Browsing by Subject "TARGETED DISRUPTION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • ITALSGEN Consortium; Genomic Translation ALS Care GTAC; ALS Sequencing Consortium; NYGC ALS Consortium; Answer ALS Fdn; Clinical Res ALS Related Disorders; SLAGEN Consortium; French ALS Consortium; Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consor (2018)
    To identify novel genes associated with ALS, we undertook two lines of investigation. We carried out a genome-wide association study comparing 20,806 ALS cases and 59,804 controls. Independently, we performed a rare variant burden analysis comparing 1,138 index familial ALS cases and 19,494 controls. Through both approaches, we identified kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) as a novel gene associated with ALS. Interestingly, mutations predominantly in the N-terminal motor domain of KIF5A are causative for two neurodegenerative diseases: hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2). In contrast, ALS-associated mutations are primarily located at the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain and patients harboring loss-of-function mutations displayed an extended survival relative to typical ALS cases. Taken together, these results broaden the phenotype spectrum resulting from mutations in KIF5A and strengthen the role of cytoskeletal defects in the pathogenesis of ALS.
  • Tayem, Raneem; Niemann, Catherin; Pesch, Monika; Morgner, Jessica; Niessen, Carien M.; Wickström, Sara A.; Aumailley, Monique (2021)
    The skin epidermis is attached to the underlying dermis by a laminin 332 (Lm332)-rich basement membrane. Consequently, loss of Lm332 leads to the severe blistering disorder epidermolysis bullosa junctionalis in humans and animals. Owing to the indispensable role of Lm332 in keratinocyte adhesion in vivo, the severity of the disease has limited research into other functions of the protein. We have conditionally disrupted Lm332 expression in basal keratinocytes of adult mice. Although blisters develop along the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicle basal cells provide sufficient anchorage of the epidermis to the dermis, making inducible deletion of the Lama3 gene compatible with life. Loss of Lm332 promoted the thickening of the epidermis and exaggerated desquamation. Global RNA expression analysis revealed major changes in the expression of keratins, cornified envelope proteins, and cellular stress markers. These modifications of the keratinocyte genetic program are accompanied by changes in cell shape and disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. These data indicate that loss of Lm332-mediated progenitor cell adhesion alters cell fate and disturbs epidermal homeostasis.
  • Anthoni, M.; Fyhrquist-Vanni, N.; Wolff, H.; Alenius, H.; Lauerma, A. (2008)
    Background Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is an important modulator of immune functions and cellular responses, such as differentiation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. The Smad proteins, which are intracellular TGF-beta signal transducers, mediate most actions of TGF-beta. Objectives This study examines the role of Smad3 in a murine model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Methods The CHS response to oxazolone was studied in Smad3-deficient mice. The ear swelling response was measured and skin biopsies from oxazolone-sensitized skin areas were obtained for RNA isolation, immunohistochemical analyses and histology. Ear draining lymph nodes were collected for RNA isolation and proliferation tests. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines and transcription factors. Results The expression of proinflammatory [interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6], Th2 (IL-4) and Th17 type cytokines (IL-17), as well as regulatory components (TGF-beta, Foxp3) increased significantly at the mRNA level in the skin of oxazolone-treated Smad3-/- mice when compared with wild-type controls. The expression of the Th1 type cytokine IFN-gamma and the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 was, however, unaffected by the lack of Smad3. The number of neutrophils and expression of the chemokines CCL3 and CXCL5, which are both involved in neutrophil recruitment, were increased in mice lacking Smad3. Also Th2 type chemokines CCL24, CCL3 and CXCL5 were increased in the skin of Smad3-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. In the lymph nodes, mRNA of IL-1 beta and IL-17, but not IL-4, TGF-beta or Foxp3, was increased in Smad3-/- mice during the CHS response. Conclusions The lack of intact TGF-beta signalling via Smad3 results in an increased proinflammatory, Th2 and Th17 type response in the skin, as well as increased expression of regulatory elements such as TGF-beta and Foxp3. Understanding the role of Smad3 in the CHS response may offer treatment and prevention strategies in this often disabling disease.
  • Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Suveges, Daniel; Min, Josine L.; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Steinberg, Julia; Walter, Klaudia; Iotchkova, Valentina; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Crawford, Andrew A.; Bombieri, Cristina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Gaunt, Tom R.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kooijman, Marjolein N.; Lehne, Benjamin; Malerba, Giovanni; Mannisto, Satu; Matchan, Angela; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Metrustry, Sarah J.; Nag, Abhishek; Ntalla, Ioanna; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Sala, Cinzia; Scott, William R.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Southam, Lorraine; St Pourcain, Beate; Traglia, Michela; Trajanoska, Katerina; Zaza, Gialuigi; Zhang, Weihua; Artigas, Maria S.; Bansal, Narinder; Benn, Marianne; Chen, Zhongsheng; Danecek, Petr; Lin, Wei-Yu; Locke, Adam; Luan, Jian'an; Manning, Alisa K.; Mulas, Antonella; Sidore, Carlo; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Perola, Markus; SpiroMeta Consortium; GoT2D Consortium; ArcOGEN Consortium; Understanding Soc Sci Grp; UK10KConsortium (2017)
    Deep sequence-based imputation can enhance the discovery power of genome-wide association studies by assessing previously unexplored variation across the common-and low-frequency spectra. We applied a hybrid whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and deep imputation approach to examine the broader allelic architecture of 12 anthropometric traits associated with height, body mass, and fat distribution in up to 267,616 individuals. We report 106 genome-wide significant signals that have not been previously identified, including 9 low-frequency variants pointing to functional candidates. Of the 106 signals, 6 are in genomic regions that have not been implicated with related traits before, 28 are independent signals at previously reported regions, and 72 represent previously reported signals for a different anthropometric trait. 71% of signals reside within genes and fine mapping resolves 23 signals to one or two likely causal variants. We confirm genetic overlap between human monogenic and polygenic anthropometric traits and find signal enrichment in cis expression QTLs in relevant tissues. Our results highlight the potential of WGS strategies to enhance biologically relevant discoveries across the frequency spectrum.