Browsing by Subject "THERAPIES"

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  • Osipova, Olga; Sharoyko, Vladimir; Zashikhina, Natalia; Zakharova, Natalya; Tennikova, Tatiana; Urtti, Arto; Korzhikova-Vlakh, Evgenia (2020)
    Polyethyleneimine, poly-L-lysine, chitosan and some others cationic polymers have been thoroughly studied as nucleic acid delivery systems in gene therapy. However, the drug release from these systems proceeds at a very low rate due to extremely high binding between a carrier and gene material. To reduce these interactions and to enhance drug release, we developed a set of amphiphilic polypeptides containing positively and negatively charged amino acids as well as a hydrophobic one. The copolymers obtained were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, static light scattering, HPLC amino acid analysis and (HNMR)-H-1 spectroscopy. All copolymers formed particles due to a self-assembly in aqueous media. Depending on polypeptide composition, the formation of particles with hydrodynamic diameters from 180 to 900 nm was observed. Stability of polymer particles, loading and release efficiency were carefully studied. Cellular uptake of the particles was efficient and their cytotoxicity was negligible. The application of polymer carriers, containing siRNA, to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A165) silencing of ARPE-19 cells was successful. The gene silencing was confirmed by suppression of both messenger RNA and protein expression.
  • Turunen, Antti; Kuuliala, Antti; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kylänpää, Leena; Kuuliala, Krista (2021)
    Objectives Clinical practice lacks biomarkers to predict the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). We studied if intracellular signaling of circulating leukocytes could predict persistent organ dysfunction (OD) and secondary infections in AP. Methods A venous blood sample was taken from 174 patients with AP 72 hours or less from onset of symptoms and 31 healthy controls. Phosphorylation levels (p) of appropriately stimulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT6, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), Akt, and nonstimulated STAT3 in monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes was measured using phosphospecific flow cytometry. Results The patients showed higher pSTAT3 and lower pSTAT1, pSTAT6, pNF-kappa B, and pAkt than healthy controls. pSTAT3 in all leukocyte subtypes studied increased, and pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells decreased in an AP severity-wise manner. In patients without OD at sampling, high pSTAT3 in monocytes and T lymphocytes were associated with development of persistent OD. In patients with OD, low interleukin-4-stimulated pSTAT6 in monocytes and neutrophils and Escherichia coli-stimulated pNF-kappa B in neutrophils predicted OD persistence. High pSTAT3 in monocytes, CD8(+) T cells, and neutrophils; low pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells; and low pNF-kappa B in lymphocytes predicted secondary infections. Conclusions Leukocyte STAT3, STAT1, STAT6, and NF-kappa Beta phosphorylations are potential predictors of AP severity.
  • CVD-REAL Investigators Study Grp; Khunti, Kamlesh; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Kim, Dae Jung; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fenici, Peter (2021)
    Background Randomized, controlled cardiovascular outcome trials may not be fully representative of the management of patients with type 2 diabetes across different geographic regions. We conducted analyses of data from the multinational CVD-REAL consortium to determine the association between initiation of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) and cardiovascular outcomes, including subgroup analyses based on patient characteristics. Methods De-identified health records from 13 countries across three continents were used to identify patients newly-initiated on SGLT-2i or other glucose-lowering drugs (oGLDs). Propensity scores for SGLT-2i initiation were developed in each country, with 1:1 matching for oGLD initiation. In the matched groups hazard ratios (HRs) for hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), all-cause death (ACD), the composite of HHF or ACD, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke were estimated by country, and pooled using a weighted meta-analysis. Multiple subgroup analyses were conducted across patient demographic and clinical characteristics to examine any heterogeneity in treatment effects. Results Following matching, 440,599 new users of SGLT-2i and oGLDs were included in each group. Mean follow-up time was 396 days for SGLT-2i initiation and 406 days for oGLDs initiation. SGLT-2i initiation was associated with a lower risk of HHF (HR: 0.66, 95%CI 0.58-0.75; p < 0.001), ACD (HR: 0.52, 95%CI 0.45-0.60; p < 0.001), the composite of HHF or ACD (HR: 0.60, 95%CI 0.53-0.68; p < 0.001), MI (HR: 0.85, 95%CI 0.78-0.92; p < 0.001), and stroke (HR: 0.78, 95%CI 0.72-0.85; p < 0.001); regardless of patient characteristics, including established cardiovascular disease, or geographic region. Conclusions This CVD-REAL study extends the findings from the SGLT-2i clinical trials to the broader setting of an ethnically and geographically diverse population, and across multiple subgroups. Trial registration NCT02993614
  • Aaltonen, Kalle; Heinonen, Arto; Joensuu, Jaana; Parmanne, Pinja; Karjalainen, Anna; Varjolahti-Lehtinen, Tuire; Uutela, Toini; Puurtinen-Vilkki, Maija; Arstila, Leena; Blom, Marja; Sokka, Tuulikki; Nordström, Dan (2017)
    Background and objectives: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-inhibitors are used to treat psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but only a limited number of observational studies on this subject have been published thus far. The aim of this research was to analyze the effectiveness and drug survival of TNF-inhibitors in the treatment of PsA. Methods: PsA patients identified from the National Register for Biologic Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) starting their first, second, or third TNF-inhibitor treatment between 2004 and 2014 were included. Effectiveness was measured using ACR and EULAR response criteria and modeled using ordinal logistic regression. Treatment persistence was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The study comprised 765 patients and 990 TNF-inhibitor treatment courses. EULAR moderate treatment responses at 6 months were achieved by 68% and 37% of the users of the first and the second or the third biologic, respectively. The probabilities of discontinuing the treatment within 12 and 24 months were 20% and 28%, respectively. Adjusted treatment responses to all TNF-inhibitors were similar; however, co-therapy with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) was not associated with better effectiveness. Adalimumab [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CD: 0.44-0.88] was superior to infliximab in drug survival while etanercept (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.55-1.1) and golimumab (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.46-1.2) did not differ from it. Co-medication with csDMARDs did not statistically improve drug survival. Conclusion: All available TNF-inhibitors showed similar treatment responses with or without csDMARDs. Adalimumab was associated with better drug survival when compared to infliximab. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Lindfors, Olavi; Knekt, Paul; Lehtonen, Johannes; Virtala, Esa; Maljanen, Timo; Härkänen, Tommi (2019)
    The evidence on potentially greater benefits of psychoanalysis (PA) vs. long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LPP) is scarce. This study compared the effectiveness of PA and LPP on personality and social functioning during a 10-year follow-up from the beginning of the treatments. The eligible patients, 41 self-selected for PA and 128 assigned to LPP, were 20–45 years of age and had anxiety or mood disorder. Outcomes were analyzed using ten standard measures of personality and social functioning, carried out 5-9 times during the follow-up. Different change patterns by time in PA and LPP emerged, suggesting less benefit of PA during the first years of follow-up and more benefit in most outcomes thereafter. Greater post-treatment improvement in PA than in LPP was seen up to 1-2 years after PA had ended in more mature defense style (DSQ), level of personality organization (LPO), more positive self-concept (SASB), more improved social adjustment (SAS-SR) and sense of coherence (SOC). However, at the 10-year follow-up the differences were non-significant. In conclusion, PA may give some additional benefits when long-term aims are linked to personality and social functioning. The relatively small differences and higher costs in comparison to LPP may restrict the feasibility of PA.
  • Kallio, Eeva-Liisa; Ohman, H.; Carlson, S.; Kautiainen, H.; Hietanen, M.; Pitkala, K. H. (2017)
    Introduction: Evidence is unclear whether cognitive training (CT) has efficacy in patients with dementia. We present the recruitment and baseline findings of a carefully designed Finnish cognitive training (FINCOG) trial exploring the effectiveness of CT among community-dwelling older persons with mild-to-moderate dementia. Methods: Participants were recruited from adult day care centres in Helsinki, Finland, and randomised into two groups: (1) day care with systematic CT twice a week for 12 weeks (n = 76) and (2) day care as usual (n = 71). Demographics, diagnoses and drug use were retrieved from medical records, and baseline cognition, functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological well-being were assessed. A subgroup of participants was planned to undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in brain activity. Feedback from those attending CT was collected. Primary trial outcomes will be participants' cognition and HRQoL. Results: The mean (SD) age of the randomised participants was 83.1 (5.4) years, 72% were female and 37% at a moderate stage of dementia. The intervention and control groups were comparable at baseline. Compliance with CT was good, with a mean attendance of 22/24 sessions. General subjective gain was achieved by three-fourths of the feedback respondents. However, the fMRI was not feasible in this patient group. Conclusions: We successfully randomised 147 persons with mild-to-moderate dementia in the FINCOG trial. The feedback from participants in cognitive intervention was favourable. The trial will provide important information on the effects of CT in patients with dementia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS and European Union Geriatric Medicine Society. All rights reserved.
  • Pohju, Anne; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; Sipponen, Taina (2019)
    Objectives: Parenteral support (PS) is the first-line therapy for intestinal failure (IF). Optimal patient outcomes require experienced multidisciplinary teams adhering to structured protocols. As practices to provide long-term PS for adult IF patients in Finland are unknown, this cross-sectional nationwide study aimed to evaluate current management of PS for adult IF across the country.Materials and methods: An internet-based survey was emailed to all Finnish hospitals and hospital-at-home services with the potential to provide PS for adult IF. The survey included 20 items addressing the provision of long-term PS for adult IF patients (aged >= 18years). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics.Results: Overall, 52 (47%) of the 111 identified units responded. Of responding units, 38 (73%) had at some point provided long-term (>= 120days) PS for adult IF, and 23 (44%) had done so during the preceding year. Only three units currently managed >= 3 adult patients. Most (65%) of the respondents worked in a hospital and were either physicians (38%) or dietitians (39%). Only 65% of respondents reported that their unit had an assigned physician responsible for PS provision, and 28% reported that a team was responsible for long-term PS. Only 26% of respondents reported having a written protocol to guide PS management.Conclusions: Health care providers with very limited experience and a fragmented approach manage most Finnish adult IF patients. Evidence-based protocols and multidisciplinary teams are scarce. The care for adult IF patients on long-term PS needs to be improved in Finland.
  • Shen, Zhanlong; Wang, Bo; Luo, Jianyuan; Jiang, Kewei; Zhang, Hui; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Zhu, Jun; Ye, Yingjiang; Wang, Shan (2016)
    Lysine acetylated modification was indicated to impact colorectal cancer (CRC)'s distant metastasis. However, the global acetylated proteins in CRC and the differential expressed acetylated proteins and acetylated sites between CRC primary and distant metastatic tumor remains unclear. Our aim was to construct a complete atlas of acetylome in CRC and paired liver metastases. Combining high affinity enrichment of acetylated peptides with high sensitive mass spectrometry, we identified 603 acetylation sites from 316 proteins, among which 462 acetylation sites corresponding to 243 proteins were quantified. We further classified them into groups according to cell component, molecular function and biological process and analyzed the metabolic pathways, domain structures and protein interaction networks. Finally, we evaluated the differentially expressed lysine acetylation sites and revealed that 31 acetylated sites of 22 proteins were downregulated in CRC liver metastases compared to that in primary CRC while 40 acetylated sites of 32 proteins were upregulated, of which HIST2H3AK19Ac and H2BLK121Ac were the acetylated histones most changed, while TPM2 K152Ac and ADH1B K331Ac were the acetylated non-histones most altered. These results provide an expanded understanding of acetylome in CRC and its distant metastasis, and might prove applicable in the molecular targeted therapy of metastatic CRC. Biological significance: This study described provides, for the first time, that full-scale profiling of lysine acetylated proteins were identified and quantified in colorectal cancer (CRC) and paired liver metastases. The novelty of the study is that we constructed a complete atlas of acetylome in CRC and paired liver metastases. Moreover, we analyzed these differentially expressed acetylated proteins in cell component, molecular function and biological process. In addition, metabolic pathways, domain structures and protein interaction networks of acetylated proteins were also investigated. Our approaches shows that of the differentially expressed proteins, HIST2H3AK19Ac and H2BLK121Ac were the acetylated histones most changed, while TPM2 K152Ac and ADH1B K331Ac were the acetylated non-histones most altered. Our findings provide an expanded understanding of acetylome in CRC and its distant metastasis, and might prove applicable in the molecular targeted therapy of metastatic CRC. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Relas, Heikki; Luosujarvi, Riitta; Kosola, Silja (2018)
    Objectives: Across diagnosis groups, successful transition of adolescent and young adults from children's hospitals to adult care is often associated with decreased treatment adherence and treatment results. The aim of this study was to characterize disease activity and anti-rheumatic medications following transfer of care of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients to the adult clinic.Method: All consecutive JIA patients aged 16-20 years who visited the specific transition clinic in the rheumatology outpatient clinic of Helsinki University Hospital between November 2012 and May 2013 and between April 2015 and April 2016 were evaluated.Results: A total of 214 patients were identified, and 23 appeared in both cohorts. Females had higher disease activity scores (DAS) than males (DAS28-CRP 1.90.7 versus 1.6 +/- 0.3, p=.019; and DAS44-CRP 1.0 +/- 0.7 versus 0.7 +/- 0.5, p=.005; respectively) in the latter cohort. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were prescribed to 86% of patients, and 48% were on biological DMARDs (bDMARDs), whereas 14% had no specific treatments.Conclusion: Disease activity and clinic attendance remained stable during the transition period. The proportion of transition phase JIA patients on bDMARDs was high and disease activity was low. Reasons for lower disease activity in males in the latter cohort require further investigation.
  • Bono, Petri; Oudard, Stephane; Bodrogi, Istvan; Hutson, Thomas E.; Escudier, Bernard; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Thompson, John A.; Figlin, Robert A.; Ravaud, Alain; Basaran, Mert; Porta, Camillo; Bracarda, Sergio; Brechenmacher, Thomas; Lin, Chinjune; Voi, Maurizio; Grunwald, Viktor; Motzer, Robert J. (2016)
    In this study we examined the outcome of metastatic renal cell cancer patients with everolimus treatment related hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. All patients were treated in 2 large, international prospective trials, RECORD-1 (REnal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RADOO1 given Daily) and REACT (RADOO1 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC). Patients who experienced these events might have experienced an improved response to everolimus. Background: Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia are class effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safety and efficacy of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with everolimus in RECORD-1 (REnal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RAD001 given Daily) and REACT (RAD001 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC) who developed these events. Patients and Methods: Adults with vascular endothelial growth factor refractory mRCC received everolimus 10 mg/d in the randomized RECORD-1 (n = 277) and open-label REACT (n = 1367) studies. Outcomes included safety, treatment duration, overall response, and progression free survival for patients who developed hypercholesterolemia or hyperglycemia. Results: In RECORD-1, 12% (33 of 277) and 20% (55 of 277) of patients developed any grade hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, respectively, with only 6% (78 of 1367) and 1% (14 of 1367) of the same events, respectively, in REACT. Median everolimus treatment duration was similar for patients with hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia (RECORD-1, 6.2 and 6.2 months, respectively; REACT, 4.4 and 4.5 months, respectively), but longer-than the overall populations (RECORD-1, 4.6 months; REACT, 3.2 months). In RECORD-1/REACT, 82%/68% of patients with hyperglycemia and 75%/71% of patients with hypercholesterolemia achieved partial response or stable disease. The incidence of clinically notable Grade 3 or 4 adverse events, other than anemia and lymphopenia, appeared to be similar across trials and subgroups. Although there was a trend for improved progression-free survival with development of hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, the association was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were observed in low numbers of patients, and although these events might be associated with improved response to everolimus, the differences were not significant. These findings should be validated with prospective biomarker studies.