Browsing by Subject "TERMINATION"

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  • Pohjoranta, Elina; Suhonen, Satu; Gissler, Mika; Ikonen, Pirjo; Mentula, Maarit; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2020)
    STUDY QUESTION: Can the incidence of subsequent termination of pregnancy (TOP) be reduced by providing intrauterine contraception as part of the abortion service? SUMMARY ANSWER: Provision of an intrauterine device (IUD) as part of TOP services reduced the need for subsequent TOP but the effect was limited to the first 3 years of the 5-year follow-up. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: An IUD is highly effective in preventing subsequent TOP. Prompt initiation of IUD use leads to a higher usage rate during follow-up, as compliance with post-TOP IUD insertion visits is low. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The objective of this randomised controlled trial was to assess the effect of early comprehensive provision of intrauterine contraception after TOP, with primary outcome being the incidence of subsequent TOP during the 5 years of follow-up after the index abortion. This study was conducted at a tertiary care centre between 18 October 2010 and 21 January 2013. Altogether, 748 women undergoing a first trimester TOP were recruited and randomised into two groups. The intervention group (n = 375) was provided with an IUD during surgical TOP or 1-4 weeks following medical TOP at the hospital providing the abortion care. Women in the control group (n = 373) were advised to contact primary health care for follow-up and IUD insertion. Subsequent TOPs during the 5-year follow-up were identified from the Finnish Register on induced abortions. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The inclusion criteria were age >= 18 years, duration of gestation MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The overall numbers of subsequent TOPs were 50 in the intervention and 72 in the control group (26.7 versus 38.6/1000 years of follow-up, P = 0.027), and those of requested TOPs, including TOPs and early pregnancy failures, were 58 and 76, respectively (30.9 versus 40.8/1000, P = 0.080). Altogether 40 (10.7%) women in the intervention and 63 (16.9%) in the control group underwent one or several subsequent TOPs (hazard ratio 1.67 [95% CI 1.13 to 2.49], P = 0.011). The number of TOPs was reduced by the intervention during years 0-3 (22.2 versus 46.5/1000, P = 0.035), but not during years 4-5 (33.3 versus 26.8/1000, P = 0.631). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Both medical and surgical TOP were used. This may be seen as a limitation, but it also reflects the contemporary practice of abortion care. The immediate post-TOP care was provided by two different organizations, allowing us to compare two different ways of contraceptive service provision following TOP. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Providing TOP and IUD insertion comprehensively in the same heath care unit leads to significantly higher rates of attendance, IUD use and a significantly lower risk of subsequent TOP.
  • Korjamo, Riina; Mentula, Maarit; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2017)
    Objective: To compare levonorgestrel (LNG) 52-mg intrauterine system (IUS) expulsion rates with fast-track ( Study design: In this pilot trial, we randomized 108 women at Results: We had follow-up data at 3 months and 1 year for 41 (74.5%) and 37 (69.8%) women in the fast-track group and 31 (56.4%) and 28 (52.8%) women in the delayed group. By 3 months, expulsion occurred in six (12.5%) women after fast-track and one (2.3%) woman after delayed insertion [risk ratio (RR) 5.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-43.90]; most (n=5) of these were partial expulsions in the fast track group. By 1 year, expulsion had occurred in seven (14.6%) and five (11.5%) women in the fast-track and delayed groups, respectively (RR 1.28, 95% CI 0.44-3.75). We found no differences in rates of vacuum aspiration, residual tissue, infection and bleeding or bleeding patterns within 3 months of insertion. Conclusion: Fast-track insertion of the LNG 52-mg IUS after medical abortion is feasible but may result in higher expulsion rates compared to delayed insertion. Due to lack of statistical power and high lost-to-follow-up rates, we were unable to fully address this question. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Pohjoranta, Elina; Suhonen, Satu; Mentula, Maarit; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2017)
    Objective: To assess the success and factors affecting early intrauterine device (IUD) provision after first trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP). Study design: Subgroup analysis of a randomized contraceptive trial assessing the long-term effects of early provision of intrauterine contraception following abortion. Altogether, 606 women undergoing MTOP were included and followed for 3 months. The intervention group (n=307) was offered an IUD (either the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or copper-IUD) at a follow-up visit 1-4 weeks after MTOP. The control group (n=299) contacted primary health care for follow-up and contraceptive provision. Adverse events (infections, bleeding, residual tissue and incomplete abortion) were analyzed on intention-to-treat basis and IUD expulsions on per-protocol (PP) basis. Results: In the intervention group, 234 women (76.2%) received the IUD as scheduled, 46 later (altogether 91.2%). In the control group, the corresponding figures were 8 (2.7%) and 64 [altogether 24.1%, Odds ratio (OR) (95% Confidence interval (Cl)) = 32.7 (20.3-52.6)]. Eighty-five (27.7%) women in the intervention group and 38 (12.7%) in the control group received treatment (administration of antibiotics, misoprostol or surgical evacuation) because of presumed adverse event [2.63 (1.72-4.01)], mainly residual tissue. In the control group, 23 (60.5%) of these occurred during the first 2 weeks. IUD expulsion occurred in 12 (5.4%) of the 222 women in the intervention group (PP basis). Conclusions: When provided as part of abortion service, most early insertions following MTOP were performed as planned. The main reason for postponement was overdiagnosis of adverse events suspected at follow-up. The rate of IUD expulsion was similar to that reported previously. Implications: Early insertion following MTOP is safe, and the rate of IUD expulsion is low. Most adverse events possibly delaying IUD insertion occur early. Based on timing of adverse events in the control group, IUD insertion at approximately 2 weeks after completed MTOP seems optimal. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Niinimaki, Maarit; Mentula, Maarit; Jahangiri, Reetta; Mannisto, Jaana; Haverinen, Annina; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2017)
    Objectives Research on the treatment of second-trimester miscarriages is scarce. We studied the outcomes, and the factors associated with adverse events and need for hospital resources in the medical treatment of second-trimester miscarriage. Materials and methods In these retrospective analyses we studied women treated for spontaneous fetal miscarriage with misoprostol-only (n = 24) or mifepristone and misoprostol (n = 177) in duration of gestation 12+ 1-21+ 6. Primary outcomes were the risk factors for surgical evacuation and excessive bleeding. Secondary outcomes were total misoprostol dose, time to expulsion and the length of hospital stay. Results History of surgical evacuation of the uterus increased the risk of surgical evacuation (p = 0.027). Excessive bleeding was not associated with any of the studied variables. More misoprostol was needed when the duration of gestation exceeded 17+0 weeks (p = 0.036). In multivariate analysis the time to fetal expulsion was shorter in women with history of 1-2 deliveries (hazard ratio [HR] 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.07-2.07), >= 3 deliveries (HR 1.63, 95% CI; 1.11-2.38) and with a two-day interval between mifepristone-misoprostol administration (HR 1.71, 95% CI; 1.05-2.81). Patients with symptoms (i.e. uterine bleeding or pain) at baseline had longer hospital stay (HR 0.66, 95% CI; 0.47-0.92). Conclusions The factors affecting the outcomes of medical treatment of second-trimester fetal miscarriage are similar to those of second-trimester induced abortion. Two-day interval between mifepristone-misoprostol administration might decrease the time to fetal expulsion and the need of hospital resources.
  • Kemppainen, Venla; Mentula, Maarit; Palkama, Vilja; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2020)
    Introduction Women experience pain during medical abortion, yet optimal pain management remains unclear. We studied the pain experience and need of analgesics during early medical abortion (= 70) during abortion care and 93.5% of women needed additional analgesics in addition to prophylactic pain medication. Teenagers needed additional analgesics more often than adults (5 [3-8] vs 3 [2-6] times,P = .021); 38.0% of all teenagers (64.7% of the minors) received additional opiates compared with 7.9% in adult women. Severe pain (VAS >= 70) was associated with history of dysmenorrhea (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.60 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-5.59,P = .014]), anxiety at baseline (2.64 [1.03-6.77],P = .044) and emesis during abortion (5.24 [2.38-11.57],P <.001). Hospital administration of misoprostol did not lower the risk for severe pain experience (OR 0.84 [95% CI 0.34-2.05],P = .694). Satisfaction with care was high in study population (median VAS 91 [interquartile range 79-97]) and was not associated with the use of narcotic analgesic or place of misoprostol administration. Conclusions Pain intensity was high both in teenage and adult women undergoing medical abortion, yet satisfaction on care was high. More effective analgesics than ibuprofen and paracetamol should be offered to all women undergoing early medical abortion, especially to those with history of dysmenorrhea. Also, routine use of antiemetics might be advisable.
  • Kemppainen, Venla; Mentula, Maarit; Palkama, Vilja; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2022)
    Objective: To compare oxycodone administration via intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) vs on-demand administration during late-first- and second-trimester medically induced abortion. Study design: A prospective randomized controlled study. We enrolled women between 64 to 128 days of gestation in the study between June 2016 and August 2018. Participants were randomized to receive oxycodone either via IVPCA or given on-demand orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously. Pain intensity and satisfaction with care were measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS, 0–100mm). Results: Altogether 99 participants were randomized: 48 in IVPCA group and 51 in on-demand group. Median gestational age was similar between groups (74 days [Interquartile range, IQR 69–81] in the IVPCA group vs 72 [69–80] in the control group, p = 0.587). Peak maximal pain was severe in both groups (median pain VAS was 62 [IQR 44–84] and 71 [IQR 56–90], p = 0.52). The odds for severe pain (highest pain VAS≥70) were similar between the groups (IVPCA group OR 0.51 [95% Confidence Interval 0.22–1.18], p = 0.118). In contrast, the odds for mild or tolerable pain (highest pain VAS≤40) were higher in the IVPCA group (OR 4.06 [95% CI 1.05–16.04], p = 0.043). Nevertheless, satisfaction with care was high (VAS 94 [89–100]) in both groups. Of those experiencing severe pain, 94.0% declared pain medication as adequate. Conclusion: Women often experience severe pain during medical abortion irrespective of the mode of opiate administration. Oxycodone administration via IVPCA permits women to self-administer analgesics when experiencing pain, raising the odds for mild or tolerable pain during abortion care. Satisfaction with care was high.
  • Pohjoranta, Elina; Mentula, Maarit; Gissler, Mika; Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2015)
    STUDY QUESTION: Can the need of subsequent abortion be reduced by providing intrauterine contraception as a part of the abortion service? SUMMARY ANSWER: Provision of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in association with first trimester abortion more than halved the incidence of repeat abortion during the first year of follow-up. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Following abortion, the incidence of subsequent abortion is high, up to 30-40%. In cohort studies, intrauterine contraception has reduced the need of repeat abortion by 60-70%. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A randomized controlled trial. The main outcome measure was the incidence of subsequent induced abortions during the follow-up. Altogether 751 women seeking first trimester induced abortion were recruited and randomized into two groups. Randomization was accomplished by computer-assisted permuted-block randomization with random block sizes of four to six. The investigators did not participate in randomization, which was done before commencing the study. The participants were recruited between 18 October 2010 and 21 January 2013. PARTICIPANTS, SETTINGS, METHODS: The inclusion criteria were age >= 18 years, duration of pregnancy This study was conducted in collaboration between the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, and Centralized family planning of the City of Helsinki. The intervention group (n = 375) was provided with intrauterine contraception (either the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or copper-releasing intrauterine device) immediately following surgical abortion (18.1%) or at a follow-up 2-4 weeks after medical abortion (81.9%). Women in the control group were prescribed oral contraceptives and advised to contact their primary healthcare unit for a follow-up visit and further contraceptive services according to national guidelines. The women were followed-up to 28 February 2014 by using the Finnish National Abortion Registry, Helsinki University Hospital electronic database and clinical follow-up visit at 1 year. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The median age of the whole study group was 27 years and 44% had a history of induced abortion(s). During the follow-up year the number of women requesting subsequent abortion was significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (9/375 [2.4%] versus 20/373 [5.4%], difference -3.0 [95% CI -6.0 to -0.2] percentage points, P = 0.038, according to intention-to-treat analysis and 5/346 [1.4%] versus 20/357 [5.6%], difference -4.2(-7.2 to -1.4) percentage points, P = 0.003, according toper-protocol analysis, respectively). Provision of intrauterine contraception was safe with rate of infection and expulsion similar to those reported previously. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The powercalculation was calculated for a 5-year follow-up. However, significant differences between the two groups were already seen after 1 year. The present study was performed in a single clinic, where, similar to 15% of all abortions in Finland are performed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: In order to decrease the need of subsequent abortions, IUDs should be provided at the time of abortion.
  • Korjamo, Riina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Mentula, Maarit (2018)
    Objective: To analyse the post-abortion effect of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) plans and initiation on the risk of subsequent unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Materials and methods: retrospective cohort study of 666 women who underwent medical abortion between January-May 2013 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. Altogether 159 (23.8%) women planning post-abortion use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) participated in a randomized study and had an opportunity to receive the LNG-IUS free-of-charge from the hospital. The other 507 (76.2%) women planned and obtained their contraception according to clinical routine. Demographics, planned contraception, and LARC initiation at the time of the index abortion were collected. Data on subsequent abortions were retrieved from the Finnish Abortion Register and electronic patient files until the end of 2014. Results: During the 21 months ([median], IQR 20-22) follow-up, 54(8.1%) women requested subsequent abortions. When adjusted for age, previous pregnancies, deliveries, induced abortions and gestational-age, planning LARC for post-abortion contraception failed to prevent subsequent abortion (33 abortions/360 women, 9.2%) compared to other contraceptive plans (21/306, 6.9%) (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.68-2.17). However, verified LARC initiation decreased the abortion rate (4 abortions/177 women, 2.3%) compared to women with uncertain LARC initiation status (50/489, 10.2%) (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.48). When adjusted for LARC initiation status, age= 25 years (27/383, 7.0%, HR1.95, 95% CI 1.04-3.67). Conclusions: Initiation of LARC as part of abortion service at the time of medical abortion is an important means to prevent subsequent abortion, especially among young women.
  • Lopez-Anido, Camila B.; Vaten, Anne; Smoot, Nicole K.; Sharma, Nidhi; Guo, Victoria; Gong, Yan; Gil, M. Ximena Anleu; Weimer, Annika K.; Bergmann, Dominique C. (2021)
    Dynamic cell identities underlie flexible developmental programs. The stomatal lineage in the Arabidopsis leaf epidermis features asynchronous and indeterminate divisions that can be modulated by environmental cues. The products of the lineage, stomatal guard cells and pavement cells, regulate plant-atmosphere exchanges, and the epidermis as a whole influences overall leaf growth. How flexibility is encoded in development of the stomatal lineage and how cell fates are coordinated in the leaf are open questions. Here, by leveraging single-cell transcriptomics and molecular genetics, we uncovered models of cell differentiation within Arabidopsis leaf tissue. Profiles across leaf tissues identified points of regulatory congruence. In the stomatal lineage, single-cell resolution resolved underlying cell heterogeneity within early stages and provided a fine-grained profile of guard cell differentiation. Through integration of genome-scale datasets and spatiotemporally precise functional manipulations, we also identified an extended role for the transcriptional regulator SPEECHLESS in reinforcing cell fate commitment.