Browsing by Subject "TESTOSTERONE"

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  • Huhtaniemi, Riikka; Oksala, Riikka; Knuuttila, Matias; Mehmood, Arfa; Aho, Eija; Laajala, Teemu D.; Nicorici, Daniel; Aittokallio, Tero; Laiho, Asta; Elo, Laura; Ohlsson, Claes; Kallio, Pekka; Mäkelä, Sari; Mustonen, Mika V. J.; Sipila, Petra; Poutanen, Matti (2018)
    The role of adrenal androgens as drivers for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) growth in humans is generally accepted; however, the value of preclinical mouse models of CRPC is debatable, because mouse adrenals do not produce steroids activating the androgen receptor. In this study, we confirmed the expression of enzymes essential for de novo synthesis of androgens in mouse adrenals, with high intratissue concentration of progesterone (P-4) and moderate levels of androgens, such as androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone, in the adrenal glands of both intact and orchectomized (ORX) mice. ORX alone had no effect on serum P-4 concentration, whereas orchectomized and adrenalectomized (ORX + ADX) resulted in a significant decrease in serum P-4 and in a further reduction in the Low levels of serum androgens (androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone), measured by mass spectrometry. In line with this, the serum prostate-specific antigen and growth of VCaP xenografts in mice after ORX + ADX were markedly reduced compared with ORX alone, and the growth difference was not abolished by a glucocorticoid treatment. Moreover, ORX + ADX altered the androgen-dependent gene expression in the tumors, similar to that recently shown for the enzalutamide treatment. These data indicate that in contrast to the current view, and similar to humans, mouse adrenals synthesize significant amounts of steroids that contribute to the androgen receptor dependent growth of CRPC.
  • Kovanen, Leena; Saarikoski, Sirkku Talvikki; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo (2010)
  • Williams, Monique; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Altassan, Ruqaiah; Chung, Wendy K.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Keng, Wei Teik; Lapatto, Risto; McClean, Patricia; Mulder, Margot F.; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Walenkamp, Marie-Jose E.; Alfadhel, Majid; Alakeel, Hajar; Salomons, Gajja S.; Eyaid, Wafaa; Wamelink, Mirjam M. C. (2019)
    BackgroundTransaldolase deficiency (TALDO-D) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of the pentose phosphate pathway. Since its first description in 2001, several case reports have been published, but there has been no comprehensive overview of phenotype, genotype, and phenotype-genotype correlation. MethodsWe performed a retrospective questionnaire and literature study of clinical, biochemical, and molecular data of 34 patients from 25 families with proven TALDO-D. In some patients, endocrine abnormalities have been found. To further evaluate these abnormalities, we performed biochemical investigations on blood of 14 patients. Results and conclusionsMost patients (n =22) had an early-onset presentation (prenatally or before 1 month of age); 12 patients had a late-onset presentation (3 months to 9 years). Main presenting symptoms were intrauterine growth restriction, dysmorphic facial features, congenital heart disease, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepato(spleno)megaly. An older sib of two affected patients was asymptomatic until the age of 9 years, and only after molecular diagnosis was hepatomegaly noted. In some patients, there was gonadal dysfunction with low levels of testosterone and secondary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) abnormalities later in life. This overview provides information that can be helpful for managing patients and counseling families regarding prognosis. Diagnostic guidelines, possible genotype-phenotype correlations, treatment options, and pathophysiological disease mechanisms are proposed.
  • Vergallo, Cristian; Torrieri, Giulia; Provenzani, Riccardo; Miettinen, Sini; Moslova, Karina; Varjosalo, Markku; Cristiano, Maria Chiara; Fresta, Massimo; Celia, Christian; Santos, Hélder A.; Cilurzo, Felisa; Di Marzio, Luisa (2020)
    Stanozolol (STZ) is a drug used to treat serious disorders like aplastic anemia and hereditary angioedema. It is also indicated as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of vascular disorders and growth failures. Encouraging results obtained using animal models demonstrated that STZ increases bone formation and mineralization, thus improving both density and biomechanical properties. Like natural androgens, such as TST and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), STZ binds androgen receptor (AR) to activate AR-mediated signalling. Despite its therapeutic effects, this synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS), or 5α-DHT derivative, due to its high lipophilicity, is poor soluble in water. Thus, to increase the water solubility and stability of STZ, as well as its bioavailability and efficacy, an innovative PEGylated STZ (STZ conjugated with (MeO-PEG-NH2)10kDa, (MeO-PEG-NH)10kDa-STZ) was synthesized. As confirmed by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and spectrometry (ATR-FTIR, 1H-NMR, elemental CHNS(O) analysis, MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses, a very pure, stable and soluble compound was obtained. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) competitive ELISA kit demonstrated that the resulting PEGylated STZ competes against biological TST, especially at lower concentrations. Cytotoxicity of increasing concentrations (1, 10, 25 or 50 µM) of STZ and/or (MeO-PEG-NH)10kDa-STZ was also evaluated for up 80 h by performing the MTT assay on human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells, which express AR and are responsive to STZ. PEGylation mitigated cytotoxicity of STZ, by increasing the cell viability values, especially at higher drug concentrations. Furthermore, these results suggest that (MeO-PEG-NH)10kDa-STZ is a promising and reliable drug to be used in clinical conditions in which TST is required.
  • Bogl, Leonie H.; Jelenkovic, Aline; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Cutler, Tessa L.; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L.; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Pang, Zengchang; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Hjelmborg, Jacob van B.; Rebato, Esther; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Busjahn, Andreas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hopper, John L.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Background: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs. Methods: The data were derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age, and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese. Results: OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also, on average, taller than SS males, but this difference was only 0.14 cm (95% CI 0.02, 0.27). Mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight or obesity did not differ between males and females from SS and OS twin pairs. The statistically significant differences between OS and SS twins for height were small and appeared to reflect our large sample size rather than meaningful differences of public health relevance. Conclusions: We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood.
  • Hietamaki, Johanna; Hero, Matti; Holopainen, Elina; Kansakoski, Johanna; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Iivonen, Anna-Pauliina; Miettinen, Paivi J.; Raivio, Taneli (2017)
    Biallelic, partial loss-of-function mutations in GNRHR cause a wide spectrum of reproductive phenotypes from constitutional delay of growth and puberty to complete congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We studied the frequency of GNRHR, FGFR1, TAC3, and TACR3 mutations in nine adolescent and young adult females with clinical cues consistent with partial gonadotropin deficiency (stalled puberty, unexplained secondary amenorrhea), and describe phenotypic features and molecular genetic findings of monozygotic twin brothers with stalled puberty. Two girls out of nine (22%, 95% CI 6-55%) carried biallelic mutations in GNRHR. The girl with compound heterozygous c. 317A>G p.(Gln106Arg) and c. 924_926delCTT p.(Phe309del) GNRHR mutations displayed incomplete puberty and clinical signs of hypoestrogenism. The patient carrying a homozygous c. 785G> A p.(Arg262Gln) mutation presented with signs of hypoestrogenism and unexplained secondary amenorrhea. None of the patients exhibited mutations in FGFR1, TAC3, or TACR3. The twin brothers, compound heterozygous for GNRHR mutations c. 317A> G p.(Gln106Arg) and c. 785G>A p.(Arg262Gln), presented with stalled puberty and were discordant for weight, and the heavier of them had lower testosterone levels. These results suggest that genetic testing of the GNRHR gene should be offered to adolescent females with low-normal gonadotropins and unexplained stalled puberty or menstrual dysfunction. In male patients with partial gonadotropin deficiency, excess adipose tissue may suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.
  • Vihma, Veera; Heinonen, Sini; Naukkarinen, Jussi; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Mikkola, Tomi S.; Tikkanen, Matti J.; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2018)
    Objective: Obesity may alter serum steroid concentrations and metabolism. We investigated this in healthy young women with increased body fat and their leaner co-twin sisters. Design: Age and genetic background both strongly influence serum steroid levels and body composition. This is a cross-sectional study of 13 female monozygotic twin pairs (age, 23-36 years), ten of which were discordant for body mass index (median difference in body weight between the co-twins, 19 kg). Methods: We determined body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, serum androgens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and mRNA expression of genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue and adipocytes. Results: The heavier women had lower serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (P <0.05 for all) compared to their leaner co-twins with no differences in serum testosterone or androstenedione levels. Serum DHEA correlated inversely with %body fat (r = -0.905, P = 0.002), and DHT positively with SHBG (r = 0.842, P = 0.002). In adipose tissue or adipocytes, expressions of STS (steroid sulfatase) and androgen-related genes were significantly higher in the heavier compared to the leaner co-twin, and within pairs, correlated positively with adiposity but were not related to serum androgen levels. None of the serum androgen or SHBG levels correlated with indices of insulin resistance. Conclusions: Serum DHEA levels were best predicted by %body fat, and serum DHT by SHBG. These or other serum androgen concentrations did not reflect differences in androgen-related genes in adipose tissue. General or intra-abdominal adiposity were not associated with increased androgenicity in young women.
  • Varimo, Tero; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Raivio, Taneli; Kerttula, Liisa; Dunkel, Leo; Hero, Matti (2019)
    Background: Aromatase inhibitors (Als) have been used in boys with idiopathic short stature (ISS) to promote growth despite the lack of actual data regarding treatment effect on adult height. In this study, we characterized adult heights and long-term follow-up in Al-treated boys with ISS. Methods: Adult heights and long-term follow-up data, including spine MRIs, of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of boys who were treated with letrozole (Lz) (2.5 mg/d) or placebo (PI) for 2 years during prepuberty and early puberty. The mean bone ages at treatment cessation were 10.2 and 10.8 years, respectively. Results: Adult heights were similar between the boys treated with Lz (n = 10) and those who received PI (n = 10) (164.8 +/- 4.0 vs. 163.7 +/- 3.7 cm, p = 0.49, respectively). In either group, the adult heights did not differ from predicted adult heights at start of the study [PI: 163.7 (3.7) cm vs. 166.9 (3.3), p = 0.06; Lz: 164.8 (4.0) cm vs. 167.6 (7.9), p = 0.20, respectively]. Long-term follow-up data showed that the frequency of subjects with a vertebral deformity was similar between the groups (Lz, 29% and PI, 22%, p = 0.20), and no single comorbidity was clearly enriched in either group. Conclusions: The Lz-treated boys had similar adult heights with the subjects who received PI for 2 years, which indicates that the treatment is not beneficial when given to pre- or early-pubertal boys. Previously observed vertebral deformities ameliorated during follow-up, which supports the skeletal safety of Lz therapy in children and adolescents.
  • Stanelle-Bertram, Stephanie; Walendy-Gnirss, Kerstin; Speiseder, Thomas; Thiele, Swantje; Asante, Ivy Asantewaa; Dreier, Carola; Kouassi, Nancy Mounogou; Preuss, Annette; Pilnitz-Stolze, Gundula; Mueller, Ursula; Thanisch, Stefanie; Richter, Melanie; Scharrenberg, Robin; Kraus, Vanessa; Doerk, Ronja; Schau, Lynn; Herder, Vanessa; Gerhauser, Ingo; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Kaeufer, Christopher; Waltl, Inken; Moraes, Thais; Sellau, Julie; Hoenow, Stefan; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jansen, Stephanie; Schattling, Benjamin; Ittrich, Harald; Bartsch, Udo; Renne, Thomas; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Arck, Petra; Cadar, Daniel; Friese, Manuel A.; Vapalahti, Olli; Lotter, Hanna; Benites, Sany; Rolling, Lane; Gabriel, Martin; Baumgaertner, Wolfgang; Morellini, Fabio; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Amarie, Oana; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Loescher, Wolfgang; de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Gabriel, Guelsah (2018)
    Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) syndrome may cause fetal microcephaly in -1% of affected newborns. Here, we investigate whether the majority of clinically inapparent newborns might suffer from long-term health impairments not readily visible at birth. Infection of immunocompetent pregnant mice with high-dose ZIKV caused severe offspring phenotypes, such as fetal death, as expected. By contrast, low-dose (LD) maternal ZIKV infection resulted in reduced fetal birth weight but no other obvious phenotypes. Male offspring born to LD ZIKV-infected mothers had increased testosterone (TST) levels and were less likely to survive in utero infection compared to their female littermates. Males also presented an increased number of immature neurons in apical and basal hippocampal dendrites, while female offspring had immature neurons in basal dendrites only. Moreover, male offspring with high but not very high (storm) TST levels were more likely to suffer from learning and memory impairments compared to females. Future studies are required to understand the impact of TST on neuropathological and neurocognitive impairments in later life. In summary, increased sex-specific vigilance is required in countries with high ZIKV prevalence, where impaired neurodevelopment may be camouflaged by a healthy appearance at birth.
  • Zohdy, Sarah; Kemp, Addison D; Durden, Lance A.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka (2012)
  • Vihma, Veera; Naukkarinen, Jussi; Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Heinonen, Sini; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Mikkola, Tomi S.; Tikkanen, Matti J.; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2017)
    Obesity and ageing are associated with lower serum testosterone levels in men. How fat distribution or adipose tissue metabolism, independent of genetic factors and age, are related to sex steroid metabolism is less clear. We studied the associations between adiposity and serum sex hormone concentrations, and mRNA expression of genes regulating sex hormone metabolism in adipose tissue in young adult male monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The subjects [n = 18 pairs; mean age, 32 years; individual body mass indexes (BMIs) 22-36 kg/m(2)] included 9 male MZ twin pairs discordant for BMI [infra-pair difference (Delta) in BMI >= 3 kg/m(2)]. Sex steroid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, and mRNA expressions from subcutaneous adipose tissue by Affymetrix. In BMI-discordant pairs (mean Delta BMI = 5.9 kg/m2), serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was lower [mean 1.9 (SD 0.7) vs. 2.4 (1.0) nmol/l, P = 0.040] and mRNA expressions of DHT-inactivating AKR1C2 (P = 0.021) and cortisol-producing HSD11B1 (P = 0.008) higher in the heavier compared to the leaner co-twins. Serum free 17 beta-estradiol (E2) was higher [2.3 (0.5) vs. 1.9 (0.5) pmol/l, P = 0.028], and in all twin pairs, serum E2 and estrone concentrations were higher in the heavier than in the leaner co-twins [107 (28) vs. 90 (22) pmol/l, P = 0.006; and 123 (43) vs. 105 (27) pmol/l, P = 0.025]. Within all twin pairs, i.e. independent of genetic effects and age, 1) the amount of subcutaneous fat inversely correlated with serum total and free testosterone, DHT, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (P <0.01 for all), 2) infra-abdominal fat with total testosterone and SHBG (P <0.05), and 3) liver fat with SHBG (P = 0.006). Also, 4) general and intra-abdominal adiposity correlated positively with mRNA expressions of AKR1C2, HSD11B1, and aromatase in adipose tissue (P <0.05). In conclusion, acquired adiposity was associated with decreased serum DHT and increased estrogen concentrations, independent of genetic factors and age. The reduction of DHT could be linked to its increased degradation (by AKR1C2 and HSD11B1) and increased estrogen levels to increased adiposity-related expression of aromatase in adipose tissue.
  • Round, Phillip; Das, Samir; Wu, Tsaung-Sheng; Wähälä, Kristiina; Van Petegem, Filip; Hammond, Geoffrey (2020)
    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) determines the equilibrium between free and protein-bound androgens and estrogens in the blood and regulates their access to target tissues. Using crystallographic approaches and radiolabeled competitive binding-capacity assays, we report here how two non-steroidal compounds bind to human SHBG, and how they influence androgen activity in cell culture. We found that one of these compounds, (-)3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran (DVT), present in stinging nettle root extracts and used as a nutraceutical, binds SHBG with relatively low affinity. By contrast a, synthetic compound, 3-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2phenyl-1H-indole (IPI), bound SHBG with an affinity similar to that of testosterone and estradiol. Crystal structures of SHBG in complex with DVT or IPI at 1.71-1.80 Å resolutions revealed their unique orientations in the SHBG ligand-binding pocket and suggested opportunities for the design of other non-steroidal ligands of SHBG. As observed for estradiol but not testosterone, IPI binding to SHBG was reduced by ~20 fold in the presence of zinc, whereas DVT binding was almost completely lost. Estradiol dependent fibulin-2 interactions with SHBG similarly occurred for IPI-bound SHBG, but not with DVT-bound SHBG. Both DVT and IPI increased the activity of testosterone in a cell culture androgen reporter system by competitively displacing testosterone from SHBG. These findings indicate how non-steroidal ligands of SHBG maybe designed to modulate the bioavailability of sex steroids.
  • Varimo, Tero; Huttunen, Heta; Miettinen, Paivi Johanna; Kariola, Laura; Hietamaki, Johanna; Tarkkanen, Annika; Hero, Matti; Raivio, Taneli (2017)
    Introduction: We describe the etiology, MRI findings, and growth patterns in girls who had presented with signs of precocious puberty (PP), i.e., premature breast development or early menarche. Special attention was paid to the diagnostic findings in 6- to 8-year-olds. Materials and methods: We reviewed the medical records of 149 girls (aged 0.710.3 years) who had been evaluated for PP in the Helsinki University Hospital between 2001 and 2014. Results: In 6- to 8-year-old girls, PP was most frequently caused by idiopathic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-dependent PP (60%) and premature thelarche (PT; 39%). The former subgroup grew faster (8.7 +/- 2.0 cm/year, n = 58) than the girls with PT (7.0 +/- 1.1 cm/year, n = 32) (P <0.001), and the best discrimination for GnRH-dependent PP was achieved with a growth velocity cut-off value of 7.0 cm/year (sensitivity 92% and specificity 58%) [area under the curve 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.730.91, P <0.001]. Among asymptomatic and previously healthy 6- to 8-year-old girls with GnRH-dependent PP, one (1.7%, 95% CI 0.39.7%) had a pathological brain MRI finding requiring surgical intervention (craniopharyngioma). In girls younger than 3 years, the most frequent cause of breast development was PT, and, in 3- to 6-year-olds, GnRH-dependent PP. Conclusion: In 6- to 8-year-old girls, analysis of growth velocity is helpful in differentiating between PT and GnRH-dependent PP. Although the frequency of clinically relevant intracranial findings in previously healthy, asymptomatic 6- to 8-year-old girls was low, they can present without any signs or symptoms, which favors routine MRI imaging also in this age group.
  • Laitinen, Eeva-Maria; Tommiska, Johanna; Sane, Timo; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Toppari, Jorma; Raivio, Taneli (2012)
  • Laakso, Saila; Viljakainen, Heli; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Turpeinen, Ursula; Ivaska, Kaisa K.; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Ivell, Richard; Mäkitie, Outi (2018)
    Background: Previous studies suggest increased risk for hypoandrogenism and fractures in men with obesity. We aimed to describe the effects of severe childhood-onset obesity on the cross talk between metabolic state, testes, and skeleton at late puberty. Methods: A cohort of adolescent and young adult males with severe childhood-onset obesity (n = 21, mean age 18.5 years) and an age-matched control group were assessed for testicular hormones and X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mass. Results: Current median body mass indexes for the obese and control subjects were 37.4 and 22.9. Severe early-onset obesity manifested with lower free testosterone (median [interquartile range] 244 [194-332] vs. 403 [293-463] pmol/L, p = 0.002). Lower insulin-like 3 (1.02 [0.82-1.23] vs. 1.22 [1.01-1.46] ng/mL, p = 0.045) and lower ratio of testosterone to luteinizing hormone (2.81 [1.96-3.98] vs. 4.10 [3.03-5.83] nmol/IU, p = 0.008) suggested disrupted Leydig cell function. The degree of current obesity inversely correlated with free testosterone (t = -0.516, p = 0.003), which in turn correlated positively with bone area at all measurement sites in males with childhood-onset obesity. Conclusions: Severe childhood-onset obesity is associated with impaired Leydig cell function in young men and lower free testosterone may contribute to impaired skeletal characteristics. (C) 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Kohva, Ella; Huopio, Hanna; Hietamäki, Johanna; Hero, Matti; Miettinen, Päivi J.; Raivio, Taneli (2019)
    What is the peripubertal outcome of recombinant human FSH (r-hFSH) treatment during minipuberty in boys with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH)?Sertoli-cell response to r-hFSH, given during the minipuberty of infancy, appears insufficient to maintain Sertoli cell function throughout childhood, as evaluated by inhibin B measurements.Severe CHH in boys can be diagnosed during the minipuberty of infancy. Combined gonadotropin treatment at that age is suggested to improve testicular endocrine function and future fertility, yet long-term evidence is lacking.In this retrospective cohort study, we describe five CHH boys treated with r-hFSH in Helsinki University Hospital or Kuopio University Hospital between 2004 and 2018. Immediate follow-up data (0.1–1.4 months after cessation of the gonadotropin therapy) was available for four boys and long-term observations (at the age of 10.0–12.8 years) was available for three boys. As a retrospective control cohort, we provide inhibin B values of eight untreated CHH boys at the age of 12.7–17.8 years.Four patients had combined pituitary hormone deficiency, and one had CHARGE syndrome due to a CHD7 mutation. The patients were treated at the age of 0.7–4.2 months with r-hFSH (3.4 IU/kg–7.5 IU/kg per week in 2 or 3 s.c. doses for 3–4.5 months) combined with T (25 mg i.m. monthly for three months for the treatment of micropenis). Inhibin B was chosen as the primary outcome measure.During the r-hFSH + T treatment, inhibin B increased from 76 ± 18 ng/l to 176 ± 80 ng/l (P = 0.04) and penile length increased by 81 ± 50% (P = 0.04). Unexpectedly, two boys with robust inhibin B responses in infancy demonstrated low inhibin B values in peripuberty: declining from 290 ng/l (4 months) to 16 ng/l (12.4 years), and from 207 ng/l (6 months) to 21 ng/l (12.8 years). All boys underwent orchiopexy at 2.0 ± 0.7 years of age. Inhibin B values in long-term follow-up, available for the three boys, did not significantly differ from the untreated CHH controls.Limitations of this retrospective study are the small number and heterogeneity of the patients and their treatment schemes.We describe the first long-term follow-up data on CHH boys treated with r-hFSH and T as infants. The results from this small patient series suggest that the effects of infant r-hFSH treatment may be transient, and further longitudinal studies are required to determine the efficacy of this treatment approach to optimise the fertility potential in this patient population.This work was supported by the Finnish foundation for Pediatric Research, the Academy of Finland and the Emil Aaltonen Foundation. The authors have no competing interests.Non-applicable.