Browsing by Subject "TASTE"

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  • Hoppu, Ulla; Puputti, Sari; Mattila, Saila; Puurtinen, Marjaana; Sandell, Mari (2020)
    The food experience is multisensory and multisensory external stimuli may affect food choice and emotions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multisensory eating environment on food choice, intake and the emotional states of the subjects in a salad lunch buffet setting. A total of 30 female subjects consumed a salad lunch twice in the multisensory laboratory. The two test conditions (control and multisensory condition with environmental stimuli) were randomized and the visits were scheduled one week apart. Subjects selected and ate a meal from a salad buffet including 14 food items and the intake of each item was weighed. They answered an online questionnaire about the meal and their emotional states (20 different emotion terms) after the lunch. There was no significant difference in the food consumption between the control and multisensory conditions. The subjects were very satisfied with their lunch for both study visits but the pleasantness of the eating environment was rated higher under the multisensory condition. In emotional terms, the subjects selected the term "happy" significantly more frequently under the multisensory condition compared with the control. In conclusion, the multisensory eating environment in this study was not related to food intake but may be associated with positive emotions. The effect of the eating environment on food choice and experience deserves further study with a larger study population in a real lunch restaurant setting.
  • Luomala, Harri; Puska, Petteri; Lähdesmäki, Merja; Siltaoja, Marjo; Kurki, Sami (2020)
    Status considerations have recently been linked to prosocial behaviors. This research shows that even everyday consumer behaviors such as favoring organic foods serve as prosocial status signaling. Key ideas from the continuum model of consumer impression formation and the theories of costly signaling and symbolic consumption are synthetized to make sense of this phenomenon. Two web-surveys (Ns = 187, 259) and a field study (N = 336) following experimental designs are conducted. This approach allows the analysis of both the more and less conscious reactions of consumers. Study 1 shows that the image of consumers favoring organic product versions is marked by characteristics consistent with prosocial status signaling. Study 2 replicates these findings with another sample and a wider range of products and demonstrate that observers’ conservative values influence the image formed of organic food users. Study 3 establishes that similar image effects also emerge through a less conscious formation process and that they extend to how organic food users are socially treated. This research advances the current understanding concerning the interlinkages between organic food usage, prosocial status signaling, consumer impressions and reputation management. Substantively, the studies provide novel compelling empirical evidence for the ability of non-luxurious everyday consumer behaviors to qualify as prosocial status signaling. Conceptually, the integration of evolutionary and sociocultural perspectives represents a major contribution. More specifically, this research yields new understanding as regards the role of individual variation in sensing and interpreting status symbols.
  • Valoppi, Fabio; Agustin, Melissa; Abik, Felix; Morais de Carvalho, Danila; Sithole, Jaison; Bhattarai, Mamata; Varis, Jutta Johanna; Arzami, Anis; Pulkkinen, Elli Eva; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2021)
    While the world population is steadily increasing, the capacity of Earth to renew its resources is continuously declining. Consequently, the bioresources required for food production are diminishing and new approaches are needed to feed the current and future global population. In the last decades, scientists have developed novel strategies to reduce food loss and waste, improve food production, and find new ingredients, design and build new food structures, and introduce digitalization in the food system. In this work, we provide a general overview on circular economy, alternative technologies for food production such as cellular agriculture, and new sources of ingredients like microalgae, insects, and wood-derived fibers. We present a summary of the whole process of food design using creative problem-solving that fosters food innovation, and digitalization in the food sector such as artificial intelligence, augmented and virtual reality, and blockchain technology. Finally, we briefly discuss the effect of COVID-19 on the food system. This review has been written for a broad audience, covering a wide spectrum and giving insights on the most recent advances in the food science and technology area, presenting examples from both academic and industrial sides, in terms of concepts, technologies, and tools which will possibly help the world to achieve food security in the next 30 years.
  • Parma, Valentina; Ohla, Kathrin; Veldhuizen , Maria G; Niv , Masha Y; Kelly , Christine E; Bakke , Alyssa J; Cooper , Keiland W; Bouysset , Cédric; Pirastu, Nicola; Dibattista , Michele; Kaur, Rishemjit; Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Pepino , Marta Y; Schöpf , Veronika; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Olsson, Shannon B; Gerkin , Richard C; Domínguez, Paloma Rohlfs; Albayay, Javier; Bhutani, Surabhi; Fjaeldstad , Alexander W; Kumar, Ritesh; Menini , Anna; Bensafi, Moustafa; Sandell, Mari; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Genovese, Federica; Öztürk, Lina; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Frasnelli , Johannes; Boesveldt , Sanne; Saatci , Özlem; Saraiva, Luis R; Lin, Cailu; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Laudamiel, Christophe; Ritchie , Marina; Havlícek, Jan; Pierron, Denis; Roura, Eugeni; Navarro, Marta; Nolden, Alissa A; Lim, Juyun; Whitcroft , Katherine L; Colquitt , Lauren R; Ferdenzi, Camille; Brindha, Evelyn V; Altundag, Aytug; Macchi, Alberto; Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Patel, Zara M; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Philpott , Carl M; Smith , Barry C; Lundström, Johan; Mucignat , Carla; Parker , Jane K; van den Brink, Mirjam; Schmuker , Michael; Fischmeister , Florian Ph S; Heinbockel, Thomas; Shields , Vonnie D C; Faraji , Farhoud; Santamaría , Enrique; Fredborg , William E A; Morini , Gabriella; Olofsson , Jonas K; Jalessi, Maryam; Karni, Noam; D’Errico, Anna; Alizadeh , Rafieh; Pellegrino , Robert; Meyer , Pablo; Huart , Caroline; Chen , Ben; Soler , Graciela M; Alwashahi, Mohammed K; Welge-Lüssen , Antje; Freiherr, Jessica; de Groot , Jasper H B; Klein, Hadar; Okamoto, Masako; Bano Singh , Preet; Hsieh , Julien W; Group Author, GCCR; Reed , Danielle R; Hummel , Thomas; Munger , Steven D; Hayes , John E (2020)
    Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments, such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, and generally lacked quantitative measurements. Here, we report the development, implementation, and initial results of a multilingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in 3 distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. In the first 11 days after questionnaire launch, 4039 participants (2913 women, 1118 men, and 8 others, aged 19-79) reported a COVID-19 diagnosis either via laboratory tests or clinical assessment. Importantly, smell, taste, and chemesthetic function were each significantly reduced compared to their status before the disease. Difference scores (maximum possible change +/- 100) revealed a mean reduction of smell (-79.7 +/- 28.7, mean +/- standard deviation), taste (-69.0 +/- 32.6), and chemesthetic (-37.3 +/- 36.2) function during COVID-19. Qualitative changes in olfactory ability (parosmia and phantosmia) were relatively rare and correlated with smell loss. Importantly, perceived nasal obstruction did not account for smell loss. Furthermore, chemosensory impairments were similar between participants in the laboratory test and clinical assessment groups. These results show that COVID-19-associated chemosensory impairment is not limited to smell but also affects taste and chemesthesis.The multimodal impact of COVID-19 and the lack of perceived nasal obstruction suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus strain 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may disrupt sensory-neural mechanisms.
  • Winters, Anne E.; Lommi, Jenna; Kirvesoja, Jimi; Nokelainen, Ossi; Mappes, Johanna (2021)
    Aposematic organisms warn predators of their unprofitability using a combination of defenses, including visual warning signals, startling sounds, noxious odors, or aversive tastes. Using multiple lines of defense can help prey avoid predators by stimulating multiple senses and/or by acting at different stages of predation. We tested the efficacy of three lines of defense (color, smell, taste) during the predation sequence of aposematic wood tiger moths (Arctia plantaginis) using blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) predators. Moths with two hindwing phenotypes (genotypes: WW/Wy = white, yy = yellow) were manipulated to have defense fluid with aversive smell (methoxypyrazines), body tissues with aversive taste (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) or both. In early predation stages, moth color and smell had additive effects on bird approach latency and dropping the prey, with the strongest effect for moths of the white morph with defense fluids. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration was detrimental in early attack stages, suggesting a trade-off between pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration and investment in other defenses. In addition, pyrrolizidine alkaloid taste alone did not deter bird predators. Birds could only effectively discriminate toxic moths from non-toxic moths when neck fluids containing methoxypyrazines were present, at which point they abandoned attack at the consumption stage. As a result, moths of the white morph with an aversive methoxypyrazine smell and moths in the treatment with both chemical defenses had the greatest chance of survival. We suggest that methoxypyrazines act as context setting signals for warning colors and as attention alerting or "go-slow" signals for distasteful toxins, thereby mediating the relationship between warning signal and toxicity. Furthermore, we found that moths that were heterozygous for hindwing coloration had more effective defense fluids compared to other genotypes in terms of delaying approach and reducing the latency to drop the moth, suggesting a genetic link between coloration and defense that could help to explain the color polymorphism. Conclusively, these results indicate that color, smell, and taste constitute a multimodal warning signal that impedes predator attack and improves prey survival. This work highlights the importance of understanding the separate roles of color, smell and taste through the predation sequence and also within-species variation in chemical defenses.
  • Koponen, Sami; Niva, Mari (2020)
    This paper analyzes the blurring boundaries between food and art in the West by examining the contemporary field of upmarket dining. The study adopts a practice theoretical view, conceptualizes artful dining as a large-scale cultural formation (?teleoaffective formation?), and explores the configurations of artful dining in the context of New Nordic Upmarket Bistros (NNUBs). Based on blog texts, chef interview and participant observation at a Finnish NNUB, the study demonstrates how the local restaurant enthusiasts adopted and adjusted artful dining in a specific, ?everyday? context of upmarket dining. The study presents dining at NNUBs as one of the many practices that have substantially expanded the art-oriented dining ideals beyond modernist cuisine. It discusses artful dining within the contemporary (gourmet) food culture and encourages further diversification of approaches in studies examining artful dining and the intersection of food and art.
  • Lilja, Markus; Markkanen-Leppanen, Mari; Viitasalo, Sanna; Saarilahti, Kauko; Lindford, Andrew; Lassus, Patrik; Makitie, Antti (2018)
    The senses of smell and taste can be adversely affected by both tumour- and treatment-related factors amongst head and neck cancer patients. The consequences may negatively impact nutritional status as well as quality of life in this patient population. This prospective longitudinal follow-up study is consisted of 44 patients treated for oral cavity, oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer with tumour resection and microvascular free tissue transfer reconstruction at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Thirty-nine (89%) of them also received radiotherapy. The senses of smell (odour detection, identification and threshold test) and taste (electrogustometry) and quality of life (UW-QOL) were evaluated preoperatively, and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months, postoperatively. There were higher scores in the odour detection values in the 6-week and 3-month tests compared with preoperative values for the tumour side. Other detection scores did not differ statistically from the preoperative values neither in the tumour nor the contralateral side. However, in the odour identification test, all posttreatment values were statistically significantly higher than pretreatment ones. In the olfactory threshold test, no statistically significant differences were found between pre- and posttreatment values. Electrogustometry values for the taste on the tumour side were statistically significantly impaired at 6 weeks (p <0.05) and at 3 months (p <0.01) compared with the pretreatment results. They were also impaired at 6 months and at 12 months, although the differences were not statistically significant. The quality of life was impaired after treatment in this patient series. However, the correlation between quality of life and sense of taste was found only at one time point (3 months) and only with contralateral side measurements. We conclude that in oral and pharyngeal cancer patients the postoperative taste problems are related to the impairment on the taste sensation in the tongue but not with the sense of smell. Moreover, the impairment in the quality of life is not clearly related to the impaired sense of taste.
  • Stevenson, Richard J.; Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Horstmann, Annette; Hummel, Thomas (2020)
    People with olfactory loss may choose foods rich in sugar, salt and fat to compensate their loss—foods that constitute a Western-style diet (WSD). However, olfactory dysfunction has not been consistently linked to any particular type of dietary change. Here we considered whether the aetiology of olfactory dysfunction may affect consumption of a WSD. Two-hundred and twenty-two people with olfactory dysfunction of varying cause, were tested for chemosensory performance and their frequency of consumption of a WSD. There was no evidence of a link between a WSD and olfactory dysfunction at the aggregate level, but an aetiology-based approach revealed various patterns, showing both positive and negative associations between olfactory performance and consumption of a WSD. We suggest a number of reasons why, in certain cases, greater olfactory dysfunction may be linked to lower intakes of a WSD, and the role that different aetiologies may have in affecting choices for foods that may appeal following olfactory impairment.
  • Hemila, Harri; Petrus, Edward J.; Fitzgerald, James T.; Prasad, Ananda (2016)
    AimsThe aim of this study was to determine whether the allergy status and other characteristics of common cold patients modify the effects of zinc acetate lozenges. MethodsWe had available individual patient data for three randomized placebo-controlled trials in which zinc acetate lozenges were administered to common cold patients. We used both one stage and two stage meta-analysis to estimate the effects of zinc lozenges. ResultsThe total number of common cold patients was 199, the majority being females. Eighty percent of them fell into the age range 20-50years. One third of the patients had allergies. The one stage meta-analysis gave an overall estimate of 2.73days (95% CI 1.8, 3.3days) shorter colds by zinc acetate lozenge usage. The two stage meta-analysis gave an estimate of 2.94days (95% CI 2.1, 3.8days) reduction in common cold duration. These estimates are to be compared with the 7day average duration of colds in the three trials. The effect of zinc lozenges was not modified by allergy status, smoking, baseline severity of the common cold, age, gender or ethnic group. ConclusionSince the effects of zinc acetate lozenges were consistent between the compared subgroups, the overall estimates for effect seemed applicable over a wide range of common cold patients. While the optimal composition of zinc lozenges and the best frequency of their administration should be further investigated, given the current evidence of efficacy, common cold patients may be encouraged to try zinc lozenges for treating their colds.