Browsing by Subject "TECHNOLOGY"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 53
  • Häyrinen, Liina; Pynnönen, Sari (2020)
    Purpose of Review The review examines recent scientific discussion on the concepts and measurements of human connection to nature (CTN) and pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). In addition to that, we explore the environmental contexts in which study populations are exposed to nature or nature experiences, particularly the contexts in which forests emerge from these studies, and lastly outline gaps in research. Recent Findings Outlining the association between CTN and PEB has been widely researched over the past 5 years. The concepts and measurements referring to these terms vary, but a few commonly used concepts were identified. The review classifies the approaches used for exploring the relationship between CTN and PEB into four categories. The review indicates that the interconnection between CTN and PEB is mostly studied as a part of the wider concept. Approximately half of the reviewed articles explored the actual exposure to some natural environment or nature activity either directly or indirectly. Forests only played a small role as a natural environment in the reviewed articles. Forests appear to be of very little weight or under-represented in CTN and PEB literature as an explicitly identified natural environment. Results also indicate that the human-forest relationship has not been defined precisely in empirically based scientific literature. The paper discusses implications for the future research focusing on emphasizing the role of forests as natural environments in the research of CTN and PEB.
  • Nahm, Daniel; Weigl, Franziska; Schaefer, Natascha; Sancho, Ana; Frank, Andreas; Groll, Jürgen; Villmann, Carmen; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Dalton, Paul D.; Luxenhofer, Robert (2020)
    In this study, we designed a novel biomaterial ink platform based on hydrophilic poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazine) (PEtOzi) specifically for melt electrowriting (MEW). This material crosslinks spontaneously after processing via dynamic Diels–Alder click chemistry. These direct-written microperiodic structures rapidly swell in water to yield thermoreversible hydrogels. These hydrogels are robust enough for repeated aspiration and ejection through a cannula without structural damage, despite their high water content of 84%. Moreover, the scaffolds retain functional groups for modification using click chemistry and therefore can be readily functionalized as demonstrated using fluorophores and peptides to facilitate visualization and cell attachment. The PEtOzi hydrogel developed here is compatible with confocal imaging and staining protocols for cells. In summary, an advanced material platform based on PEtOzi is reported that is compatible with MEW and results in functionalizable chemically crosslinked microperiodic hydrogels.
  • Korhonen, Jaana; Giurca, Alexandru; Brockhaus, Maria; Toppinen, Anne (2018)
    To foster innovativeness for supporting (forest-based) bioeconomy development, participation in decision-making and interaction between diverse actors become a necessary precondition for designing and implementing transition policies. However, who forms the emerging policy networks, and which policy beliefs are promoted? Based on data from a national online survey, we performed a quantitative social network analysis to investigate emerging social structures and policy beliefs in the context of the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy. Our explorative analysis shows that research, governmental, and industrial organizations mainly constitute the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy network. Actors primarily exchange information, and most key organizations report high levels of trust among each other. However, the network structure is rather closed. This raises concerns about equal benefit sharing and the inclusiveness of concerned actors. We discuss the implication of this network structure for enabling new innovations. Finally, we present the key aspects and drivers of business as usual, and suggest an option for or a more transformative change in the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy.
  • Kajamaa, Anu; Kumpulainen, Kristiina (2019)
    Despite the potential of digitally enhanced learning environments for supporting twenty-first-century learning and educational change, there is a dearth of research knowledge on students' transformative agency in their use of digital technologies and media within these contexts. Transformative agency accounts for young people's initiative and commitment to transform their activity and its context(s) for personal and/or academic ends. This paper reports an investigation of students' transformative agency in a novel, student-centered design and learning environment, referred to as a makerspace. We present our empirical findings as a narrative, illustrating how transformative agency emerged and developed via three intertwined discursive and action-level manifestations of such agency, namely "deviating", "switching", and "transfiguring", in the social activity of a group of four 5th grade students participating in the makerspace environment over one school semester. Our study makes an original contribution to the research on students' transformative agency and its temporal unfolding in a novel digitally enhanced learning environment.
  • ARIA-MASK Study Grp; Bousquet, J.; Farrell, J.; Illario, M.; Haahtela, T.; Toppila-Salmi, S.; Valovirta, E. (2020)
    The reference sites of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) were renewed in 2019. The DG Sante good practice Mobile Airways Sentinel networK was reviewed to meet the objectives of the EIP on AHA. It included 1) Management of care process, 2) Blueprint of digital transformation, 3) EIP on AHA, innovation to market, 4) Community for monitoring and assessment framework, 5) Political, organizational, technological and financial readiness, 6) Contributing to European co-operation and transferability, 7) Delivering evidence of impact against the triple win approach, 8) Contribution to the European Digital Transformation of Health and Care and 9) scale of demonstration and deployment of innovation.
  • Plunkett, Jevon; Doniger, Scott; Orabona, Guilherme; Morgan, Thomas; Haataja, Ritva; Hallman, Mikko; Puttonen, Hilkka; Menon, Ramkumar; Kuczynski, Edward; Norwitz, Errol; Snegovskikh, Victoria; Palotie, Aarno; Palotie, Leena; Fellman, Vineta; DeFranco, Emily A.; Chaudhari, Bimal P.; McGregor, Tracy L.; McElroy, Jude J.; Oetjens, Matthew T.; Teramo, Kari; Borecki, Ingrid; Fay, Justin; Muglia, Louis (2011)
  • Harju, Vilhelmiina; Koskinen, Antti; Pehkonen, Leila (2019)
    Background: The importance of digital technologies for enhancing learning in formal education settings has been widely acknowledged. In the light of this expectation, it is important to investigate the effects of these technologies on students' learning and development. Purpose: This study explores longitudinal empirical research on digital learning in the context of primary and secondary education. By focusing on a small selection of the peer-reviewed literature, the aim is to examine the kinds of longitudinal study published on this topic during the period 2012-2017 and, thorough categorisation, to bring together insights about the reported influences of digital technology use on students' learning. Design and methods: The databases searched for the purposes of this review were Scopus and Web of Science. Of 1,989 articles, 13 were finally included in the review. Using qualitative content analysis, these were analysed, coded and categorised. Results: The reviewed studies were found to have approached digital learning in different ways: they varied, for example, in terms of research methods and design and the digital technologies used. The studies addressed different aspects of learning, which we assigned to six categories: affection, attitude, and motivation; subject-specific knowledge and skills; transversal skills; learning experience; elements of the learning environment; and identity. We identified both positive and negative influences of technology on learning. Conclusions: This review offers a snapshot of the variety of research in this fast-moving area. The studies we explored were found to approach digital learning from several different perspectives, and no straightforward conclusions can be drawn about the influences of digital technology use on students' learning. We conclude that further longitudinal studies of digital learning are needed, and this study assists by highlighting gaps in the existing literature.
  • Riikonen, Sini; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai (2020)
    The present investigation aimed to analyze the collaborative making processes and ways of organizing collaboration processes of five student teams. As a part of regular school work, the seventh-grade students were engaged in the use of traditional and digital fabrication technologies for inventing, designing, and making artifacts. To analyze complex, longitudinal collaborative making processes, we developed the visual Making-Process-Rug video analysis method, which enabled tracing intertwined with social-discursive and materially mediated making processes and zoomed in on the teams' efforts to organize their collaborative processes. The results indicated that four of the five teams were able to take on multifaceted epistemic and fabrication-related challenges and come up with novel co-inventions. The successful teams' social-discursive and embodied making actions supported each another. These teams dealt with the complexity of invention challenges by spending a great deal of their time in model making and digital experimentation, and their making process progressed iteratively. The development of adequate co-invention and well-organized collaboration processes appeared to be anchored in the team's shared epistemic object.
  • Pirhonen, Jari; Tiilikainen, Elisa; Pekkarinen, Satu; Lemivaara, Marjut; Melkas, Helina (2020)
    This future-oriented study examines the opportunities and challenges offered by social robots and communication technology when aiming to decrease emotional and social loneliness in older people residing in assisted living (AL). The paper draws on prior literature on loneliness, elder care and social robots. The aim is to scan the futures regarding technology support for the frail older people in future AL. The analytical frame was built on Robert Weiss’ division of relational functions: attachment, social integration, opportunity for nurturance, reassurance of worth, sense of reliable alliance, and guidance in stressful situations, and on a distinction between direct and indirect social robots. Our examinations show that social robots could tackle both emotional and social loneliness in assisted living by empowering people to engage in different forms of social interaction inside and outside the facility. However, ethical concerns of objectification, lack of human contact, and deception need to be thoroughly considered when implementing social robots in care for frail older people.
  • Härkki, Tellervo; Vartiainen, Henriikka; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai (2021)
    Co-teaching is regularly paired with school improvements and educational reforms, yet research does not clearly separate the challenges of co-teaching for teacher professional development, course improvement and for wider reforms. We explored how co-teaching emerged and what barriers teachers experienced as meaningful for their co-teaching after a national core curriculum reform. Two cross-sectional data sets were collected. Three qualitatively different co-teaching profiles emerged: highly collaborative, collaborative, and imbalanced co-operative co-teaching. However, teachers’ experiences of the meaningful barriers varied. Finally, we propose a model of contextualised co-teaching that supports implementing and researching co-teaching as a part of second-order educational changes.
  • Kontkanen, Jani; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Åhlberg, Mauri (2016)
    Visual databases are increasingly important resources through which individuals and groups can undertake species identification. This paper reports research on the collaborative processes undertaken by pre-service teacher students when working in small groups to identify birds using an Internet-based taxonomic resource. The student groups are conceptualised as 'knowledge-building communities' working in a 'joint problem space' comprising the collective knowledge of the participants interacting with the taxonomic database. Collaborative group work and associated dialogue were recorded with digital video. The recordings were analysed for the categories of dialogue and the categories of knowledge used by the students as they interacted with the taxonomic database and how they drew on their previous experiences of identifying birds. The outcomes are discussed in the context of the interplay of individual and social processes and the interplay between abstraction and lived experience in the joint problem space.
  • Valimaki, Maritta; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Hatonen, Heli; Koivunen, Marita; Pitkanen, Anneli; Athanasopoulou, Christina; Anttila, Minna (2017)
    Purpose: Information and communication technologies have been developed for a variety of health care applications and user groups in the field of health care. This study examined the connectivity to computers and the Internet among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Patients and methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to study 311 adults with SSDs from the inpatient units of two psychiatric hospitals in Finland. The data collection lasted for 20 months and was done through patients' medical records and a self-reported, structured questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. Results: In total, 297 patients were included in this study (response rate =96%). More than half of them (n=156; 55%) had a computer and less than half of them (n=127; 44%) had the Internet at home. Of those who generally had access to computers and the Internet, more than one-fourth (n=85; 29%) used computers daily, and > 30% (n=96; 33%) never accessed the Internet. In total, approximately one-fourth of them (n=134; 25%) learned to use computers, and less than one-third of them (n=143; 31%) were known to use the Internet by themselves. Older people (aged 45-65 years) and those with less years of education (primary school) tended not to use the computers and the Internet at all (P <0.001), and younger people and those with higher education were associated with more active use. Conclusion: Patients had quite good access to use computers and the Internet, and they mainly used the Internet to seek information. Social, occupational, and psychological functioning (which were evaluated with Global Assessment of Functioning) were not associated with access to and frequency of computer and the Internet use. The results support the use of computers and the Internet as part of clinical work in mental health care.
  • MASK Study GroupJr; Bedard, Annabelle; Anto, Josep M.; Fonseca, Joao A.; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Basagana, Xavier (2020)
    Background In allergic rhinitis, a relevant outcome providing information on the effectiveness of interventions is needed. In MASK-air (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network), a visual analogue scale (VAS) for work is used as a relevant outcome. This study aimed to assess the performance of the work VAS work by comparing VAS work with other VAS measurements and symptom-medication scores obtained concurrently. Methods All consecutive MASK-air users in 23 countries from 1 June 2016 to 31 October 2018 were included (14 189 users; 205 904 days). Geolocalized users self-assessed daily symptom control using the touchscreen functionality on their smart phone to click on VAS scores (ranging from 0 to 100) for overall symptoms (global), nose, eyes, asthma and work. Two symptom-medication scores were used: the modified EAACI CSMS score and the MASK control score for rhinitis. To assess data quality, the intra-individual response variability (IRV) index was calculated. Results A strong correlation was observed between VAS work and other VAS. The highest levels for correlation with VAS work and variance explained in VAS work were found with VAS global, followed by VAS nose, eye and asthma. In comparison with VAS global, the mCSMS and MASK control score showed a lower correlation with VAS work. Results are unlikely to be explained by a low quality of data arising from repeated VAS measures. Conclusions VAS work correlates with other outcomes (VAS global, nose, eye and asthma) but less well with a symptom-medication score. VAS work should be considered as a potentially useful AR outcome in intervention studies.
  • Mazina, Olga; Allikalt, Anni; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Salumets, Andres; Rinken, Ago (2017)
    Determination of biological activity of gonadotropin hormones is essential in reproductive medicine and pharmaceutical manufacturing of the hormonal preparations. The aim of the study was to adopt a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signal transduction pathway based assay for quantification of biological activity of gonadotropins. We focussed on studying human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as these hormones are widely used in clinical practice. Receptor-specific changes in cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, second messenger in GPCR signalling) were monitored by a Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor protein (T)Epac(VV) in living cells upon activation of the relevant gonadotropin receptor. The BacMam gene delivery system was used for biosensor protein expression in target cells. In the developed assay only biologically active hormones initiated GPCR-mediated cellular signalling. High assay sensitivities were achieved for detection of hCG (limit of detection, LOD: 5 pM) and FSH (LOD: 100 pM). Even the smallscale conformational changes caused by thermal inactivation and reducing the biological activity of the hormones were registered. In conclusion, the proposed assay is suitable for quantification of biological activity of gonadotropins and is a good alternative to antibody- and animal-testing-based assays used in pharmaceutical industry and clinical research.
  • Ramos, Flávio James Humberto Tommasini Vieira; Reis, Raphael Henrique Morais; Grafova, Iryna; Grafov, Andriy; Monteiro, Sergio Neves (2020)
    Civil construction wastes have been incorporated into polymers for recycling as novel engineering composites. In the present work eco-friendly composites with recycled polypropylene (rPP) matrix incorporated with geopolymer concrete waste particles, wither plain (GCW) or surface-modified with oleic acid (AGC) were investigated. The geopolymer concrete waste particles were mixed with polymer powder to provide an effective dispersion between the different materials. Composites were produced by an initial reactive extrusion processing followed by injection molding. These novel composites with amount of 20, 40 and 50 wt% of GCW particles, both plain as-received and surface-modified, were technically evaluated by tensile tests, statistically analyzed by ANOVA, as well as by water absorption as per ASTM standards. Surface dispersion of nanoparticles was revealed by atomic force microscopy. Microstructural analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that these sustainable GCW particles incorporated into rPP matrix exhibit superior processability and water absorption less than 0.01%. The rPP/AGC composites present relatively higher elastic modulus, 629 MPa, as compared to the neat rPP, with 529 MPa. These properties suggest potential sustainable applications in building construction using waste materials.
  • Sinervo, Stiina; Sormunen, Kati; Kangas, Kaiju; Hakkarainen, Kai; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle; Korhonen, Tiina; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita (2021)
    The study focuses on examining elementary pupils' (N = 42, 11-13 years old) reflections on collaborative design processes, team collaboration and their co-inventions. Digital and traditional fabrication technologies were used in a 2-year co-invention project containing approximately 16 sessions during year 1 and 11 sessions in year 2. Between the two project periods, the pupils were asked to write a structured essay about their co-invention and design process, and in year 2 they kept journal notes in each team's design-folder. Each pupil's structured essay was analyzed with qualitative content analysis that focused on three main aspects: (1) description of the co-invention, (2) progress of the co-invention process and (3) quality of collaboration. Based on the essay analysis, we constructed a "Co-invention Table" with five categories: user, conceptual design, technical design, appearance, and construction. The nature of the 13 pupil-teams' co-inventions varied greatly, and these co-inventions were divided according to three main functions: (1) improving cleanliness, (2) providing reminders or (3) addressing well-being. The essays provided information on how creative ideas were generated and how critical thinking and evaluation of ideas were crucial in improving ideas for further development. The collaboration was dependent on everyone's active and equal participation into work and the importance of an adequate division of the labor was highlighted.
  • Nilsson, Sofia; Suriyanarayanan, Subramanian; Kathiravan, Subban; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Kotiaho, Tapio; Nicholls, Ian A. (2019)
    Significant enantioselective recognition has been achieved through the introduction of long range ordered and highly interconnected 300 nm diameter pores in molecularly imprinted polymer matrices.
  • Makkonen, Taina; Tirri, Kirsi; Lavonen, Jari (2021)
    Research on the advantages and disadvantages of project-based learning (PBL) among gifted pupils studying physics is scarce. This mixed-methods study investigates engagement, experiences, and learning outcomes among gifted Finnish uppersecondary-level students learning physics through PBL. A six-lesson PBL module on basic Newtonian mechanics was designed and implemented for a group of gifted students (N = 38), whereas a traditional teacher-driven approach was used among a control group (N = 38) of gifted students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, interviews and a physics test. According to the results, PBL met the preconditions (challenge, skill, interest) for engaging the students in learning physics. It generated interest in learning among the vast majority, but not as many found it challenging. The findings also highlight the impact of autonomy when learning through PBL. No differences in overall learning outcomes were found between the groups.
  • Eronen, Lasse; Kokko, Sirpa; Sormunen, Kari (2019)
    In 2014, the Finnish National Board of Education launched a new core curriculum with the aim of meeting the skills and competence requirements of the 21st century. The purpose of this case study was to find out what transversal competencies Finnish eighth graders developed and how they experienced studying in a problem-based transdisciplinary course, which was arranged for the transitional stage between the former and the new curriculum. The qualitative data consisted of questionnaires and interviews. The analysis followed the methods of qualitative content analysis. When asked about their learning, the students commented on not having learnt much, referring to the discipline-based knowledge. Instead, they had learnt skills through teamwork, problem solving, and expression of their views and opinions, an aspect that they did not clearly connect with the things to be learnt at school. Many students felt that they acquired the competencies that they would need later in their lives. The students' teamwork had a crucial impact on their learning experience. The timeframe for the integrative approach needs careful consideration; the learning process in this course was perceived as being successful because it was long enough. Our study highlights that focusing on students' views is critical when reforming curriculum.
  • Tedre, Matti; Moisseinen, Nella (2014)
    Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general.