Browsing by Subject "THERMOCHEMISTRY"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Benkyi, Isaac; Sundholm, Dage (2019)
    Magnetically induced current densities are reported for porphycenes at the density functional theory level using gauge-including atomic orbitals, which ensure gauge-origin independence and a fast basis-set convergence of the current densities. We have analyzed the current densities by using the gauge-including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method. The porphycenes are found to be aromatic. They sustain strong diatropic ring currents. The ring-current pathways have been obtained by integrating the strength of the current density passing selected bonds. The calculations show that the ring current of the porphycenes divides into an outer and inner pathways at the pyrrolic rings. Thus, the ring current involves all 26 pi electrons of the porphycenes, which is similar to the ring current of porphin. No significant local ring currents are sustained by the pyrrolic rings. Dihydroporphycene with four inner hydrogens is found to be antiaromatic with weakly aromatic pyrrolic rings. The six-membered rings in benzoporphycene sustain local paratropic ring currents. The global ring current of dibenzoporphycene divides into an outer and inner pathway at the benzoic rings. Interactions between the inner hydrogen and the neighbor nitrogen are found to be more significant for differences in the H-1 NMR shieldings than variations in global ring-current strengths. We found that the antiaromatic dihydroporphycene has a larger HOMO-LUMO gap but a smaller optical gap than the aromatic porphycene.
  • Joshi, Satya Prakash; Seal, Prasenjit; Pekkanen, Timo Theodor; Timonen, Raimo Sakari; Eskola, Arrke J. (2020)
    Methyl-Crotonate (MC, (E)-methylbut-2-enoate, CH2CHCHC(O)OCH3) is a potential component of surrogate fuels that aim to emulate the combustion of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels with significant unsaturated FAME content. MC has three allylic hydrogens that can be readily abstracted under autoignition and combustion conditions to form a resonantly-stabilized CH2CHCHC(O)OCH3 radical. In this study we have utilized photoionization mass spectrometry to investigate the O-2 addition kinetics and thermal unimolecular decomposition of CH2CHCHC(O)OCH3 radical. First we determined an upper limit for the bimolecular rate coefficient of CH2CHCHC(O)OCH3 + O-2 reaction at 600 K (k
  • Joshi, Satya P.; Pekkanen, Timo T.; Timonen, Raimo S.; Eskola, Arkke J. (2019)
    The kinetics of (CH3)(2)CCH + O-2 (1) and (CH3)(2)CCCH3 + O-2 (2) reactions have been measured as a function of temperature (223-600 K) at low pressures (0.4-2 Torr) using a tubular laminar flow reactor coupled to a photoionization mass spectrometer (PIMS). These reactions are important for accurate modeling of unsaturated hydrocarbon combustion. Photolysis of a brominated precursor by a pulsed excimer laser radiation at 248 nm wavelength along the flow reactor axis was used for the production of radicals. The measured bimolecular rate coefficient of reaction 1 shows a negative temperature dependence over the temperature range 223-384 K and becomes temperature independent at higher temperatures. The bimolecular rate coefficient of reaction 2 exhibits a negative temperature dependence throughout the experimental temperature range. The bimolecular rate coefficients of reactions 1 and 2 are expected to be at the high-pressure limit under the current experimental conditions, and the following values are obtained at 298 K: k(1)(298 K) = (4.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(-12) cm(3) s(-1) and k(2)(298 = (8.9 +/- 1.0) x 10(-12) cm(3) s(-1). The observed products for reactions 1 and 2 were CH3COCH3 and CH3 + CH3COCH3, respectively. Substituting both beta-hydrogens in the vinyl radical (CH2CH) with methyl groups decreases the rate coefficient of the CH2CH + O-2 reaction by about 50%. However, the rate coefficient of the triply substituted (CH3)(2)CCCH3 radical reaction with O-2 is almost identical to the CH2CH + O-2 rate coefficient under the covered temperature range.
  • Hong, Juan; Äijälä, Mikko; Häme , Silja A. K.; Hao, Liqing; Duplissy, Jonathan; Heikkinen, Liine M.; Nie, Wei; Mikkilä, Jyri; Kulmala, Markku; Prisle, Nonne L.; Virtanen, Annele; Ehn, Mikael; Paasonen, Pauli; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Riipinen, Ilona; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2017)
    The volatility distribution of secondary organic aerosols that formed and had undergone aging - i. e., the particle mass fractions of semi-volatile, low-volatility and extremely low volatility organic compounds in the particle phase - was characterized in a boreal forest environment of Hyytiala, southern Finland. This was done by interpreting field measurements using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) with a kinetic evaporation model. The field measurements were performed during April and May 2014. On average, 40% of the organics in particles were semi-volatile, 34% were low-volatility organics and 26% were extremely low volatility organics. The model was, however, very sensitive to the vaporization enthalpies assumed for the organics (Delta H-VAP). The best agreement between the observed and modeled temperature dependence of the evaporation was obtained when effective vaporization enthalpy values of 80 kJ mol(-1) were assumed. There are several potential reasons for the low effective enthalpy value, including molecular decomposition or dissociation that might occur in the particle phase upon heating, mixture effects and compound-dependent uncertainties in the mass accommodation coefficient. In addition to the VTDMA-based analysis, semi-volatile and low-volatility organic mass fractions were independently determined by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) data. The factor separation was based on the oxygenation levels of organics, specifically the relative abundance of mass ions at m/z 43 (f43) and m/z 44 (f44). The mass fractions of these two organic groups were compared against the VTDMA-based results. In general, the best agreement between the VTDMA results and the PMF-derived mass fractions of organics was obtained when Delta H-VAP D 80 kJ mol(-1) was set for all organic groups in the model, with a linear correlation coefficient of around 0.4. However, this still indicates that only about 16% (R-2)of the variation can be explained by the linear regression between the results from these two methods. The prospect of determining of extremely low volatility organic aerosols (ELVOAs) from AMS data using the PMF analysis should be assessed in future studies.
  • Rasmussen, Freja Rydahl; Kubecka, Jakub; Besel, Vitus; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Bilde, Merete; Elm, Jonas (2020)
    Sampling the shallow free energy surface of hydrated atmospheric molecular clusters is a significant challenge. Using computational methods, we present an efficient approach to obtain minimum free energy structures for large hydrated clusters of atmospheric relevance. We study clusters consisting of two to four sulfuric acid (sa) molecules and hydrate them with up to five water (w) molecules. The structures of the "dry" clusters are obtained using the ABCluster program to yield a large pool of low-lying conformer minima with respect to free energy. The conformers (up to ten) lowest in free energy are then hydrated using our recently developed systematic hydrate sampling technique. Using this approach, we identify a total of 1145 unique (sa)(2-4)(w)(1-5) cluster structures. The cluster geometries and thermochemical parameters are calculated at the omega B97X-D/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory, at 298.15 K and 1 atm. The single-point energy of the most stable clusters is calculated using a high-level DLPNO-CCSD(T-0)/aug-cc-pVTZ method. Using the thermochemical data, we calculate the equilibrium hydrate distribution of the clusters under atmospheric conditions and find that the larger (sa)(3) and (sa)(4) clusters are significantly more hydrated than the smaller (sa)(2) cluster or the sulfuric acid (sa)(1) molecule. These findings indicate that more than five water molecules might be required to fully saturate the sulfuric acid clusters with water under atmospheric conditions. The presented methodology gives modelers a tool to take the effect of water explicitly into account in atmospheric particle formation models based on quantum chemistry.
  • Olenius, Tinja; Halonen, Roope; Kurten, Theo; Henschel, Henning; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Ortega, Ismael K.; Jen, Coty N.; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Riipinen, Ilona (2017)
    Amines are bases that originate from both anthropogenic and natural sources, and they are recognized as candidates to participate in atmospheric aerosol particle formation together with sulfuric acid. Monomethylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine (MMA, DMA, and TMA, respectively) have been shown to enhance sulfuric acid-driven particle formation more efficiently than ammonia, but both theory and laboratory experiments suggest that there are differences in their enhancing potentials. However, as quantitative concentrations and thermochemical properties of different amines remain relatively uncertain, and also for computational reasons, the compounds have been treated as a single surrogate amine species in large-scale modeling studies. In this work, the differences and similarities of MMA, DMA, and TMA are studied by simulations of molecular cluster formation from sulfuric acid, water, and each of the three amines. Quantum chemistry-based cluster evaporation rate constants are applied in a cluster population dynamics model to yield cluster concentrations and formation rates at boundary layer conditions. While there are differences, for instance, in the clustering mechanisms and cluster hygroscopicity for the three amines, DMA and TMA can be approximated as a lumped species. Formation of nanometer-sized particles and its dependence on ambient conditions is roughly similar for these two: both efficiently form clusters with sulfuric acid, and cluster formation is rather insensitive to changes in temperature and relative humidity. Particle formation from sulfuric acid and MMA is weaker and significantly more sensitive to ambient conditions. Therefore, merging MMA together with DMA and TMA introduces inaccuracies in sulfuric acid-amine particle formation schemes.
  • Valiev, Rashid R.; Valiulina, Lenara I.; Fliegl, Heike; Sundholm, Dage (2020)
    The effect of anion complexation on magnetically induced current densities and excitation energies of antiaromatic molecular rings has been investigated by calculations on expanded antiaromatic porphyrinoids including orangarin, rosarin, amethyrin and on a theoretically predicted strongly antiaromatic hydrocarbon ring. Magnetically induced current densities and the lowest vertical excitation energies have been calculated at the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) levels using the M06-2X functional. Similar calculations have been performed on sapphyrin, cyclo[6]carbon and rubyrin, which are aromatic expanded porphyrinoids. The calculations show that anion complexation weakens the strength of the ring currents and the degree of (anti)aromaticity of the studied porphyrinoids and the antiaromatic hydrocarbon ring, because electronic charge is transferred from the anion to the molecular ring. The anion complexation weakens the calculated ring-current strength susceptibility of the antiaromatic porphyrinoids by 5-7 nA T-1 (25-30%), by 6-16 nA T-1 (21-48%) for the aromatic porphyrinoids, and by 8 nA T-1 (27%) for the antiaromatic hydrocarbon ring, whereas the current-density pathways remain the same for most molecules. Calculations on the lowest excited states show that the electronic excitation transfers electron density from the anion to the molecular ring. An antiaromatic heterocyclic molecular ring with five inner NH moieties that was constructed from the antiaromatic hydrocarbon ring was found to have a large Cl- complexation energy of 67.6 kcal mol(-1).