRISMA guidelines. The protocol has been published in PROSPERO (CRD42016036078). We will review the evidence from epidemiological studies in children (from the age of 2 years) and adults and dietary intake of foods and nutrients. Discussion: The findings from this review will be used as a reference to inform guideline recommendations.
  • Yeung, J.; Matsuyama, T.; Bray, J.; Reynolds, J.; Skrifvars, M. B. (2019)
    Aim: To perform a systematic review to answer 'In adults with attempted resuscitation after non-traumatic cardiac arrest does care at a specialised cardiac arrest centre (CAC) compared to care in a healthcare facility not designated as a specialised cardiac arrest centre improve patient outcomes?' Methods: The PRISMA guidelines were followed. We searched bibliographic databases (Embase, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL)) from inception to 1st August 2018. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently scrutinized studies for relevance, extracted data and assessed quality of studies. Risk of bias of studies and quality of evidence were assessed using ROBINS-I tool and GRADEpro respectively. Primary outcomes were survival to 30 days with favourable neurological outcomes and survival to hospital discharge with favourable neurological outcomes. Secondary outcomes were survival to 30 days, survival to hospital discharge and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) post-hospital arrival for patients with ongoing resuscitation. This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD 42018093369) Results: We included data from 17 observational studies on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in meta-analyses. Overall, the certainty of evidence was very low. Pooling data from only adjusted analyses, care at CAC was not associated with increased likelihood of survival to 30 days with favourable neurological outcome (OR 2.92, 95% CI 0.68-12.48) and survival to 30 days (OR 2.14, 95% CI 0.73-6.29) compared to care at other hospitals. Whereas patients cared for at CACs had improved survival to hospital discharge with favourable neurological outcomes (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.74-2.84) and survival to hospital discharge (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.46-2.34). Conclusions: Very low certainty of evidence suggests that post-cardiac arrest care at CACs is associated with improved outcomes at hospital discharge. There remains a need for high quality data to fully elucidate the impact of CACs.
  • Isokuortti, Nanne; Aaltio, Elina; Laajasalo, Taina; Barlow, Jane (2020)
    Background: Attempts to improve child protection outcomes by implementing social work practice models embedded in a particular theory and practice approach, have increased internationally over the past decade. Objective: To assess the evidence of the effectiveness of child protection practice models in improving outcomes for children and families. Participants and setting: Children <18 years and their families involved in child protection services. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to synthesize evidence regarding the effectiveness of child protection practice models. Systematic searches across 10 electronic databases and grey literature were conducted to identify quasi-experimental studies minimally. Included studies were critically appraised and the findings summarized narratively. Results: Five papers, representing six studies, focusing on three practice models (Solution-Based Casework; Signs of Safety; and Reclaiming Social Work) met the inclusion criteria. All studies applied a quasi-experimental design. Overall, the quality of the evidence was rated as being poor, with studies suffering from a risk of selection bias, small sample sizes and short-term follow up. Conclusions: Despite the popularity of practice models, the evidence base for their effectiveness is still limited. The results suggest that high-quality studies are urgently needed to evaluate the impact of practice models in improving the outcomes of child-protection-involved families. The findings also illustrate the difficulties of conducting high-quality outcome evaluations in children's social care, and these challenges and future directions for research, are discussed.
  • Cooke, Marie; Ritmala-Castren, Marita; Dwan, Toni; Mitchell, Marion (2020)
    Background Pharmacological interventions for sleep (analgesic, sedative and hypnotic agents) can both disrupt and induce sleep and have many negative side effects within the intensive care population. The use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies to assist with sleep has been studied but given the variety of modalities and methodological limitations no reliable conclusions have been drawn. Objective To synthesise research findings regarding the effectiveness of using complementary and alternative medicine interventions within the domains of mind and body practices (relaxation techniques, acupuncture) and natural biologically based products (herbs, vitamins, minerals, probiotics) on sleep quality and quantity in adult intensive care patients. Review method used Systematic review Data sources Five databases were searched in August 2018 and updated in February 2019 and 2020. Review methods: Searches were limited to peer reviewed randomised controlled trials, published in English involving adult populations in intensive care units. Interventions were related to the complementary and alternative medicine domains of mind and body practices and natural products. Included studies were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Results Seventeen studies were included. The interventions used varied: 4 investigated melatonin; 4 music +/- another therapy; 3 acupressure; 2 aromatherapy and 1 each for relaxation and imagery, reflexology, bright light exposure and inspiratory muscle training. Measurement of sleep quantity and quality was also varied: 5 studies used objective measures such as Polysomnography and Bispectral index with the remaining using subjective patient or clinician assessment (for example, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, observation). Given the different interventions, outcomes and measures used in the studies a meta-analysis was not possible. Generally, the results support the use of complementary and alternative medicine for assisting with sleep with 11 out of 17 trials reporting significant results for the interventions examined. Conclusions Complementary and alternative medicine interventions, in particular, melatonin and music, have shown promise for improving sleep in adults with critically conditions; however, further research that addresses the limitations of small sample sizes and improved techniques for measuring sleep is needed.
  • Rintala, Aki; Päivärinne, Ville; Hakala, Sanna; Paltamaa, Jaana; Heinonen, Ari; Karvanen, Juha; Sjögren, Tuulikki (2019)
    Objective: To study the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical functioning in stroke. Data Sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in 6 databases from January 2000 to May 2018. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria applied the patient, intervention, comparison, outcome, study design framework as follows: (P) stroke; (I) technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions; (C) any comparison without the use of technology; (0) physical functioning; (S) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search identified in total 693 studies, and the screening of 162 full-text studies revealed 13 eligible studies. Data Extraction: The studies were screened using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines and assessed for methodological quality and quality of evidence. Meta-analysis was performed if applicable. Data Synthesis: A total of 13 studies were included, and online video monitoring was the most used technology. Seven outcomes of physical functioning were identified-activities of daily living (ADL), upper extremity functioning, lower extremity functioning, balance, walking, physical activity, and participation. A meta-analysis of 6 RCTs indicated that technology-based distance physical rehabilitation had a similar effect on ADL (standard mean difference 0.06; 95% confidence interval: -0.22 to 0.35, P=.67) compared to the combination of traditional treatments (usual care, similar and other treatment). Similar results were obtained for other outcomes, except inconsistent findings were noted for walking. Methodological quality of the studies and quality of evidence were considered low. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions on physical functioning might be similar compared to traditional treatments in stroke. Further research should be performed to confirm the effectiveness of technology-based distance physical rehabilitation interventions for improving physical functioning of persons with stroke. (C) 2018 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
  • Faridnia, Roghiyeh; Soosaraei, Masoud; Kalani, Hamed; Fakhar, Mandi; Jokelainen, Pikka; Emameh, Reza Zolfaghari; Banimostafavi, Elham Sadat; Hezarjaribi, Hajar Ziaei (2019)
    The public health importance of myiasis [infestation with dipterous (fly) larvae] remains unknown. This disease is spread worldwide in animals and humans, but baseline data on its prevalence are limited. In particular, knowledge on human urogenital myiasis (UGM) is scattered. As such, a systematic search was undertaken of five English and five Persian databases for publications describing UGM cases in English or Persian published between 1975 and 2017. In total, 45 papers reporting 59 UGM cases from various regions of the world are included in this review. All included papers were from the English databases. The age of patients ranged from 5 to 89 years, and the mean age was 40.6 years. Thirty-six of the patients were female and 19 were male. The highest number of cases (n = 12) was reported from Brazil. The most common genera causing UGM were Psychoda spp. (23.7%) and Cochliomyia spp. (11.8%). The vagina was the most commonly reported anatomical location of UGM for women, and the urogenital tract was the most commonly reported location for men. Thirteen cases were reported from rural areas and eight cases from urban areas; the location of other cases was not specified. The incidence of UGM is likely to be substantially underestimated when evaluated based on published case reports. Epidemiological studies, such as questionnaires to medical doctors, could help to gather the necessary baseline data on the occurrence of UGM. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Bobbio, Emanuele; Lingbrant, Marie; Nwaru, Bright; Hessman, Eva; Lehtonen, Jukka; Karason, Kristjan; Bollano, Entela (2020)
    Heart transplantation (HTx) for patients with "giant cell myocarditis" (GCM) or "cardiac sarcoidosis" (CS) is still controversial. However, no single center has accumulated enough experience to investigate post-HTx outcome. The primary aim of this systematic review is to identify, appraise, and synthesize existing literature investigating whether patients who have undergone HTx because of GCM or CS have worse outcomes as compared with patients transplanted because of other etiologies. A systematic and comprehensive search will be performed using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Google Scholar, for studies published up to December 2019. Observational and interventional population-based studies will be eligible for inclusion. The quality of observational studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, while the interventional studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice Organization of Care tool. The collected evidence will be narratively synthesized; in addition, we will perform a meta-analysis to pool estimates from studies considered to be homogenous. Reporting of the systematic review and meta-analysis will be in accordance with the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. To our knowledge, this will be the first synthesis of outcomes, including survival, acute cellular rejection, and disease recurrence, in patients with either GCM or CS treated with HTx. Reviewing the suitability of HTx in this population and highlighting areas for further research will benefit both patients and healthcare providers. Trial registration: CRD42019140574.
  • Tahtinen, Riikka M.; Cartwright, Rufus; Tsui, Johnson F.; Aaltonen, Riikka L.; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Cardenas, Jovita L.; El Dib, Regina; Joronen, Kirsi M.; Al Juaid, Sumayyah; Kalantan, Sabreen; Kochana, Michal; Kopec, Malgorzata; Lopes, Luciane C.; Mirza, Enaya; Oksjoki, Sanna M.; Pesonen, Jori S.; Valpas, Antti; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuqing; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Tikkinen, Kari A. O. (2016)
    Context: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) are associated with physical and psychological morbidity, and large societal costs. The long-term effects of delivery modes on each kind of incontinence remain uncertain. Objective: To investigate the long-term impact of delivery mode on SUI and UUI. Evidence acquisition: We searched Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and relevant major conference abstracts up to October 31, 2014, including any observational study with adjusted analyses or any randomized trial addressing the association between delivery mode and SUI or UUI >= 1 yr after delivery. Two reviewers extracted data, including incidence/prevalence of SUI and UUI by delivery modes, and assessed risk of bias. Evidence synthesis: Pooled estimates from 15 eligible studies demonstrated an increased risk of SUI after vaginal delivery versus cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-2.19; I-2 = 57%; risk difference: 8.2%). Metaregression demonstrated a larger effect of vaginal delivery among younger women (p = 0.005). Four studies suggested no difference in the risk of SUI between spontaneous vaginal and instrumental delivery (aOR: 1.11; 95% CI, 0.84-1.45; I-2 = 50%). Eight studies suggested an elevated risk of UUI after vaginal delivery versus cesarean section (aOR: 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02-1.65; I-2 = 37%; risk difference: 2.6%). Conclusions: Compared with cesarean section, vaginal delivery is associated with an almost twofold increase in the risk of long-term SUI, with an absolute increase of 8%, and an effect that is largest in younger women. There is also an increased risk of UUI, with an absolute increase of approximately 3%. Patient summary: In this systematic review we looked for the long-term effects of childbirth on urinary leakage. We found that vaginal delivery is associated with an almost twofold increase in the risk of developing leakage with exertion, compared with cesarean section, with a smaller effect on leakage in association with urgency. (C) 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Rautalin, Ilari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korja, Miikka (2020)
    As the number of obese people is globally increasing, reports about the putative protective effect of obesity in life-threatening diseases, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), are gaining more interest. This theory-the obesity paradox-is challenging to study, and the impact of obesity has remained unclear in survival of several critical illnesses, including SAH. Thus, we performed a systematic review to clarify the relation of obesity and SAH mortality. Our study protocol included systematic literature search in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases, whereas risk-of-bias estimation and quality of each selected study were evaluated by the Critical Appraisal Skills Program and Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. A directional power analysis was performed to estimate sufficient sample size for significant results. From 176 reviewed studies, six fulfilled our eligibility criteria for qualitative analysis. One study found paradoxical effect (odds ratio, OR = 0.83 (0.74-0.92)) between morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 40) and in-hospital SAH mortality, and another study found the effect between continuously increasing BMI and both short-term (OR = 0.90 (0.82-0.99)) and long-term SAH mortalities (OR = 0.92 (0.85-0.98)). However, according to our quality assessment, methodological shortcomings expose all reviewed studies to a high-risk-of-bias. Even though two studies suggest that obesity may protect SAH patients from death in the acute phase, all reviewed studies suffered from methodological shortcomings that have been typical in the research field of obesity paradox. Therefore, no definite conclusions could be drawn.
  • Rantala, Elina S.; Hernberg, Micaela; Kivelä, Tero T. (2019)
  • Int Liaison Comm Resuscitation; Buick, Jason E.; Wallner, Clare; Aickin, Richard; Meaney, Peter A.; de Caen, Allan; Maconochie, Ian; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Welsford, Michelle (2019)
    Introduction: The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation prioritized the need to update the review on the use of targeted temperature management (TTM) in paediatric post cardiac arrest care. In this meta-analysis, the effectiveness of TTM at 32-36 degrees C was compared with no target or a different target for comatose children who achieve a return of sustained circulation after cardiac arrest. Methods: Electronic databases were searched from inception to December 13, 2018. Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized studies with a comparator group that evaluated TTM in children were included. Pairs of independent reviewers extracted the demographic and outcome data, appraised risk of bias, and assessed GRADE certainty of effects. A random effects meta-analysis was undertaken where possible. Results: Twelve studies involving 2060 patients were included. Two randomized controlled trials provided the evidence that TTM at 32-34 degrees C compared with a target at 36-37.5 degrees C did not statistically improve long-term good neurobehavioural survival (risk ratio: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.69-1.93), long-term survival (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.93-1.39), or short-term survival (risk ratio: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.96-1.36). TTM at 32-34 degrees C did not show statistically increased risks of infection, recurrent cardiac arrest, serious bleeding, or arrhythmias. A novel analysis suggests that another small RCT might provide enough evidence to show benefit for TTM in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Conclusion: There is currently inconclusive evidence to either support or refute the use of TTM at 32-34 degrees C for comatose children who achieve return of sustained circulation after cardiac arrest. Future trials should focus on children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
  • Vander Poorten, Vincent; Uyttebroek, Saartje; Robbins, K. Thomas; Rodrigo, Juan P.; de Bree, Remco; Laenen, Annouschka; Saba, Nabil F.; Suarez, Carlos; Mäkitie, Antti; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    BackgroundThe optimal evidence-based prophylactic antibiotic regimen for surgical site infections following major head and neck surgery remains a matter of debate.MethodsMedline, Cochrane, and Embase were searched for the current best evidence. Retrieved manuscripts were screened according to the PRISMA guidelines. Included studies dealt with patients over 18 years of age that underwent clean-contaminated head and neck surgery (P) and compared the effect of an intervention, perioperative administration of different antibiotic regimens for a variable duration (I), with control groups receiving placebo, another antibiotic regimen, or the same antibiotic for a different postoperative duration (C), on surgical site infection rate as primary outcome (O) (PICO model). A systematic review was performed, and a selected group of trials investigating a similar research question was subjected to a random-effects model meta-analysis.ResultsThirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review. Compared with placebo, cefazolin, ampicillin-sulbactam, and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the most efficient agents. Benzylpenicillin and clindamycin were clearly less effective. Fifteen studies compared short- to long-term prophylaxis; treatment for more than 48 h did not further reduce wound infections. Meta-analysis of five clinical trials including 4336 patients, where clindamycin was compared with ampicillin-sulbactam, implied an increased infection rate for clindamycin-treated patients (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.50-4.97, p=0.001).ConclusionIn clean-contaminated head and neck surgery, cefazolin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and ampicillin-sulbactam for 24-48 h after surgery were associated with the highest prevention rate of surgical site infection.
  • Malde, Sachin; Nambiar, Arjun K.; Umbach, Roland; Lam, Thomas B.; Bach, Thorsten; Bachmann, Alexander; Drake, Marcus J.; Gacci, Mauro; Gratzke, Christian; Madersbacher, Stephan; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Tikkinen, Kari; Gravas, Stavros; European Assoc Urology Non-neuroge (2017)
    Context: Several noninvasive tests have been developed for diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in men to avoid the burden and morbidity associated with invasive urodynamics. The diagnostic accuracy of these tests, however, remains uncertain. Objective: To systematically review available evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive tests in diagnosing BOO in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) using a pressure-flow study as the reference standard. Evidence acquisition: The EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central, Google Scholar, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal databases were searched up to May 18, 2016. All studies reporting diagnostic accuracy for noninvasive tests for BOO or detrusor underactivity in men with LUTS compared to pressure-flow studies were included. Two reviewers independently screened all articles, searched the reference lists of retrieved articles, and performed the data extraction. The quality of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Evidence synthesis: The search yielded 2774 potentially relevant reports. After screening titles and abstracts, 53 reports were retrieved for full-text screening, of which 42 (recruiting a total of 4444 patients) were eligible. Overall, the results were predominantly based on findings from nonrandomised experimental studies and, within the limits of such study designs, the quality of evidence was typically moderate across the literature. Differences in noninvasive test threshold values and variations in the urodynamic definition of BOO between studies limited the comparability of the data. Detrusor wall thickness (median sensitivity 82%, specificity 92%), near- infrared spectroscopy (median sensitivity 85%, specificity 87%), and the penile cuff test (median sensitivity 88%, specificity 75%) were all found to have high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing BOO. Uroflowmetry with a maximum flow rate of 10 mm was reported to have similar diagnostic accuracy, with median sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 75%. Conclusions: According to the literature, a number of noninvasive tests have high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing BOO in men. However, although the majority of studies have a low overall risk of bias, the available evidence is limited by heterogeneity. While several tests have shown promising results regarding noninvasive assessment of BOO, invasive urodynamics remain the gold standard. Patient summary: Urodynamics is an accurate but potentially uncomfortable test for patients in diagnosing bladder problems such as obstruction. We performed a thorough and comprehensive review of the literature to determine if there were less uncomfortable but equally effective alternatives to urodynamics for diagnosing bladder problems. We found that some simple tests appear to be promising, although they are not as accurate. Further research is needed before these tests are routinely used in place of urodynamics. (C) 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Neumann, Ignacio; Akl, Elie A.; Vernooij, Robin W. M.; Johnston, Brad C.; Sun, Xin; Briel, Matthias; Busse, Jason W.; Ebrahim, Shanil; Granados, Carlos E.; Iorio, Alfonso; Irfan, Affan; Martinez Garcia, Laura; Mustafa, Reem A.; Ramirez-Morera, Anggie; Selva, Anna; Sola, Ivan; Juliana Sanabria, Andrea; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhou, Qi; Schuenemann, Holger; Guyatt, Gordon H. (2016)
    Objectives: Expressing treatment effects in relative terms yields larger numbers than expressions in absolute terms, affecting the judgment of the clinicians and patients regarding the treatment options. It is uncertain how authors of systematic reviews (SRs) absolute effect estimates are reported in. We therefore undertook a systematic survey to identify and describe the reporting and methods for calculating absolute effect estimates in SRs. Study Design and Setting: Two reviewers independently screened title, abstract, and full text and extracted data from a sample of Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs. We used regression analyses to examine the association between study characteristics and the reporting of absolute estimates for the most patient-important outcome. Results: We included 202 SRs (98 Cochrane and 104 non-Cochrane), most of which (92.1%) included standard meta-analyses including relative estimates of effect. Of the 202 SRs, 73 (36.1%) reported absolute effect estimates for the most patient-important outcome. SRs with statistically significant effects were more likely to report absolute estimates (odds ratio, 2.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.74). The most commonly reported absolute estimates were: for each intervention, risk of adverse outcomes expressed as a percentage (41.1%); number needed to treat (26.0%); and risk for each intervention expressed as natural units or natural frequencies (24.7%). In 12.3% of the SRs that reported absolute effect estimates for both benefit and harm outcomes, harm outcomes were reported exclusively as absolute estimates. Exclusively reporting of beneficial outcomes as absolute estimates occurred in 6.8% of the SRs. Conclusions: Most SRs do not report absolute effects. Those that do often report them inadequately, thus requiring users of SRs to generate their own estimates of absolute effects. For any apparently effective or harmful intervention, SR authors should report both absolute and relative estimates to optimize the interpretation of their findings. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Pachito, Daniela V.; Pega, Frank; Bakusic, Jelena; Boonen, Emma; Clays, Els; Descatha, Alexis; Delvaux, Ellen; De Bacquer, Dirk; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Kroeger, Hannes; Lambrechts, Marie-Claire; Latorraca, Carolina O. C.; Li, Jian; Cabrera Martimbianco, Ana L.; Riera, Rachel; Rugulies, Reiner; Sembajwe, Grace; Siegrist, Johannes; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sumanen, Markku; Suominen, Sakari; Ujita, Yuka; Vandersmissen, Godelieve; Godderis, Lode (2021)
    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing Joint Estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of experts. Evidence from mechanistic data suggests that exposure to long working hours may increase alcohol consumption and cause alcohol use disorder. In this paper, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder that are attributable to exposure to long working hours, for the development of the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates. Objectives: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of exposure to long working hours (three categories: 41-48, 49-54 and >55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on alcohol consumption, risky drinking (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence and mortality) and alcohol use disorder (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence and mortality). Data sources: We developed and published a protocol, applying the Navigation Guide as an organizing systematic review framework where feasible. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including the WHO International Clinical Trials Register, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and CISDOC on 30 June 2018. Searches on PubMed were updated on 18 April 2020. We also searched electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand searched reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consulted additional experts. Study eligibility and criteria: We included working-age (15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. We considered for inclusion randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other nonrandomized intervention studies with an estimate of the effect of exposure to long working hours (41-48, 49-54 and 55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on alcohol consumption (in g/week), risky drinking, and alcohol use disorder (prevalence, incidence or mortality). Study appraisal and synthesis methods: At least two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from publications related to qualifying studies. Two or more review authors assessed the risk of bias, quality of evidence and strength of evidence, using Navigation Guide and GRADE tools and approaches adapted to this project. Results: Fourteen cohort studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 104,599 participants (52,107 females) in six countries of three WHO regions (Americas, South-East Asia, and Europe). The exposure and outcome were assessed with self-reported measures in most studies. Across included studies, risk of bias was generally probably high, with risk judged high or probably high for detection bias and missing data for alcohol consumption and risky drinking. Compared to working 35-40 h/week, exposure to working 41-48 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 10.4 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.59-15.20; seven studies; 25,904 participants, I2 71%, low quality evidence). Exposure to working 49-54 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 17.69 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.16-26.22; seven studies, 19,158 participants, I2 82%, low quality evidence). Exposure to working >55 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 16.29 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.93-24.65; seven studies; 19,692 participants; I2 82%, low quality evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of exposure to working 41-48 h/week, compared with working 35-40 h/week on developing risky drinking (relative risk 1.08; 95% CI 0.86-1.36; 12 studies; I2 52%, low certainty evidence). Working 49-54 h/week did not increase the risk of developing risky drinking (relative risk 1.12; 95% CI 0.90-1.39; 12 studies; 3832 participants; I2 24%, moderate certainty evidence), nor working >55 h/week (relative risk 1.11; 95% CI 0.95-1.30; 12 studies; 4525 participants; I2 0%, moderate certainty evidence). Subgroup analyses indicated that age may influence the association between long working hours and both alcohol consumption and risky drinking. We did not identify studies for which we had access to results on alcohol use disorder. Conclusions: Overall, for alcohol consumption in g/week and for risky drinking, we judged this body of evidence to be of low certainty. Exposure to long working hours may have increased alcohol consumption, but we are uncertain about the effect on risky drinking. We found no eligible studies on the effect on alcohol use disorder. Producing estimates for the burden of alcohol use disorder attributable to exposure to long working hours appears to not be evidence-based at this time. Protocol identifier: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.025. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018084077
  • Oksanen, A.; Siles-Lucas, M.; Karamon, J.; Possenti, A.; Conraths, F.J.; Romig, T.; Wysocki, P.; Mannocci, A.; Mipatrini, D.; La Torre, G.; Boufana, B.; Casulli, A. (2016)
    Background This study aimed to provide a systematic review on the geographical distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive and intermediate hosts in the European Union (EU) and adjacent countries (AC). The relative importance of the different host species in the life-cycle of this parasite was highlighted and gaps in our knowledge regarding these hosts were identified. Methods Six databases were searched for primary research studies published from 1900 to 2015. From a total of 2,805 identified scientific papers, 244 publications were used for meta-analyses. Results Studies in 21 countries reported the presence of E. multilocularis in red foxes, with the following pooled prevalence (PP): low (≤ 1 %; Denmark, Slovenia and Sweden); medium (> 1 % to < 10 %; Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and the Ukraine); and high (> 10 %; Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Liechtenstein and Switzerland). Studies from Finland, Ireland, the United Kingdom and Norway reported the absence of E. multilocularis in red foxes. However, E. multilocularis was detected in Arctic foxes from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard in Norway. Conclusions Raccoon dogs (PP 2.2 %), golden jackals (PP 4.7 %) and wolves (PP 1.4 %) showed a higher E. multilocularis PP than dogs (PP 0.3 %) and cats (PP 0.5 %). High E. multilocularis PP in raccoon dogs and golden jackals correlated with high PP in foxes. For intermediate hosts (IHs), muskrats (PP 4.2 %) and arvicolids (PP 6.0 %) showed similar E. multilocularis PP as sylvatic definitive hosts (DHs), excluding foxes. Nutrias (PP 1.0 %) and murids (PP 1.1 %) could play a role in the life-cycle of E. multilocularis in areas with medium to high PP in red foxes. In areas with low PP in foxes, no other DH was found infected with E. multilocularis. When fox E. multilocularis PP was >3 %, raccoon dogs and golden jackals could play a similar role as foxes. In areas with high E. multilocularis fox PP, the wolf emerged as a potentially important DH. Dogs and cats could be irrelevant in the life-cycle of the parasite in Europe, although dogs could be important for parasite introduction into non-endemic areas. Muskrats and arvicolids are important IHs. Swine, insectivores, murids and nutrias seem to play a minor or no role in the life-cycle of the parasite within the EU and ACs.
  • Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David (2020)
    Working hours is a ubiquitous exposure given that most adults are employed, and one that is modifiable via legislative change if not always through individual-level choice. According to a recent report from the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Labour Organization (ILO), there is currently sufficient evidence to conclude that long working hours (i.e., >= 55 h per week) elevate the risk of fatal and non-fatal ischaemic heart disease to a clinically meaningful extent. After assessing the data used by the ILO/WHO, we feel that the expert group has not correctly applied their own framework for assessing the strength of the evidence. In the meta-analysis of observational studies in the report, the association between long working hours and incident heart disease appeared stronger in lower quality cohort studies with a high risk of bias (minimally-adjusted hazard ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.41, compared to standard 35-40 weekly hours) than in the superior-quality studies with a lower risk of bias for which the estimate was not significantly different from the null (1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.25). There was also marked effect modification, such that there was no increase in ischaemic heart disease for those working long hours in high socioeconomic status occupations, a finding also reported in analyses of a recent census-based cohort study which was not included in the report. Our meta-analysis of all these studies confirm that the findings are not consistent but differ between subgroups and that the summary age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for long working hours in high socioeconomic status occupations does not support excess risk: 0.85, 95% CI 0.63-1.13 (Pinteraction = 0.005, total N = 451,982). For these and other reasons detailed in this commentary, we advance a more cautious interpretation of the existing evidence. The conclusions should be restricted to low socioeconomic status occupations only and more research is still needed to confirm or refute harmfulness and determine clinical relevance.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2010)
    Vitamin C and the common cold is a particularly important topic in the history of systematic reviews because three of the earliest systematic reviews examined that topic. Nevertheless, Bastian et al.'s brief mention of this issue is misleading.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2013)
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vitamin C administration influences exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: MEDLINE and Scopus were searched for placebo-controlled trials on vitamin C and EIB. The primary measures of vitamin C effect used in this study were: (1) the arithmetic difference and (2) the relative effect in the postexercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline between the vitamin C and placebo periods. The relative effect of vitamin C administration on FEV1 was analysed by using linear modelling for two studies that reported full or partial individual-level data. The arithmetic differences and the relative effects were pooled by the inverse variance method. A secondary measure of the vitamin C effect was the difference in the proportion of participants suffering from EIB on the vitamin C and placebo days. RESULTS: 3 placebo-controlled trials that studied the effect of vitamin C on EIB were identified. In all, they had 40 participants. The pooled effect estimate indicated a reduction of 8.4 percentage points (95% CI 4.6 to 12) in the postexercise FEV1 decline when vitamin C was administered before exercise. The pooled relative effect estimate indicated a 48% reduction (95% CI 33% to 64%) in the postexercise FEV1 decline when vitamin C was administered before exercise. One study needed imputations to include it in the meta-analyses, but it also reported that vitamin C decreased the proportion of participants who suffered from EIB by 50 percentage points (95% CI 23 to 68); this comparison did not need data imputations. CONCLUSIONS: Given the safety and low cost of vitamin C, and the positive findings for vitamin C administration in the three EIB studies, it seems reasonable for physically active people to test vitamin C when they have respiratory symptoms such as cough associated with exercise. Further research on the effects of vitamin C on EIB is warranted.