Browsing by Subject "T cells"

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  • Zhang, Kaiyi; Tao, Cong; Xu, Jianping; Ruan, Jinxue; Xia, Jihan; Zhu, Wenjuan; Xin, Leilei; Ye, Huaqiong; Xie, Ning; Xia, Boce; Li, Chenxiao; Wu, Tianwen; Wang, Yanfang; Schroyen, Martine; Xiao, Xinhua; Fan, Jiangao; Yang, Shulin (2021)
    Anti-inflammatory therapies have the potential to become an effective treatment for obesity-related diseases. However, the huge gap of immune system between human and rodent leads to limitations of drug discovery. This work aims at constructing a transgenic pig model with higher risk of metabolic diseases and outlining the immune responses at the early stage of metaflammation by transcriptomic strategy. We used CRISPR/Cas9 techniques to targeted knock-in three humanized disease risk genes, GIPR(dn) , hIAPP and PNPLA3(I148M) . Transgenic effect increased the risk of metabolic disorders. Triple-transgenic pigs with short-term diet intervention showed early symptoms of type 2 diabetes, including glucose intolerance, pancreatic lipid infiltration, islet hypertrophy, hepatic lobular inflammation and adipose tissue inflammation. Molecular pathways related to CD8(+) T cell function were significantly activated in the liver and visceral adipose samples from triple-transgenic pigs, including antigen processing and presentation, T-cell receptor signaling, co-stimulation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine and chemokine secretion. The similar pro-inflammatory signaling in liver and visceral adipose tissue indicated that there might be a potential immune crosstalk between the two tissues. Moreover, genes that functionally related to liver antioxidant activity, mitochondrial function and extracellular matrix showed distinct expression between the two groups, indicating metabolic stress in transgenic pigs' liver samples. We confirmed that triple-transgenic pigs had high coincidence with human metabolic diseases, especially in the scope of inflammatory signaling at early stage metaflammation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable large animal model for the clinical study of metaflammation and metabolic diseases.
  • Ekman, Ilse; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Viisanen, Tyyne; Rao, Deepak A.; Näntö-Salonen, Kirsti; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Kinnunen, Tuure (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Type 1 diabetes is preceded by a period of asymptomatic autoimmunity characterised by positivity for islet autoantibodies. Therefore, T helper cell responses that induce B cell activation are likely to play a critical role in the disease process. Here, we aimed to evaluate the role of a recently described subset, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 5-negative, programmed cell death protein 1-positive (CXCR5(-)PD-1(hi)) peripheral T helper (Tph) cells, in human type 1 diabetes. Methods The phenotype of blood CXCR5(-)PD-1(hi) CD4(+) T cells was analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The frequencies of circulating CXCR5(-)PD-1(hi) T cells were analysed in a cohort of 44 children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, 40 autoantibody-positive (AAb(+)) at-risk children and 84 autoantibody-negative healthy control children, and the findings were replicated in a separate cohort of 15 children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and 15 healthy control children. Results Circulating CXCR5(-)PD-1(hi) Tph cells share several features associated with B cell helper function with circulating CXCR5(+)PD-1(hi) follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. Moreover, the frequency of circulating Tph cells was increased in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, especially in those who are positive for multiple autoantibodies. Importantly, circulating Tph cells were also increased in autoantibody-positive at-risk children who later progressed to type 1 diabetes. Conclusions/interpretation Our results demonstrate that circulating CXCR5(-)PD-1(hi) Tph cells are associated with progression to clinical type 1 diabetes. Consequently, Tph cells could have potential both as a biomarker of disease progression and as a target for immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes.
  • Starskaia, Inna; Laajala, Essi; Grönroos, Toni; Härkönen, Taina; Junttila, Sini; Kattelus, Roosa; Kallionpää, Henna; Laiho, Asta; Suni, Veronika; Tillmann, Vallo; Lund, Riikka; Elo, Laura L.; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Kalim, Ubaid Ullah; Lahesmaa, Riitta (2022)
    Aims/hypothesis Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease of complex aetiology, including a potential role for epigenetic regulation. Previous epigenomic studies focused mainly on clinically diagnosed individuals. The aim of the study was to assess early DNA methylation changes associated with type 1 diabetes already before the diagnosis or even before the appearance of autoantibodies. Methods Reduced representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS) was applied to study DNA methylation in purified CD4(+) T cell, CD8(+) T cell and CD4(-)CD8(-) cell fractions of 226 peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples longitudinally collected from seven type 1 diabetes-specific autoantibody-positive individuals and control individuals matched for age, sex, HLA risk and place of birth. We also explored correlations between DNA methylation and gene expression using RNA sequencing data from the same samples. Technical validation of RRBS results was performed using pyrosequencing. Results We identified 79, 56 and 45 differentially methylated regions in CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells and CD4-CD8- cell fractions, respectively, between type 1 diabetes-specific autoantibody-positive individuals and control participants. The analysis of pre-seroconversion samples identified DNA methylation signatures at the very early stage of disease, including differential methylation at the promoter of IRF5 in CD4(+) T cells. Further, we validated RRBS results using pyrosequencing at the following CpG sites: chr19:18118304 in the promoter of ARRDC2; chr21:47307815 in the intron of PCBP3; and chr14:81128398 in the intergenic region near TRAF3 in CD4(+) T cells. Conclusions/interpretation These preliminary results provide novel insights into cell type-specific differential epigenetic regulation of genes, which may contribute to type 1 diabetes pathogenesis at the very early stage of disease development. Should these findings be validated, they may serve as a potential signature useful for disease prediction and management.
  • Wong, Carlton (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Meningeal lymphatics vessels (mLVs), the recently characterized lymphatics in the central nervous system (CNS), provide a link between the adaptive immune system and the CNS. mLVs could be important for the activation of T cell-mediated adaptive immune response, by draining antigens from the brain to the deep cervical lymph nodes, where they are presented to T cells. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), we hypothesized that the activation of self-reactive T cells (i.e., T cells able to recognize self, brain-derived antigens and promote an immune reaction), possibly underlies the pathogenesis of the disease. In order to test this hypothesis and to decipher the specific role of mLVs in the modulation of T cell-mediated neuro-immune response after TBI, we ablated the existing mLVs in adult male C57BL/6OlaJ mice (with the use of the AAV-mVEGFR3 1-4 Ig vector), induced TBI with controlled cortical impact, and examined the motor function of the mice and the activation of different T cell populations in the brain, as well as in the secondary lymphoid (spleen and lymph nodes – LNs) and non-lymphoid organs (meninges). Our data showed that the T cell-mediated adaptive neuro-immune response in TBI was unaffected by the depletion of mLVs. Our results, however, are preliminary, due to the limited sample size used in this study, which reduces the statistical power and restricts our ability to conclude for the effect of mLV depletion on TBI recovery.
  • Viisanen, Tyyne; Gazali, Ahmad M.; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Ekman, Ilse; Näntö-Salonen, Kirsti; Veijola, Riitta; Toppari, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Ilonen, Jorma; Kinnunen, Tuure (2019)
    The dysfunction of FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, previous studies analyzing the peripheral blood Treg compartment in patients with T1D have yielded partially conflicting results. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of peripheral blood Tregs during the development of human T1D has not been comprehensively analyzed. Here, we used multi-color flow cytometry to analyze the frequency of distinct Treg subsets in blood samples from a large cohort comprising of 74 children with newly diagnosed T1D, 76 autoantibody-positive children at-risk for T1D and 180 age- and HLA-matched control children. The frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127lowFOXP3+ Tregs was higher in children with T1D compared to control children, and this change was attributable to a higher proportion of naive Tregs in these subjects. Further longitudinal analyses demonstrated that the increase in Treg frequency correlated with disease onset. The frequencies of the minor subsets of CD25+FOXP3low memory Tregs as well as CD25lowCD127lowFOXP3+ Tregs were also increased in children with T1D. Moreover, the ratio of CCR6-CXCR3+ and CCR6+CXCR3- memory Tregs was altered and the frequency of proliferating Ki67-positive and IFN-gamma producing memory Tregs was decreased in children with T1D. The frequency of CXCR5+FOXP3+ circulating follicular T regulatory cells was not altered in children with T1D. Importantly, none of the alterations observed in children with T1D were observed in autoantibody-positive at-risk children. In conclusion, our study reveals multiple alterations in the peripheral blood Treg compartment at the diagnosis of T1D that appear not to be features of early islet autoimmunity.
  • Oroojalian, Fatemeh; Beygi, Mohammad; Baradaran, Behzad; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali (2021)
    Nanotechnology has provided great opportunities for managing neoplastic conditions at various levels, from preventive and diagnostic to therapeutic fields. However, when it comes to clinical application, nanoparticles (NPs) have some limitations in terms of biological stability, poor targeting, and rapid clearance from the body. Therefore, biomimetic approaches, utilizing immune cell membranes, are proposed to solve these issues. For example, macrophage or neutrophil cell membrane coated NPs are developed with the ability to interact with tumor tissue to suppress cancer progression and metastasis. The functionality of these particles largely depends on the surface proteins of the immune cells and their preserved function during membrane extraction and coating process on the NPs. Proteins on the outer surface of immune cells can render a wide range of activities to the NPs, including prolonged blood circulation, remarkable competency in recognizing antigens for enhanced targeting, better cellular interactions, gradual drug release, and reduced toxicity in vivo. In this review, nano-based systems coated with immune cells-derived membranous layers, their detailed production process, and the applicability of these biomimetic systems in cancer treatment are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges for their clinical translation are also presented.
  • Paasela, Monika; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno (2014)
  • Kaustio, Meri; Nayebzadeh, Naemeh; Hinttala, Reetta; Tapiainen, Terhi; Astrom, Pirjo; Mamia, Katariina; Pernaa, Nora; Lehtonen, Johanna; Glumoff, Virpi; Rahikkala, Elisa; Honkila, Minna; Olsen, Paivi; Hassinen, Antti; Polso, Minttu; Al Sukaiti, Nashat; Al Shekaili, Jalila; Al Kindi, Mahmood; Al Hashmi, Nadia; Almusa, Henrikki; Bulanova, Daria; Haapaniemi, Emma; Chen, Pu; Suo-Palosaari, Maria; Vieira, Paivi; Tuominen, Hannu; Kokkonen, Hannaleena; Al Macki, Nabil; Al Habsi, Huda; Löppönen, Tuija; Rantala, Heikki; Pietiäinen, Vilja; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Renko, Marjo; Hautala, Timo; Al Farsi, Tariq; Uusimaa, Johanna; Saarela, Janna (2021)
    Background: Homozygous loss of DIAPH1 results in seizures, cortical blindness, and microcephaly syndrome (SCBMS). We studied 5 Finnish and 2 Omani patients with loss of DIAPH1 presenting with SCBMS, mitochondrial dysfunction, and immunodeficiency. Objective: We sought to further characterize phenotypes and disease mechanisms associated with loss of DIAPH1. Methods: Exome sequencing, genotyping and haplotype analysis, B- and T-cell phenotyping, in vitro lymphocyte stimulation assays, analyses of mitochondrial function, immunofluorescence staining for cytoskeletal proteins and mitochondria, and CRISPR-Cas9 DIAPH1 knockout in heathy donor PBMCs were used. Results: Genetic analyses found all Finnish patients homozygous for a rare DIAPH1 splice-variant (NM_005219:c.68411G>A) enriched in the Finnish population, and Omani patients homozygous for a previously described pathogenic DIAPH1 frameshift-variant (NM_005219:c.2769delT;p.F923fs). In addition to microcephaly, epilepsy, and cortical blindness characteristic to SCBMS, the patients presented with infection susceptibility due to defective lymphocyte maturation and 3 patients developed B-cell lymphoma. Patients' immunophenotype was characterized by poor lymphocyte activation and proliferation, defective B-cell maturation, and lack of naive T cells. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of DIAPH1 in PBMCs from healthy donors replicated the T-cell activation defect. Patient-derived peripheral blood T cells exhibited impaired adhesion and inefficient microtubule-organizing center repositioning to the immunologic synapse. The clinical symptoms and laboratory tests also suggested mitochondrial dysfunction. Experiments with immortalized, patient-derived fibroblasts indicated that DIAPH1 affects the amount of complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that individuals with SCBMS can have combined immune deficiency and implicate defective cytoskeletal organization and mitochondrial dysfunction in SCBMS pathogenesis.
  • Gazali, Ahmad M.; Schroderus, Anna-Mari; Näntö-Salonen, Kirsti; Rintamäki, Reeta; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Kinnunen, Tuure (2020)
    Aims/hypothesis Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells that recognise derivatives of bacterial riboflavin metabolites presented by MHC-Ib-related protein 1 (MR1) molecules and are important effector cells for mucosal immunity. Their development can be influenced by the intestinal microbiome. Since the development of type 1 diabetes has been associated with changes in the gut microbiome, this can be hypothesised to lead to alterations in circulating MAIT cells. Accordingly, peripheral blood MAIT cell alterations have been reported previously in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, a comprehensive analysis of the frequency and phenotype of circulating MAIT cells at different stages of type 1 diabetes progression is currently lacking. Methods We analysed the frequency, phenotype and functionality of peripheral blood MAIT cells, as well as gamma delta T cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and natural killer (NK) cells with flow cytometry in a cross-sectional paediatric cohort (aged 2-15) consisting of 51 children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, 27 autoantibody-positive (AAb(+)) at-risk children, and 113 healthy control children of similar age and HLA class II background. The frequency of MAIT cells was also assessed in a separate cross-sectional adult cohort (aged 19-39) of 33 adults with established type 1 diabetes and 37 healthy individuals of similar age. Results Children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes displayed a proportional increase of CD8(-)CD27(-)MAIT cells compared with healthy control children (median 4.6% vs 3.1% of MAIT cells, respectively, p = 0.004), which was associated with reduced expression of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR)5 (median 90.0% vs 94.3% of MAIT cells, p = 0.02) and beta 7 integrin (median 73.5% vs 81.7% of MAIT cells, p = 0.004), as well as decreased production of IFN-gamma (median 57.1% vs 69.3% of MAIT cells, p = 0.04) by the MAIT cells. The frequency of MAIT cells was also decreased in AAb(+)children who later progressed to type 1 diabetes compared with healthy control children (median 0.44% vs 0.96% of CD3(+)T cells, p = 0.04), as well as in adult patients with a short duration of type 1 diabetes (less than 6 years after diagnosis) compared with control individuals (median 0.87% vs 2.19% of CD3(+)T cells, p = 0.007). No alterations in gamma delta T cell, iNKT cell or NK cell frequencies were observed in children with type 1 diabetes or in AAb(+) children, with the exception of an increased frequency of IL-17A(+)gamma delta T cells in children with newly diagnosed diabetes compared with healthy control children (median 1.58% vs 1.09% of gamma delta T cells, p = 0.002). Conclusions/interpretation Changes in the frequency and phenotype of circulating MAIT cells were detectable before, at the onset and after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in cross-sectional cohorts. Our results suggest a possible temporal association between peripheral blood MAIT cell alterations and the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes.
  • Milenova, Ioanna; Gonzalez, Marta Lopez; Quixabeira, Dafne C. A.; Santos, Joao Manuel; Cervera-Carrascon, Victor; Dong, Wenliang; Hemminki, Akseli; van Beusechem, Victor W.; van de Ven, Rieneke; de Gruijl, Tanja D. (2021)
    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have advanced the treatment of melanoma. Nevertheless, a majority of patients are resistant, or develop resistance, to immune checkpoint blockade, which may be related to prevailing immune suppression by myeloid regulatory cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). ORCA-010 is a novel oncolytic adenovirus that selectively replicates in, and lyses, cancer cells. We previously showed that ORCA-010 can activate melanoma-exposed conventional dendritic cells (cDCs). To study the effect of ORCA-010 on melanoma-conditioned macrophage development, we used an in vitro co-culture model of human monocytes with melanoma cell lines. We observed a selective survival and polarization of monocytes into M2-like macrophages (CD14(+)CD80(-)CD163(+)) in co-cultures with cell lines that expressed macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Oncolysis of these melanoma cell lines, effected by ORCA-010, activated the resulting macrophages and converted them to a more proinflammatory state, evidenced by higher levels of PD-L1, CD80, and CD86 and an enhanced capacity to prime allogenic T cells and induce a type-1 T cell response. To assess the effect of ORCA-010 on myeloid subset distribution and activation in vivo, ORCA-010 was intratumorally injected and tested for T cell activation and recruitment in the human adenovirus nonpermissive B16-OVA mouse melanoma model. While systemic PD-1 blockade in this model in itself did not modulate myeloid or T cell subset distribution and activation, when it was preceded by i.t. injection of ORCA-010, this induced an increased rate and activation state of CD8 alpha(+) cDC1, both in the TME and in the spleen. Observed increased rates of activated CD8(+) T cells, expressing CD69 and PD-1, were related to both increased CD8 alpha(+) cDC1 rates and M1/M2 shifts in tumor and spleen. In conclusion, the myeloid modulatory properties of ORCA-010 in melanoma, resulting in recruitment and activation of T cells, could enhance the antitumor efficacy of PD-1 blockade.
  • Linnaranta, O; Trontti, KT; Honkanen, J; Hovatta, I; Keinanen, J; Suvisaari, J (2021)
    he excess availability of glucose and lipids can also have an impact on the dynamics of activation and regulation of peripheral immune cellsWe aimed at understanding the correlations between peripheral metabolic state and immune system during the first year in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Patients with FEP (n = 67) and matched controls (n = 38), aged 18?40 years, were met at baseline, 2 and 12 months. Fasting peripheral blood samples were collected. We applied the NanoString nCounter in-solution hybridization technology to determine gene expression levels of 178 candidate genes reflecting activation of the immune system. Serum triglycerides, highdensity lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and insulin and plasma glucose (fP-Gluc) were measured. We applied Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to visualize enrichment of genes to functional classes. Strength of positive or negative regulation of the disease and functional pathways was deduced from IPA activation Z-score at the three evaluation points. We correlated gene expression with plasma glucose, triglycerids and HDL and LDL, and used hierarchical clustering of the pairwise correlations to identify groups of genes with similar correlation patterns with metabolic markers. In patients, initially, genes associated with the innate immune system response pathways were upregulated, which decreased by 12 months. Furthermore, genes associated with apoptosis and T cell death were downregulated, and genes associated with lipid metabolism were increasingly downregulated by 12 months. The immune activation was thus an acute phase during illness onset. At baseline, after controlling for multiple testing, 31/178 genes correlated positively with fasting glucose levels, and 54/178 genes negatively with triglycerides in patients only. The gene clusters showed patterns of correlations with metabolic markers over time. The results suggest a functional link between peripheral immune system and metabolic state in FEP. Metabolic factors may have had an influence on the initial activation of the innate immune system. Future work is necessary to understand the role of metabolic state in the regulation of immune response in the early phases of psychosis.
  • Harjunpää, H.; Guillerey, C. (2020)
    T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on lymphocytes that was recently propelled under the spotlight as a major emerging target in cancer immunotherapy. TIGIT interacts with CD155 expressed on antigen-presenting cells or tumour cells to down-regulate T cell and natural killer (NK) cell functions. TIGIT has emerged as a key inhibitor of anti-tumour responses that can hinder multiple steps of the cancer immunity cycle. Pre-clinical studies indicated that TIGIT blockade may protect against various solid and haematological cancers. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the inhibitory activity of human TIGIT have been developed. Clinical trials are ongoing, investigating TIGIT blockade as a monotherapy or in combination with anti-PD1/PD-L1 mAbs for the treatment of patients with advanced solid malignancies. In this review, we cover our current knowledge on TIGIT, from its discovery in 2009 to its current status as a clinical target.
  • Palmroth, Maaria; Kuuliala, Krista; Peltomaa, Ritva; Virtanen, Anniina; Kuuliala, Antti; Kurttila, Antti; Kinnunen, Anna; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Silvennoinen, Olli; Isomäki, Pia (2021)
    Objective Current knowledge on the actions of tofacitinib on cytokine signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on in vitro studies. Our study is the first to examine the effects of tofacitinib treatment on Janus kinase (JAK) - signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways in vivo in patients with RA. Methods Sixteen patients with active RA, despite treatment with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs), received tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily for three months. Levels of constitutive and cytokine-induced phosphorylated STATs in peripheral blood monocytes, T cells and B cells were measured by flow cytometry at baseline and three-month visits. mRNA expression of JAKs, STATs and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) were measured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by quantitative PCR. Association of baseline signaling profile with treatment response was also investigated. Results Tofacitinib, in csDMARDs background, decreased median disease activity score (DAS28) from 4.4 to 2.6 (p < 0.001). Tofacitinib treatment significantly decreased cytokine-induced phosphorylation of all JAK-STAT pathways studied. However, the magnitude of the inhibitory effect depended on the cytokine and cell type studied, varying from 10% to 73% inhibition following 3-month treatment with tofacitinib. In general, strongest inhibition by tofacitinib was observed with STAT phosphorylations induced by cytokines signaling through the common-gamma-chain cytokine receptor in T cells, while lowest inhibition was demonstrated for IL-10 -induced STAT3 phosphorylation in monocytes. Constitutive STAT1, STAT3, STAT4 and STAT5 phosphorylation in monocytes and/or T cells was also downregulated by tofacitinib. Tofacitinib treatment downregulated the expression of several JAK-STAT pathway components in PBMCs, SOCSs showing the strongest downregulation. Baseline STAT phosphorylation levels in T cells and monocytes and SOCS3 expression in PBMCs correlated with treatment response. Conclusions Tofacitinib suppresses multiple JAK-STAT pathways in cytokine and cell population specific manner in RA patients in vivo. Besides directly inhibiting JAK activation, tofacitinib downregulates the expression of JAK-STAT pathway components. This may modulate the effects of tofacitinib on JAK-STAT pathway activation in vivo and explain some of the differential findings between the current study and previous in vitro studies. Finally, baseline immunological markers associate with the treatment response to tofacitinib.