Browsing by Subject "THIN-FILM"

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  • Jäppinen, Luke; Jalkanen, Tero; Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed; Heinonen, Markku; Kukk, Edwin; Radevici, Ivan; Paturi, Petriina; Peurla, Markus; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Santos, Hélder A.; Boukherroub, Rabah; Santos, Hellen; Lastusaari, Mika; Salonen, Jarno (2016)
    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were manufactured using the aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method, and the effect of thermal acetylene treatment on their morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties was investigated. Changes in the elemental content of the treated rods were found to be different than in previous reports, possibly due to the different defect concentrations in the samples, highlighting the importance of synthesis method selection for the process. Acetylene treatment resulted in a significant improvement of the ultraviolet photoluminescence of the rods. The greatest increase in emission intensity was recorded on ZnO rods treated at the temperature of 825 degrees C. The findings imply that the changes brought on by the treatment are limited to the surface of the ZnO rods.
  • Wlodarski, Maksymilian; Putkonen, Matti; Norek, Malgorzata (2020)
    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the chemical structure and dynamics of various types of samples. However, the signal-to-noise-ratio drops rapidly when the sample thickness gets much smaller than penetration depth, which is proportional to wavelength. This poses serious problems in analysis of thin films. In this work, an approach is demonstrated to overcome these problems. It is shown that a standard IR spectroscopy can be successfully employed to study the structure and composition of films as thin as 20 nm, when the layers were grown on porous substrates with a well-developed surface area. In contrast to IR spectra of the films deposited on flat Si substrates, the IR spectra of the same films but deposited on porous ceramic support show distinct bands that enabled reliable chemical analysis. The analysis of Zn-S ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc (DEZ) and 1,5-pentanedithiol (PDT) as precursors of Zn and S, respectively, served as proof of concept. However, the approach presented in this study can be applied to analysis of any ultrathin film deposited on target substrate and simultaneously on porous support, where the latter sample would be a reference sample dedicated for IR analysis of this film.
  • Hooda, Sonu; Avchachov, Konstantin; Khan, S. A.; Djurabekova, Flyura; Satpati, B.; Nordlund, Kai; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Ahlawat, Sarita; Kanjilal, D.; Kabiraj, D. (2017)
    The formation of nanoscale voids in amorphous-germanium (a-Ge), and their size and shape evolution under ultra-fast thermal spikes within an ion track of swift heavy ion, is meticulously expatiated using experimental and theoretical approaches. Two step energetic ion irradiation processes were used to fabricate novel and distinct embedded nanovoids within bulk Ge. The 'bow-tie' shape of voids formed in a single ion track tends to attain a spherical shape as the ion tracks overlap at a fluence of about 1 x 10(12) ions cm(-2). The void assumes a prolate spheroid shape with major axis along the ion trajectory at sufficiently high ion fluences. Small angle x-ray scattering can provide complementary information about the primary stage of void formation hence this technique is applied for monitoring simultaneously their formation and growth dynamics. The results are supported by the investigation of cross-sectional transmission and scanning electron micrographs. The multi-time-scale theoretical approach corroborates the experimental findings and relates the bow-tie shape void formation to density variations as a result of melting and resolidification of Ge within the region of thermal spike generated along an ion track, plus non-isotropic stresses generated towards the end of the thermal spike.