Browsing by Subject "THETA"

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  • Siebenhühner, Felix; Wang, Sheng H.; Arnulfo, Gabriele; Lampinen, Anna; Nobili, Lino; Palva, J. Matias; Palva, Satu (2020)
    Phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations in specific frequency bands coordinates anatomically distributed neuronal processing and communication. Typically, oscillations and synchronization take place concurrently in many distinct frequencies, which serve separate computational roles in cognitive functions. While within-frequency phase synchronization has been studied extensively, less is known about the mechanisms that govern neuronal processing distributed across frequencies and brain regions. Such integration of processing between frequencies could be achieved via cross-frequency coupling (CFC), either by phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) or by n:m-cross-frequency phase synchrony (CFS). So far, studies have mostly focused on local CFC in individual brain regions, whereas the presence and functional organization of CFC between brain areas have remained largely unknown. We posit that interareal CFC may be essential for large-scale coordination of neuronal activity and investigate here whether genuine CFC networks are present in human resting-state (RS) brain activity. To assess the functional organization of CFC networks, we identified brain-wide CFC networks at mesoscale resolution from stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and at macroscale resolution from source-reconstructed magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. We developed a novel, to our knowledge, graph-theoretical method to distinguish genuine CFC from spurious CFC that may arise from nonsinusoidal signals ubiquitous in neuronal activity. We show that genuine interareal CFC is present in human RS activity in both SEEG and MEG data. Both CFS and PAC networks coupled theta and alpha oscillations with higher frequencies in large-scale networks connecting anterior and posterior brain regions. CFS and PAC networks had distinct spectral patterns and opposing distribution of low- and high-frequency network hubs, implying that they constitute distinct CFC mechanisms. The strength of CFS networks was also predictive of cognitive performance in a separate neuropsychological assessment. In conclusion, these results provide evidence for interareal CFS and PAC being 2 distinct mechanisms for coupling oscillations across frequencies in large-scale brain networks.
  • Halonen, Risto; Kuula, Liisa; Antila, Minea; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2021)
    Accumulating evidence emphasizes the relevance of oscillatory synchrony in memory consolidation during sleep. Sleep spindles promote memory retention, especially when occurring in the depolarized upstate of slow oscillation (SO). A less studied topic is the inter-spindle synchrony, i.e. the temporal overlap and phasic coherence between spindles perceived in different electroencephalography channels. In this study, we examined how synchrony between SOs and spindles, as well as between simultaneous spindles, is associated with the retention of novel verbal metaphors. Moreover, we combined the encoding of the metaphors with respiratory phase (inhalation/exhalation) with the aim of modulating the strength of memorized items, as previous studies have shown that inhalation entrains neural activity, thereby benefiting memory in a waking condition. In the current study, 27 young adults underwent a two-night mixed-design study with a 12-h delayed memory task during both sleep and waking conditions. As expected, we found better retention over the delay containing sleep, and this outcome was strongly associated with the timing of SO–spindle coupling. However, no associations were observed regarding inter-spindle synchrony or respiratory phase. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the importance of SO–spindle coupling for memory. In contrast, the observed lack of association with inter-spindle synchrony may emphasize the local nature of spindle-related plasticity.