Browsing by Subject "T cell"

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  • Eränkö, Elina; Ilander, Mette; Tuomiranta, Mirja; Mäkitie, Antti; Lassila, Tea; Kreutzman, Anna; Klemetti, Paula; Mustjoki, Satu; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Ranki, Annamari (2018)
    BackgroundNetherton syndrome (NS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome caused by SPINK5 mutations leading to a skin barrier defect and a severe atopic diathesis. NS patients are prone to bacterial infections, but the understanding of the underlying immune deficiency is incomplete.ResultsWe analyzed blood lymphocyte phenotypes and function in relation to clinical infections in 11 Finnish NS patients, aged 3 to 17years, and healthy age-matched controls. The proportion of B cells (CD19(+)) and naive B cells (CD27(-), IgD(+)) were high while memory B cells (CD27(+)) and switched memory B cells (CD27(+)IgM(-)IgD(-)), crucial for the secondary response to pathogens, was below or in the lowest quartile of the reference values in 8/11 (73%) and 9/11 (82%) patients, respectively. The proportion of activated non-differentiated B cells (CD21(low), CD38l(ow)) was below or in the lowest quartile of the reference values in 10/11 (91%) patients. Despite normal T cell counts, the proportion of naive CD4(+) T cells was reduced significantly and the proportion of CD8(+) T central memory significantly elevated. An increased proportion of CD57(+) CD8(+) T cells indicated increased differentiation potential of the T cells. The proportion of cytotoxic NK cells was elevated in NS patients in phenotypic analysis based on CD56DIM, CD16(+) and CD27(-) NK cells but in functional analysis, decreased expression of CD107a/b indicated impaired cytotoxicity.The T and NK cell phenotype seen in NS patients also significantly differed from that of age-matched atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, indicating a distinctive profile in NS. The frequency of skin infections correlated with the proportion of CD62L(+) T cells, naive CD4(+) and CD27(+) CD8(+) T cells and with activated B cells. Clinically beneficial intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) increased naive T cells and terminal differentiated effector memory CD8(+) cells and decreased the proportion of activated B cells and plasmablasts in three patients studied.ConclusionsThis study shows novel quantitative and functional aberrations in several lymphocyte subpopulations, which correlate with the frequency of infections in patients with Netherton syndrome. IVIG therapy normalized some dysbalancies and was clinically beneficial.
  • Eränkö, Elina; Ilander, Mette; Tuomiranta, Mirja; Mäkitie, Antti; Lassila, Tea; Kreutzman, Anna; Klemetti, Paula; Mustjoki, Satu; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Ranki, Annamari (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome caused by SPINK5 mutations leading to a skin barrier defect and a severe atopic diathesis. NS patients are prone to bacterial infections, but the understanding of the underlying immune deficiency is incomplete. Results We analyzed blood lymphocyte phenotypes and function in relation to clinical infections in 11 Finnish NS patients, aged 3 to 17 years, and healthy age-matched controls. The proportion of B cells (CD19+) and naïve B cells (CD27−, IgD+) were high while memory B cells (CD27+) and switched memory B cells (CD27+IgM−IgD−), crucial for the secondary response to pathogens, was below or in the lowest quartile of the reference values in 8/11 (73%) and 9/11 (82%) patients, respectively. The proportion of activated non-differentiated B cells (CD21low, CD38low) was below or in the lowest quartile of the reference values in 10/11 (91%) patients. Despite normal T cell counts, the proportion of naïve CD4+ T cells was reduced significantly and the proportion of CD8+ T central memory significantly elevated. An increased proportion of CD57+ CD8+ T cells indicated increased differentiation potential of the T cells. The proportion of cytotoxic NK cells was elevated in NS patients in phenotypic analysis based on CD56DIM, CD16+ and CD27− NK cells but in functional analysis, decreased expression of CD107a/b indicated impaired cytotoxicity. The T and NK cell phenotype seen in NS patients also significantly differed from that of age-matched atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, indicating a distinctive profile in NS. The frequency of skin infections correlated with the proportion of CD62L+ T cells, naïve CD4+ and CD27+ CD8+ T cells and with activated B cells. Clinically beneficial intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) increased naïve T cells and terminal differentiated effector memory CD8+ cells and decreased the proportion of activated B cells and plasmablasts in three patients studied. Conclusions This study shows novel quantitative and functional aberrations in several lymphocyte subpopulations, which correlate with the frequency of infections in patients with Netherton syndrome. IVIG therapy normalized some dysbalancies and was clinically beneficial.
  • Nyman, Tuula A.; Lorey, Martina B.; Cypryk, Wojciech; Matikainen, Sampsa (2017)
    Introduction: The immune system is our defense system against microbial infections and tissue injury, and understanding how it works in detail is essential for developing drugs for different diseases. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can provide in-depth information on the molecular mechanisms involved in immune responses.Areas covered: Summarized are the key immunology findings obtained with MS-based proteomics in the past five years, with a focus on inflammasome activation, global protein secretion, mucosal immunology, immunopeptidome and T cells. Special focus is on extracellular vesicle-mediated protein secretion and its role in immune responses.Expert commentary: Proteomics is an essential part of modern omics-scale immunology research. To date, MS-based proteomics has been used in immunology to study protein expression levels, their subcellular localization, secretion, post-translational modifications, and interactions in immune cells upon activation by different stimuli. These studies have made major contributions to understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. New developments in proteomics offer constantly novel possibilities for exploring the immune system. Examples of these techniques include mass cytometry and different MS-based imaging approaches which can be widely used in immunology.
  • Lee, Moon Hee; Järvinen, Petrus; Nisen, Harry; Brück, Oscar; Ilander, Mette; Uski, Ilona; Theodoropoulos, Jason; Kankainen, Matti; Mirtti, Tuomas; Mustjoki, Satu; Kreutzman, Anna (2022)
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered as an immunogenic cancer. Because not all patients respond to current immunotherapies, we aimed to investigate the immunological heterogeneity of RCC tumors. We analyzedthe immunophenotype of the circulating, tumor, and matching adjacent healthy kidney immune cells from 52 nephrectomy patients with multi-parameter flow cytometry. Additionally, we studied the transcriptomic and mutation profiles of 20 clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tumors with bulk RNA sequencing and a customized pan-cancer gene panel. The tumor samples clustered into two distinct subgroups defined by the abundance of intratumoral CD3+ T cells (CD3(high), 25/52) and NK cells (NKhigh, 27/52). CD3(high) tumors had an overall higher frequency of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and PD-1 expression on the CD8+ T cells compared to NKhigh tumors. The tumor infiltrating T and NK cells had significantly elevated expression levels of LAG-3, PD-1, and HLA-DR compared to the circulating immune cells. Transcriptomic analysis revealed increased immune signaling (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha via NF-kappa B, and T cell receptor signaling) and kidney metabolism pathways in the CD3(high) subgroup. Genomic analysis confirmed the typical ccRCC mutation profile including VHL, PBRM1, and SETD2 mutations, and revealed PBRM1 as a uniquely mutated gene in the CD3(high) subgroup. Approximately half of the RCC tumors have a high infiltration of NK cells associated with a lower number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, lower PD-1 expression, a distinct transcriptomic and mutation profile, providing insights to the immunological heterogeneity of RCC which may impact treatment responses to immunological therapies.
  • Vanhanen, Reetta; Heikkila, Nelli; Aggarwal, Kunal; Hamm, David; Tarkkila, Heikki; Pätilä, Tommi; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Saramaki, Jari; Arstila, T. Petteri (2016)
    A diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is essential for adaptive immune responses and is generated by somatic recombination of TCR alpha and TCR beta gene segments in the thymus. Previous estimates of the total TCR diversity have studied the circulating mature repertoire, identifying 1 to 3 x 10(6) unique TCR beta and 0.5 x 10(6) TCR alpha sequences. Here we provide the first estimate of the total TCR diversity generated in the human thymus, an organ which in principle can be sampled in its entirety. High-throughput sequencing of samples from four pediatric donors detected up to 10.3 x 10(6) unique TCR beta sequences and 3.7 x 10(6) TCR alpha sequences, the highest directly observed diversity so far for either chain. To obtain an estimate of the total diversity we then used three different estimators, preseq and DivE, which measure the saturation of rarefaction curves, and Chao2, which measures the size of the overlap between samples. Our results provide an estimate of a thymic repertoire consisting of 40 to 70 x 10(6) unique TCR beta sequences and 60 to 100 x 10(6) TCR alpha sequences. The thymic repertoire is thus extremely diverse. Moreover, extrapolation of the data and comparison with earlier estimates of peripheral diversity also suggest that the thymic repertoire is transient, with different clones produced at different times. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.