Browsing by Subject "TALK"

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  • Katainen, Anu; Heikkilä, Riie (2020)
    Critical discussions on the focus group method have highlighted the importance of considering the forms of interaction generated in groups. In this empirical paper we argue that these forms of interaction are intimately linked to the ways participants interpret the study setting, and these interpretations are likely to differ significantly depending on participants' social backgrounds. In the light of our data consisting of 18 focus groups with 15-year-old school pupils from both affluent and deprived neighbourhoods of Helsinki discussing film clips about young people drinking alcohol, we ask what kinds of modes of participation are mobilised in focus group discussions in order to mark the social position of participants. We further analyse these modes in relation to situated identity performances, arguing that contextual factors of the study setting become especially important to consider when researching vulnerable groups and heterogeneous populations. The analysis yields three modes of participation: these are active/engaged, resistant/passive and dominant/transformative. We argue that these modes can be viewed as actively taken positions that reveal what kinds of identities and competences participants are able and willing to mobilise in the study setting, and that recognising these modes is important in all interview settings.
  • Taar, Jaana; Palojoki, Päivi (2022)
    In this paper, we seek to determine the relationship between home economics education and 21stcentury skills (critical thinking, creativity, communication and collaboration) in the context of social learning. We see potential in students' discussions while working together with different group members and practicing the essential skills necessary for coping in the contemporary world. Using a socio-cultural framework, we focused on students' talk and language use as a tool in an educational setting. In addition, interthinking was analysed to obtain an overview of language use for thinking together while solving learning assignments requiring thinking-in-action in the context of home economics lessons. The results demonstrate how interthinking emerges in students' group work discussions during gap-closing processes in various collaborative home economics tasks (n = 11). As a result, interthinking was determined to be as a good medium for the development of 21st-century skills in school lessons. Based on the empirical data, we argue that interthinking is well-suited to the aims and context of home economics education, as it enables the promotion of students' action competence so that the knowledge and skills learned in school can become a reality in students' lives.
  • Niemi, Jarkko (2015)
    This study focusses on the Finnish utterance type that consists of voi olla '(it) may be' and a span of talk initiated by et(ta) 'that', that follows it. The analysis demonstrates that in an initiating turn, the utterance initiated by the voi olla etta '(it) may be that' expresses a lack of knowledge of a state of affairs and usually provides for an expansion on the topic. By contrast, in a responding turn, the displayed lack of knowledge is often related to producing a hedged affirmative answer. Moreover, the study argues that the relative prominence of the two parts of the utterance differ according to its sequential position. In an initiating turn, the talk following voi olla is more prominent. This reflects the function of the turn as initiating something new, which is presented in the talk after et(ta). However, in a responding turn, voi olla gains more prominence than the talk following it, because the stance that voi olla expresses embodies an alignment with the co-participant's prior action. The data used for this study are drawn from audio and videotaped interactions between friends and relatives, as well as customer-service encounters. The methodology for the study is conversation analysis. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Weiste, Elina; Stevanovic, Melisa; Valkeapää, Taina; Valkiaranta, Kaisa; Lindholm, Camilla (2021)
    Being identified as “mentally ill” is a complicated social process that may be stigmatizing and socially problematic, as a mental illness diagnosis determines the criteria for what is considered normal. This has given rise to a number of anti-stigma campaigns designed to create awareness of the way stigmas affect people with mental health difficulties and to normalize those difficulties in society. One such campaign is the “diagnosis-free zone”, which declares that those with mental health difficulties should not be categorized on the basis of their diagnosis; rather, they should be encountered as full individuals. In this paper, we investigate how mental health difficulties are discussed in Clubhouse communities, which adhere to the “diagnosis free zone” programme. The findings are based on conversation analysis of 29 video-recorded rehabilitation group meetings, in one Finnish Clubhouse, intended to advance clients' return to the labour market. The analysis demonstrated that members referred to their mental health difficulties to explain the misfortunes in their lives, especially interruptions and stoppages in their careers. By contrast, staff members disattended members’ explanations and normalized their situations as typical of all humans and thus unrelated to their mental health difficulties as such. In this way, the discussion of mental health difficulties at the Clubhouse meetings was implicitly discouraged. We propose that the standards of normality expected of a person not suffering from a mental health difficulty may well be different from the expectations levelled at participants with a history of mental problems. Therefore, instead of considering cultural expectations of normality to be a unified domain, effective anti-stigma work might sometimes benefit from referring to mental-health diagnoses as a means of explicitly tailoring expectations of normality.
  • Mononen, Kaarina (2019)
    This article analyses how caregivers use affective touch as a resource to facilitate interaction. Through touch, caregivers construct positive socio-emotional relationships with their residents. The analysis of micro-level interaction is based on an interactional sociolinguistic framework, and reveals how caregivers display affection and intimacy while assisting the residents in everyday situations in a care home. All of the examples involve touching a person's shoulder, stroking or giving half-embraces, typical resources used to construct affiliation between caregivers and residents. This article illustrates how affective touch facilitates interaction by regulating participation and calming down residents, by mitigating the controlling aspect of caring, and by fostering a positive interpersonal relationship. The care situations presented in this article contain crucial pauses within talk that are used to construct a peaceful atmosphere. During these crucial moments, embodied action effectively indicates an orientation to listening and establishes a presence to accomplish the actions in that situational talk. This analysis contributes to the studies on embodied interaction and on interpersonal relationships in care for older adults.(1)
  • Koskinen, Emmi; Stevanovic, Melisa (2022)
    Sometimes a division has been made between expressions of knowledge and expressions of emotion, but in the actual instances of interaction, they are deeply intertwined. In this paper we investigate the relationship between these expressions through the notions of affiliation and epistemics. More specifically, we analyze the phenomenon of ‘epistemic calibration’ in response to tellings of personal experience, where recipients fine-tune the strength of their access claims and the degree of their generalizations to be in line with their epistemic statuses in relation to those of the tellers. Drawing on a dataset of Finnish quasi-natural conversations with neurotypical participants and participants diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, we explore how such calibration is done in practice. Our analysis points to different challenges in epistemic calibration, which, we argue, play an important role in influencing the hearing of these responses as less than fully affiliative.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Perakyla, Anssi (2015)
    In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1) the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2) the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, people's inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research.
  • Kazemi, Ali (2020)
    This study examines the sequential and situated organization associated with framing locational formulations by dislocated parties to mobile phone calls for the joint accomplishment of location-related social action. The data come from 22 mundane Farsi mobile phone calls involving location inquiring and/or reporting. The analysis of the data, informed by conversational analysis and Levinson's conceptual framework of perspective-taking, adds frame of reference (hereafter, FoR) to Schegloff's location, membership, and topic or activity analyses operative in the selection of locational formulations. The trajectory plotted for location-related action indicates the contingent roles which material, linguistic and semiotic resources play in the selection of locational formulations deployed for co-presence purposes. The findings suggest consequentiality of the-relevant-next action for the framing of locational descriptions and provide insight into how conversationalists interact with their physical environment in a wider social context.
  • Salmi, Hannu; Thuneberg, Helena; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina (2017)
    Dinosaurs have been a very popular science topic since signs of their presence on earth were first discovered. They have represented so-called edutainment' for some people. Learning from informal sources and in- an out-of-school environment can be effective and motivating. In this study, 12-year-old pupils (N=366) visited a dinosaur science centre exhibition in Finland. Pupils were tested with standardised tests of motivation as defined by self-determination theory, cognitive skills, and interest via pre-, post-, and delayed post-tests during a six-month period. Findings show that pupils learned from the science centre visit and enjoyed the experience. The factors explaining their post-test knowledge in addition to their previous knowledge were (1) general cognitive competence, (2) liking studying biology at the science centre, (3) participation in a dinosaur demonstration, and (4) gender. As there was no difference between boys and girls in general cognitive competences, the knowledge results of boys and girls equally related to their cognitive competence. Autonomy also influenced situational motivation both directly and indirectly, which in turn had a strong effect on liking studying in the exhibition. It also influenced the post-test knowledge indirectly. In the lowest school achievement group, participation in the dinosaur demonstration increased knowledge in the post-test.
  • Sakki, Inari; Pettersson, Katarina (2018)
    Taking a (critical) discursive psychological approach, the present study explores the identity management of the Finnish and Swedish Prime Ministers (PM) in relation to the "refugee crisis" and their countries' asylum policies. By taking a longitudinal approach and analysing the PMs' accounts of the "refugee crisis" from 1-year period, we focused on the ways rhetorical devices related to ethos, logos, and pathos were used to manage the issues of stake and accountability, as well as on the ways in which categories were worked up to serve particular functions. Our comparative analysis demonstrated significant similarities in the Finnish and Swedish PMs' talk, especially with regard to the transfer from a discourse of pathos and ethos, describing refugees in terms of individualism and humaneness, to a discourse of logos, emphasizing rationality, justifying sharpened immigration policies, and homogenizing refugees. However, the different historical paths of the two countries' immigration policies and the specific political situation had implications for the PMs' discourse. The Swedish PM could feasibly scapegoat the Sweden Democrats and the political right in opposition, whereas the Finnish PM, with the populist radical right as a government partner, engaged more heavily in distinctions between "real, needing" and "false, undeserving" refugees. We argue for the longitudinal approach in the analysis of political discourse, as such an approach allows to identify the changes and continuities in the discourse, as well as to grasp the dialogical interplay between the discourse and its context.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa (2021)
    This paper examines music instrument teachers' instructive use of noun metaphors and metonymies of behaviors related to the playing and handling of a musical instrument. Drawing on 10 video-recorded 30-40 min-long instrument lessons as data, and conversation analysis as a method, the paper examines the temporal location of these figurative turns (i.e., instruction turns including a noun metaphor or metonymy) within the instructional activities and in relation to the student's behaviors. At the beginning of a new instructional sequence, a figurative turn allows the teacher to test and monitor the level of student's knowledge, while the student orients to a need to demonstrate that knowledge. Figurative turns also enable the teacher to initiate correction in complex movement sequences, its organization as a series of metaphors or metonymies enabling an easy return to an earlier point in a sequence. Furthermore, the flexibility of metaphors and metonymies as interactional resources is evidenced by the ease by which a figurative instruction turn may be transformed into an affirmative evaluation of student conduct. The paper thus suggests that instructing body knowledge through metaphors and metonymies has significant pedagogical advantages, also providing a detailed account for why and how this is the case.
  • Huhtamäki, Martina; Lindström, Jan; Londen, Anne-Marie (2020)
    This study examines other-repetitions in Finland Swedish talk-in-interaction: their sequential trajectories, prosodic design, and lexicogrammatical features. The key objective is to explore how prosody can contribute to the action conveyed by a repetition turn, that is, whether it deals with a problem of hearing or understanding, a problem of expectation, or just registers receipt of information. The analysis shows that large and upgraded prosodic features (higher onset, wider pitch span than the previous turn) co-occur with repair- and expectation-oriented repetitions, whereas small, downgraded prosody (lower onset, narrower pitch span than the previous turn) is characteristic of registering. However, the distinguishing strength of prosody is mostly gradient (rather than discrete), and because of this, other concomitant cues, most notably the speakers’ epistemic positions in relation to the repeated item, are also of importance for ascribing a certain pragmatic function to a repetition.
  • Kaski, Timo; Niemi, Jarkko; Pullins, Ellen (2018)
    Acquisition of new customers is critical for any business seeking to achieve growth. This paper investigates the skill of rapport building in establishing new customer relationships and engaging customers for solution co-creation. A qualitative multiple phase study supports a micro-level analysis of rapport building in the context of business-to-business solutions and services selling. The study includes three parts: in-depth qualitative interviews, conversation analysis of video-recorded real-life sales meetings, and follow-up interviews. The results show that salesperson-initiated actions have little influence on rapport building and that strong initial rapport can compensate for potential interaction weaknesses later in the meeting. Our findings point to a set of collaborative actions and related skills needed to build rapport and move a relationship forward. These findings provide theoretical insights into the earliest moments of new customer relationship formation. The results inform businesses seeking to refocus and develop their rapport building skills towards more customer-engaging collaboration.
  • Voutilainen, Liisa; Peräkylä, Anssi; Ruusuvuori, Johanna (2010)
  • Vatanen, Anna (2018)
    What are speakers doing when they overlap with the previous speaker and start their response at a recognition point well before the transition-relevance place? This article adds to the body of literature on overlapping talk initiated by Gail Jefferson and shows that speakers use these turn-onset points to show that they have their own reasons to agree with what the first speaker is saying. That gets on record an equal, independent commitment to the assertion that the previous speaker is making. The overlapping speaker strives for a more balanced, symmetrical relationship with the current speaker with regard to time, speakership, and agency. The data are in Finnish and Estonian with English translation.
  • Tainio, Liisa; Heinonen, Pilvi (2021)
    This article explores embodied responses to teacher reproaches during classroom interaction. Drawing on multimodal conversation analysis as a method, the analysis focuses on teacher-initiated reproach-sequences and particularly on the specific touch type that is produced within the sequence: student-to-student hand-on-shoulder touch. In the analyzed sequences, the teacher reproach or critical evaluation is addressed to an individual student who responds to it verbally and through embodied orientation followed by an embodied response, a hand-on-shoulder touch by a student located close to the addressed student. By constructing an embodied response with recycled touch type that is frequently used by teachers for pedagogical purposes, the student that uses the hand-on-shoulder touch orients to a dual role in classroom interaction: first to the academic aspect of the student role by following the teacher agenda, and second to the aspect of peer relations and social bonding by teasing and displaying compassion towards the reproached student.
  • Pfaender, Stefan; Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth (2019)
    This paper investigates one particular type of simultaneous speech, namely turn-sharing, in the Freiburg Sofa Talks, a corpus of video-recorded dyadic conversations between partners, friends, and siblings who are recollecting events they have experienced together in the past. The focus is on interactions in German and French. In turnsharing, participants aim at saying the same thing at the same time, using these moments to convey something to each other, and occasionally to a third party in the room. We identify two different types of turn-sharing, choral performance and chiming in, which are brought off by different micro-practices with verbal, prosodic, and bodily resources. Each type achieves something different interactionally, either displaying a shared affective stance towards something in an alternative world or embodying an epistemic claim to know as much as the main speaker. We conclude that choral performance and chiming in are two sedimented formats for turn-sharing that are achieved with different practices using semiotic resources that are comparable, if not identical, across languages. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.