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  • Adult Adv Life Support Collaborato; Soar, Jasmeet; Berg, Katherine M.; Andersen, Lars W.; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Nolan, Jerry P. (2020)
    This 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations for advanced life support includes updates on multiple advanced life support topics addressed with 3 different types of reviews. Topics were prioritized on the basis of both recent interest within the resuscitation community and the amount of new evidence available since any previous review. Systematic reviews addressed higher-priority topics, and included double-sequential defibrillation, intravenous versus intraosseous route for drug administration during cardiac arrest, point-of-care echocardiography for intra-arrest prognostication, cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary embolism, postresuscitation oxygenation and ventilation, prophylactic antibiotics after resuscitation, postresuscitation seizure prophylaxis and treatment, and neuroprognostication. New or updated treatment recommendations on these topics are presented. Scoping reviews were conducted for anticipatory charging and monitoring of physiological parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Topics for which systematic reviews and new Consensuses on Science With Treatment Recommendations were completed since 2015 are also summarized here. All remaining topics reviewed were addressed with evidence updates to identify any new evidence and to help determine which topics should be the highest priority for systematic reviews in the next 1 to 2 years.
  • Perkins, Gavin D.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Haywood, Kirstie; Neumar, Robert W.; Lilja, Gisela; Rowland, Matthew J.; Sawyer, Kelly N.; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Nolan, Jerry P. (2021)
    As more people are surviving cardiac arrest, focus needs to shift towards improving neurological outcomes and quality of life in survivors. Brain injury after resuscitation, a common sequela following cardiac arrest, ranges in severity from mild impairment to devastating brain injury and brainstem death. Effective strategies to minimise brain injury after resuscitation include early intervention with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, restoration of normal physiology, and targeted temperature management. It is important to identify people who might have a poor outcome, to enable informed choices about continuation or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. Multimodal prediction guidelines seek to avoid premature withdrawal in those who might survive with a good neurological outcome, or prolonging treatment that might result in survival with severe disability. Approximately one in three admitted to intensive care will survive, many of whom will need intensive, tailored rehabilitation after discharge to have the best outcomes.
  • Humaloja, Jaana; Ashton, Nicholas J.; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2022)
    This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2022. Other selected articles can be found online at Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from https://link.
  • Babini, Giovanni; Ameloot, Koen; Skrifvars, Markus (2021)
    Postcardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction (PCAMD) is a frequent complication faced during post-resuscitation care that adversely impacts survival and neurological outcome. Both mechanical and electrical factors contribute to the occurrence of PCAMD. Prearrest ventricular function, the cause of cardiac arrest, global ischemia, resuscitation factors, ischemia/reperfusion injury and post-resuscitation treatments contribute to the severity of PCMAD. the pathophysiology of PCAMD is complex and include myocytes energy failure, impaired contractility, cardiac edema, mitochondrial damage, activation of inflammatory pathways and the coagulation cascade, persistent ischemic injury and myocardial stiffness. Hypotension and low cardiac output with vasopressor/inotropes need are frequent after resuscitation. However, clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory signs of shock are frequently altered by cardiac arrest pathophysiology and post-resuscitation treatment, potentially being misleading and not fully reflecting the severity of postcardiac arrest syndrome. Even if validated criteria are lacking, an extensive hemodynamic evaluation is useful to define a "benign" and a "malign" form of myocardial dysfunction and circulatory shock, potentially having treatment and prognostic implications. cardiac output is frequently decreased after cardiac arrest, particularly in patients treated with target temperature management (TTM); however, it is not independently associated with outcome. sinus bradycardia during TTM seems independently associated with survival and good neurological outcome, representing a promising prognostic indicator. Higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) seems to be associated with improved survival and cerebral function after cardiac arrest; however, two recent randomized clinical trials failed to replicate these results. recommendations on hemodynamic optimization are relatively poor and are largely based on general principle of intensive care medicine.
  • COSCA collaborators; Haywood, Kirstie; Castren, Maaret (2018)
    Cardiac arrest effectiveness trials have traditionally reported outcomes that focus on survival. A lack of consistency in outcome reporting between trials limits the opportunities to pool results for meta-analysis. The COSCA initiative (Core Outcome Set for Cardiac Arrest), a partnership between patients, their partners, clinicians, research scientists, and the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, sought to develop a consensus core outcome set for cardiac arrest for effectiveness trials. Core outcome sets are primarily intended for large, randomised clinical effectiveness trials (sometimes referred to as pragmatic trials or phase III/IV trials) rather than for pilot or efficacy studies. A systematic review of the literature combined with qualitative interviews among cardiac arrest survivors was used to generate a list of potential outcome domains. This list was prioritised through a Delphi process, which involved clinicians, patients, and their relatives/partners. An international advisory panel narrowed these down to 3 core domains by debate that led to consensus. The writing group refined recommendations for when these outcomes should be measured and further characterised relevant measurement tools. Consensus emerged that a core outcome set for reporting on effectiveness studies of cardiac arrest (COSCA) in adults should include survival, neurological function, and health-related quality of life. This should be reported as survival status and modified Rankin scale score at hospital discharge, at 30 days, or both. Health-related quality of life should be measured with >= 1 tools from Health Utilities Index version 3, Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey, and EuroQol 5D-5L at 90 days and at periodic intervals up to 1 year after cardiac arrest, if resources allow. (C) 2018 European Resuscitation Council and American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kirkegaard, Hans; Grejs, Anders M.; Gudbjerg, Simon; Duez, Christophe; Jeppesen, Anni; Hassager, Christian; Laitio, Timo; Storm, Christian; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Soreide, Eldar (2022)
    Background Electrolyte disturbances can result from targeted temperature treatment (TTM) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. This study explores electrolyte changes in blood and urine in OHCA patients treated with TTM. Methods This is a sub-study of the TTH48 trial, with the inclusion of 310 unconscious OHCA patients treated with TTM at 33 degrees C for 24 or 48 h. Over a three-day period, serum concentrations were obtained on sodium potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, magnesium and phosphate, as were results from a 24-h diuresis and urine electrolyte concentration and excretion. Changes over time were analysed with a mixed-model multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measurements. Results On admission, mean +/- SD sodium concentration was 138 +/- 3.5 mmol/l, which increased slightly but significantly (p < .05) during the first 24 h. Magnesium concentration stayed within the reference interval. Median ionized calcium concentration increased from 1.11 (IQR 1.1-1.2) mmol/l during the first 24 h (p < .05), whereas median phosphate concentration dropped to 1.02 (IQR 0.8-1.2) mmol/l (p < .05) and stayed low. During rewarming, potassium concentrations increased, and magnesium and ionizes calcium concentration decreased (p < .05). Median 24-h diuresis results on days one and two were 2198 and 2048 ml respectively, and the electrolyte excretion mostly stayed low in the reference interval. Conclusions Electrolytes mostly remained within the reference interval. A temporal change occurred in potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations with TTM's different phases. No hypothermia effect on diuresis was detected, and urine excretion of electrolytes mostly stayed low.
  • Skrifvars, Markus B.; Soreide, Eldar; Sawyer, Kelly N.; Taccone, Fabio S.; Toome, Valdo; Storm, Christian; Jeppesen, Anni; Grejs, Anders; Duez, Christophe H.; Tiainen, Marjaana; Rasmussen, Bodil S.; Laitio, Timo; Hassager, Christian; Kirkegaard, Hans (2020)
    Background We studied the associations between ischemia and hypothermia duration, that is, the hypothermic to ischemic ratio (H/I ratio), with mortality in patients included in a trial on two durations of targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 degrees C. Methods The TTH48 (NCT01689077) trial compared 24 and 48 hours of TTM in patients after cardiac arrest. We calculated the hypothermia time from return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) until the patient reached 37 degrees C after TTM and the ischemic time from CA to ROSC. We compared continuous variables with the Mann-Whitney U test. Using COX regression, we studied the independent association of the logarithmically transformed H/I ratio and time to death as well as interaction between time to ROSC, hypothermia duration, and intervention group. We visualized the predictive ability of variables with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results Of the 338 patients, 237 (70%) survived for 6 months. The H/I ratio was 155 (IQR 111-238) in survivors and 114 (IQR 80-169) in non-survivors (P <.001). In a Cox regression model including factors associated with outcome in univariate analysis, the logarithmically transformed H/I ratio was a significant predictor of outcome (hazard ratio 0.52 (0.37-0.72, P = .001)). After removing an outlier, we found no interaction between time to ROSC and intervention group (P = .55) or hypothermia duration in quartiles (P = .07) with mortality. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC) between time to ROSC and H/I ratio (Delta AUC 0.03 95% CI -0.006-0.07, P = .10). Conclusions We did not find any consistent evidence of a modification of the effect of TTM based on ischemia duration.
  • Arola, Olli; Saraste, Antti; Laitio, Ruut; Airaksinen, Juhani; Hynninen, Marja; Bäcklund, Minna; Ylikoski, Emmi; Wennervirta, Johanna; Pietila, Mikko; Roine, Risto O.; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Niiranen, Jussi; Korpi, Kirsi; Varpula, Marjut; Scheinin, Harry; Maze, Mervyn; Vahlberg, Tero; Laitio, Timo; Xe-HYPOTHECA Study Grp (2017)
    BACKGROUND The authors previously reported that inhaled xenon combined with hypothermia attenuates brain white matter injury in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). OBJECTIVES A pre-defined secondary objective was to assess the effect of inhaled xenon on myocardial ischemic damage in the same study population. METHODS A total of 110 comatose patients who had experienced OHCA from a cardiac cause were randomized to receive either inhaled xenon (40% end-tidal concentration) combined with hypothermia (33 degrees C) for 24 h (n = 55; xenon group) or hypothermia treatment alone (n = 55; control group). Troponin-T levels were measured at hospital admission, and at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-cardiac arrest. All available cases were analyzed for troponin-T release. RESULTS Troponin-T measurements were available from 54 xenon patients and 54 control patients. The baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjustments for age, sex, study site, primary coronary percutaneous intervention (PCI), and norepinephrine dose, the mean +/- SD post-arrival incremental change of the ln-transformed troponin-T at 72 h was 0.79 +/- 1.54 in the xenon group and 1.56 +/- 1.38 in the control group (adjusted mean difference -0.66; 95% confidence interval: -1.16 to -0.16; p = 0.01). The effect of xenon on the change in the troponin-T values did not differ in patients with or without PCI or in those with a diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (group by PCI or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction interaction effect; p = 0.86 and p = 0.71, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Among comatose survivors of OHCA, in comparison with hypothermia alone, inhaled xenon combined with hypothermia suggested a less severe myocardial injury as demonstrated by the significantly reduced release of troponin-T. (C) 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • COMACARE Study Grp; Wihersaari, Lauri; Ashton, Nicholas J.; Reinikainen, Matti; Jakkula, Pekka; Pettilä, Ville; Hastbacka, Johanna; Tiainen, Marjaana; Loisa, Pekka; Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
    Purpose Neurofilament light (NfL) is a biomarker reflecting neurodegeneration and acute neuronal injury, and an increase is found following hypoxic brain damage. We assessed the ability of plasma NfL to predict outcome in comatose patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We also compared plasma NfL concentrations between patients treated with two different targets of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Methods We measured NfL concentrations in plasma obtained at intensive care unit admission and at 24, 48, and 72 h after OHCA. We assessed neurological outcome at 6 months and defined a good outcome as Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1-2 and poor outcome as CPC 3-5. Results Six-month outcome was good in 73/112 (65%) patients. Forty-eight hours after OHCA, the median NfL concentration was 19 (interquartile range [IQR] 11-31) pg/ml in patients with good outcome and 2343 (587-5829) pg/ml in those with poor outcome,p <0.001. NfL predicted poor outcome with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-1.00) at 24 h, 0.98 (0.97-1.00) at 48 h, and 0.98 (0.95-1.00) at 72 h. NfL concentrations were lower in the higher MAP (80-100 mmHg) group than in the lower MAP (65-75 mmHg) group at 48 h (median, 23 vs. 43 pg/ml,p = 0.04). PaCO(2)and PaO(2)targets did not associate with NfL levels. Conclusions NfL demonstrated excellent prognostic accuracy after OHCA. Higher MAP was associated with lower NfL concentrations.
  • Wihersaari, L.; Reinikainen, M.; Furlan, R.; Mandelli, A.; Vaahersalo, J.; Kurola, J.; Tiainen, M.; Pettilä, V.; Bendel, S.; Varpula, T.; Latini, R.; Ristagno, G.; Skrifvars, M. B. (2022)
    Aim: We compared the prognostic abilities of neurofilament light (NfL) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in patients resuscitated from out-ofhospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of various aetiologies. Methods: We analysed frozen blood samples obtained at 24 and 48 hours from OHCA patients treated in 21 Finnish intensive care units in 2010 and 2011. We defined unfavourable outcome as Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 3-5 at 12 months after OHCA. We evaluated the prognostic ability of the biomarkers by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs [95% confidence intervals]) and compared these with a bootstrap method. Results: Out of 248 adult patients, 12-month outcome was unfavourable in 120 (48.4%). The median (interquartile range) NfL concentrations for patients with unfavourable and those with favourable outcome, respectively, were 689 (146-1804) pg/mL vs. 31 (17-61) pg/mL at 24 h and 1162 (147-4360) pg/mL vs. 36 (21-87) pg/mL at 48 h, p < 0.001 for both. The corresponding NSE concentrations were 13.3 (7.2-27.3) mg/L vs. 8.5 (5.8- 13.2) mg/L at 24 h and 20.4 (8.1-56.6) mg/L vs. 8.2 (5.9-12.1) mg/L at 48 h, p < 0.001 for both. The AUROCs to predict an unfavourable outcome were 0.90 (0.86-0.94) for NfL vs. 0.65 (0.58-0.72) for NSE at 24 h, p < 0.001 and 0.88 (0.83-0.93) for NfL and 0.73 (0.66-0.81) for NSE at 48 h, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Compared to NSE, NfL demonstrated superior accuracy in predicting long-term unfavourable outcome after OHCA.
  • Ameloot, Koen; Jakkula, Pekka; Hästbacka, Johanna; Reinikainen, Matti; Pettilä, Ville; Loisa, Pekka; Tiainen, Marjaana; Bendel, Stepani; Birkelund, Thomas; Belmans, Ann; Palmers, Pieter-Jan; Bogaerts, Eline; Lemmens, Robin; De Deyne, Cathy; Ferdinande, Bert; Dupont, Matthias; Janssens, Stefan; Dens, Joseph; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2020)
    BACKGROUND In patients with shock after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the optimal level of pharmacologic support is unknown. Whereas higher doses may increase myocardial oxygen consumption and induce arrhythmias, diastolic hypotension may reduce coronary perfusion and increase infarct size. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the optimal mean arterial pressure (MAP) in patients with AMI and shock after cardiac arrest. METHODS This study used patient-level pooled analysis of post-cardiac arrest patients with shock after AMI randomized in the Neuroprotect (Neuroprotective Goal Directed Hemodynamic Optimization in Post-cardiac Arrest Patients; NCT02541591) and COMACARE (Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen and Mean Arterial Pressure After Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation; NCT02698917) trials who were randomized to MAP 65 mm Hg or MAP 80/85 to 100 mm Hg targets during the first 36 h after admission. The primary endpoint was the area under the 72-h high-sensitivity troponin-T curve. RESULTS Of 235 patients originally randomized, 120 patients had AMI with shock. Patients assigned to the higher MAP target (n = 58) received higher doses of norepinephrine (p = 0.004) and dobutamine (p = 0.01) and reached higher MAPs (86 +/- 9 mm Hg vs. 72 +/- 10 mm Hg, p <0.001). Whereas admission hemodynamics and angiographic findings were all well-balanced and revascularization was performed equally effective, the area under the 72-h high-sensitivity troponin-T curve was lower in patients assigned to the higher MAP target (median: 1.14 mu g.72 h/l [interquartile range: 0.35 to 2.31 mu g.72 h/l] vs. median: 1.56 mu g.72 h/l [interquartile range: 0.61 to 4.72 mu g. 72 h/l]; p = 0.04). Additional pharmacologic support did not increase the risk of a new cardiac arrest (p = 0.88) or atrial fibrillation (p = 0.94). Survival with good neurologic outcome at 180 days was not different between both groups (64% vs. 53%, odds ratio: 1.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.74 to 3.22). CONCLUSIONS In post-cardiac arrest patients with shock after AMI, targeting MAP between 80/85 and 100 mm Hg with additional use of inotropes and vasopressors was associated with smaller myocardial injury. (C) 2020 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Nolan, JP; Sandroni, C; Bottiger, BW; Cariou, A; Cronberg, T; Friberg, H; Genbrugge, C; Haywood, K; Lilja, G; Moulaert, VRM; Nikolaou, N; Olasveengen, TM; Skrifvars, MB; Taccone, F; Soar, J (2021)
    The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) have collaborated to produce these post-resuscitation phase guidelines for adults, which are based on the 2020 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The topics covered include post-cardiac arrest syndrome, the differential diagnosis of the causes of cardiac arrest, control of oxygenation and ventilation, coronary reperfusion, haemodynamic monitoring and management, control of seizures, temperature control, general intensive care management, prognostication, long-term outcome, rehabilitation and organ donation.
  • Hästbacka, Johanna; Kirkegaard, Hans; Soreide, Eldar; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Storm, Christian; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Laitio, Timo; Duez, Christophe Henri Valdemar; Jeppesen, Anni N.; Grejs, Anders M.; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
    Purpose: We explored whether severe or critical hypotension can be predicted, based on patient and resuscitation characteristics in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. We also explored the association of hypotension with mortality and neurological outcome. Materials and methods: We conducted a post hoc analysis of the TTH48 study (NCT01689077), where 355 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients were randomized to targeted temperature management (TTM) treatment at 33 degrees C for either 24 or 48 h. We recorded hypotension, according to four severity categories, within four days from admission. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to test association of admission data with severe or critical hypotension. Results: Diabetes mellitus (OR 3.715, 95% CI 1.180-11.692), longer ROSC delay (OR 1.064, 95% CI 1.022-1.108), admission MAP (OR 0.960, 95% CI 0.929-0.991) and non-shockable rhythm (OR 5.307, 95% CI 1.604-17.557) were associated with severe or critical hypotension. Severe or critical hypotension was associated with increased mortality and poor neurological outcome at 6 months. Conclusions: Diabetes, non-shockable rhythm, longer delay to ROSC and lower admission MAP were predictors of severe or critical hypotension. Severe or critical hypotension was associated with poor outcome. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Nolan, Jerry P.; Berg, Robert A.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Perkins, Gavin D.; Sandroni, Claudio; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Soar, Jasmeet; Sunde, Kjetil; Cariou, Alain (2018)
    The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), disparities in organisation and outcome, recent advances in treatment and ongoing controversies. We also outline the standard of care that should be provided by the critical care specialist and propose future directions for cardiac arrest research. Narrative review with contributions from international resuscitation experts. Although it is recognised that survival rates from OHCA are increasing there is considerable scope for improvement and many countries have implemented national strategies in an attempt to achieve this goal. More resources are required to enable high-quality randomised trials in resuscitation. Increasing international collaboration should facilitate resuscitation research and knowledge translation. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) has adopted a continuous evidence review process, which facilitate the implementation of resuscitation interventions proven to improve patient outcomes.
  • FINNRESUSCI Study Grp; Wihersaari, Lauri; Tiainen, Marjaana; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Bendel, Stepani; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Vaahersalo, Jukka; Romppanen, Jarkko; Pettilä, Ville; Reinikainen, Matti (2019)
    Aim of the study: We evaluated the impact of patient age and time from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) on the prognostic accuracy of neuron specific enolase (NSE) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: Using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, we measured serum concentrations of NSE in 249 patients who were admitted to intensive care units after resuscitation from OHCA. In each quartile according to age and time to ROSC, we evaluated the ability of NSE at 48 h after OHCA to predict poor outcome (Cerebral Performance Category 3-5) at 12 months. Results: The outcome at 12 months was poor in 121 (49%) patients. The prognostic performance of NSE was excellent (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUROC, 0.91 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.00]) in the youngest quartile (18-56 years), but worsened with increasing age, and was poor (AUROC 0.53 [0.37-0.70]) in the oldest quartile (72 years or more). The prognostic performance of NSE was worthless (AUROC 0.45 [0.30-0.61]) in the quartile with the shortest time to ROSC (1-13 min), but improved with increasing time to ROSC, and was good (AUROC 0.84 [0.74-0.95]) in the quartile with the longest time to ROSC (29 min or over). Conclusion: NSE at 48 h after OHCA is a useful predictor of 12-month-prognosis in young patients and in patients with a long time from collapse to ROSC, but not in old patients or patients with a short time to ROSC.
  • Nichol, Graham; Brown, Siobhan P.; Perkins, Gavin D.; Kim, Francis; Sterz, Fritz; Elrod, Jo Ann Broeckel; Mentzelopoulos, Spyros; Lyon, Richard; Arabi, Yaseen; Castren, Maaret; Larsen, Peter; Valenzuela, Terence; Graesner, Jan-Thorsten; Youngquist, Scott; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Wang, Henry E.; Ondrej, Franek; Fraga Sastrias, Juan Manuel; Barasa, Anders; Sayre, Michael R. (2016)
    Background: Efficient trials of interventions for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) should have adequate but not excess power to detect a difference in outcomes. The minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is the threshold value in outcomes observed in a trial at which providers should choose to adopt a treatment. There has been limited assessment of MCID for outcomes after OHCA. Therefore, we conducted an international survey of individuals interested in cardiac resuscitation to define the MCID for a range of outcomes after OHCA. Methods: A brief survey instrument was developed and modified by consensus. Included were open-ended responses. The survey included an illustrative example of a hypothetical randomized study with distributions of outcomes based on those in a public use datafile from a previous trial. Elicited information included the minimum significant difference required in an outcome to change clinical practice. The population of interest was emergency physicians or other practitioners of acute cardiovascular research. Results: Usable responses were obtained from 160 respondents (50% of surveyed) in 46 countries (79% of surveyed). MCIDs tended to increase as baseline outcomes increased. For a population of patients with 25% survival to discharge and 20% favorable neurologic status at discharge, the MCID were median 5 (interquartile range [IQR] 3, 10) percent for survival to discharge; median 5 (IQR 2, 10) percent for favorable neurologic status at discharge, median 4 (IQR 2, 9) days of ICU-free survival and median 4 (IQR 2, 8) days of hospital-free survival. Conclusion: Reported MCIDs for outcomes after OHCA vary according to the outcome considered as well as the baseline rate of achieving it. MCIDs of ICU-free survival or hospital-free survival may be useful to accelerate the rate of evidence-based change in resuscitation care. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.