Browsing by Subject "TEMPORARY"

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  • Herwartz, Helmut; Maxand, Simone; Walle, Yabibal (2019)
    Time-varying volatility and linear trends are common features of several macroeconomic time series. Recent articles have proposed panel unit root tests (PURTs) that are pivotal in the presence of volatility shifts, excluding linear trends, however. This article proposes a new PURT that works well for data that is both heteroskedastic and trending. Under the null hypothesis, the test statistic has a limiting Gaussian distribution. We derive the local asymptotic power to underpin the consistency of the test statistic. Simulation results reveal that the test performs well in small samples. As an empirical illustration, we examine the stationarity of energy use per capita in OECD economies. While the series are in general difference stationary, they could also be considered as trend stationary for specific time spans.
  • Shin, Young-Kyu; Bockerman, Petri (2019)
    The literature on the Ghent system has focused on the link between voluntary unemployment insurance and union membership in terms of industrial relations. Less attention has been paid to unemployment benefits and employees' decision-making concerning unemployment insurance, even though the core function of the Ghent system is to provide unemployment insurance. This paper examines both of the options that precarious workers (i.e., part-timers, temporary employees, and low-skilled service employees) choose regarding unemployment insurance membership and the change in union density after the Ghent system reform in Finland. First, the results show that the growth of the independent unemployment insurance fund was the main reason for declining union density in the 2000s and early 2010s. Second, in terms of precarious workers, we find that the emergence of the independent fund has affected their choices about unemployment insurance membership and that their choices depend on the type of precarious employment they have. Moreover, part-timers and temporary employees younger than 35 years of age are much less likely to enroll in unemployment insurance than older employees who have the same types of employment contracts.
  • Dixneuf, Charly; Peiris, Parami; Nummi, Petri; Sundell, Janne (2021)
    Biodiversity and habitats are under threat from many factors such as human population increase, habitat loss, fragmentation, and climate change. In freshwater habitats, including wetlands, biodiversity is expected to decline on a greater scale than in terrestrial ecosystems. Ephemeral wetlands are little studied habitats compared to other wetlands, such as permanent lakes and rivers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vertebrate fauna present by ephemeral vernal pools and to see whether vernal pools increase the activity and diversity of vertebrates in a boreal forest ecosystem in northern Europe. We studied the activity and species richness of birds and mammals with direct observations, camera traps, feces tracking, and snap-trapping by ten vernal pools and ten permanent wetlands. Bird activity was higher in the spring period in vernal pools than in permanent wetlands. For large mammals, both activity and species richness were greater around vernal pools than by permanent wetlands. Of individuals species, the moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and hares (Lepus europaeus and Lepus timidus) used vernal pools significantly more between seasons compared to permanent wetlands. Small mammal activity was higher by vernal pools in April, while in May and June the pattern reversed. In the light of these results, vernal pools seem to have different importance and use depending on the vertebrate group, e.g., for sheltering, foraging, resting, nesting, or thermoregulation.