Browsing by Subject "THERAPEUTIC-EFFICACY"

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  • Vergallo, Cristian; Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem; Iannotta, Dalila; Santos, Helder A.; D'Avanzo, Nicola; Dini, Luciana; Cilurzo, Felisa; Fresta, Massimo; Di Marzio, Luisa; Christian, Celia (Springer International Publishing AG, 2021)
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Clinical responses and tolerability of conventional nano-carriers (NCs) are sometimes different from those expected in anticancer therapy. Thus, new smart drug delivery systems (DDSs) with stimuli-responsive properties and novel materials have been developed. Several clinical trials demonstrated that these DDSs have better clinical therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of many cancers than free drugs. Composition of DDSs and their surface properties increase the specific targeting of therapeutics versus cancer cells, without affecting healthy tissues, and thus limiting their toxicity versus unspecific tissues. Herein, an extensive revision of literature on NCs used as DDSs for cancer applications has been performed using the available bibliographic databases.
  • Hemminki, Otto; Parviainen, Suvi; Juhila, Juuso; Turkki, Riku; Linder, Nina; Lundin, Johan; Kankainen, Matti; Ristimaki, Ari; Koski, Anniina; Liikanen, Ilkka; Oksanen, Minna; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.; Kairemo, Kalevi; Partanen, Kaarina; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli (2015)
    Oncolytic viruses that selectively replicate in tumor cells can be used for treatment of cancer. Accumulating data suggests that virus induced oncolysis can enhance anti-tumor immunity and break immune tolerance. To capitalize on the immunogenic nature of oncolysis, we generated a quadruple modified oncolytic adenovirus expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF). Ad5/3-E2F-Delta 24-GMCSF (CGTG-602) was engineered to contain a tumor specific E2F1 promoter driving an E1 gene deleted at the retinoblastoma protein binding site ("Delta 24"). The fiber features a knob from serotype 3 for enhanced gene delivery to tumor cells. The virus was tested preclinically in vitro and in vivo and then 13 patients with solid tumors refractory to standard therapies were treated. Treatments were well tolerated and frequent tumor-and adenovirus-specific T-cell immune responses were seen. Overall, with regard to tumor marker or radiological responses, signs of antitumor efficacy were seen in 9/12 evaluable patients (75%). The radiological disease control rate with positron emission tomography was 83% while the response rate (including minor responses) was 50%. Tumor biopsies indicated accumulation of immunological cells, especially T-cells, to tumors after treatment. RNA expression analyses of tumors indicated immunological activation and metabolic changes secondary to virus replication.
  • Ji, Jianfeng; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Fengyong; He, Jian; Li, Wanlin; Xie, Tingting; Zhong, Danni; Zhang, Tingting; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong; Almeida Santos, Helder; Zhou, Min (2018)
    Triple‐negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a kind of aggressive malignancy with fast metastatic behavior. Herein, a nanosystem loaded with a near‐infrared (NIR) agent is developed to achieve chemo‐photothermal combination therapy for inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis in TNBC. The NIR agent of ultrasmall sized copper sulfide nanodots with strong NIR light‐absorbing capability is entrapped into the doxorubicin‐contained temperature‐sensitive polymer‐based nanosystem by a self‐assembled method. The temperature sensitive nanoclusters (TSNCs) can significantly enhance the drug penetration depth and significantly kill the cancer cells under the near‐infrared laser irradiation. Importantly, it is plausible that the tumor penetrating nanosystem combined with NIR laser irradiation can prevent lung and liver metastasis via extermination of the cancer stem cells. The in vivo characteristics, evaluated by photoacoustic imaging, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution, confirm their feasibility for tumor treatment owing to their long blood circulation time and high tumor uptake. Thanks to the high tumor uptake and highly potent antitumor efficacy, the doxorubicin‐induced cardiotoxicity can be avoided when the TSNC is used. Taken together, it is believed that the nanosystem has excellent potential for clinical translation.