Browsing by Subject "THROMBOLYSIS"

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  • Campbell, Bruce C. V.; Mitchell, Peter J.; Churilov, Leonid; Keshtkaran, Mahsa; Hong, Keun-Sik; Kleinig, Timothy J.; Dewey, Helen M.; Yassi, Nawaf; Yan, Bernard; Dowling, Richard J.; Parsons, Mark W.; Wu, Teddy Y.; Brooks, Mark; Simpson, Marion A.; Miteff, Ferdinand; Levi, Christopher R.; Krause, Martin; Harrington, Timothy J.; Faulder, Kenneth C.; Steinfort, Brendan S.; Ang, Timothy; Scroop, Rebecca; Barber, P. Alan; McGuinness, Ben; Wijeratne, Tissa; Phan, Thanh G.; Chong, Winston; Chandra, Ronil V.; Bladin, Christopher F.; Rice, Henry; de Villiers, Laetitia; Ma, Henry; Desmond, Patricia M.; Meretoja, Atte; Cadilhac, Dominique A.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Davis, Stephen M.; EXTEND-IA Investigators (2017)
    Background: Endovascular thrombectomy improves functional outcome in large vessel occlusion ischemic stroke. We examined disability, quality of life, survival and acute care costs in the EXTEND-IA trial, which used CT-perfusion imaging selection. Methods: Large vessel ischemic stroke patients with favorable CT-perfusion were randomized to endovascular thrombectomy after alteplase versus alteplase-only. Clinical outcome was prospectively measured using 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS). Individual patient expected survival and net difference in Disability/Quality-adjusted life years (DALY/QALY) up to 15 years from stroke were modeled using age, sex, 90-day mRS, and utility scores. Level of care within the first 90 days was prospectively measured and used to estimate procedure and inpatient care costs (US$ reference year 2014). Results: There were 70 patients, 35 in each arm, mean age 69, median NIHSS 15 (IQR 12-19). The median (IQR) disability-weighted utility score at 90 days was 0.65 (0.00-0.91) in the alteplase-only versus 0.91 (0.65-1.00) in the endovascular group (p = 0.005). Modeled life expectancy was greater in the endovascular versus alteplaseonly group (median 15.6 versus 11.2 years, p = 0.02). The endovascular thrombectomy group had fewer simulated DALYs lost over 15 years [median (IQR) 5.5 (3.2-8.7) versus 8.9 (4.7-13.8), p = 0.02] and more QALY gained [median (IQR) 9.3 (4.2-13.1) versus 4.9 (0.3-8.5), p = 0.03]. Endovascular patients spent less time in hospital [median (IQR) 5 (3-11) days versus 8 (5-14) days, p = 0.04] and rehabilitation [median (IQR) 0 (0-28) versus 27 (0-65) days, p = 0.03]. The estimated inpatient costs in the first 90 days were less in the thrombectomy group (average US$15,689 versus US$30,569, p = 0.008) offsetting the costs of interhospital transport and the thrombectomy procedure (average US$10,515). The average saving per patient treated with thrombectomy was US$4,365. c Conclusion: Thrombectomy patients with large vessel occlusion and salvageable tissue on CT-perfusion had reduced length of stay and overall costs to 90 days. There was evidence of clinically relevant improvement in long-term survival and quality of life.
  • Pitkänen, Johanna; Koikkalainen, Juha; Nieminen, Tuomas; Marinkovic, Ivan; Curtze, Sami; Sibolt, Gerli; Jokinen, Hanna; Rueckert, Daniel; Barkhof, Frederik; Schmidt, Reinhold; Pantoni, Leonardo; Scheltens, Philip; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Korvenoja, Antti; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Erkinjuntti, Timo J; Melkas, Susanna (2020)
    Purpose Severity of white matter lesion (WML) is typically evaluated on magnetic resonance images (MRI), yet the more accessible, faster, and less expensive method is computed tomography (CT). Our objective was to study whether WML can be automatically segmented from CT images using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The second aim was to compare CT segmentation with MRI segmentation. Methods The brain images from the Helsinki University Hospital clinical image archive were systematically screened to make CT-MRI image pairs. Selection criteria for the study were that both CT and MRI images were acquired within 6 weeks. In total, 147 image pairs were included. We used CNN to segment WML from CT images. Training and testing of CNN for CT was performed using 10-fold cross-validation, and the segmentation results were compared with the corresponding segmentations from MRI. Results A Pearson correlation of 0.94 was obtained between the automatic WML volumes of MRI and CT segmentations. The average Dice similarity index validating the overlap between CT and FLAIR segmentations was 0.68 for the Fazekas 3 group. Conclusion CNN-based segmentation of CT images may provide a means to evaluate the severity of WML and establish a link between CT WML patterns and the current standard MRI-based visual rating scale.
  • Räty, Silja; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Suomalainen, Olli; Sibolt, Gerli; Tiainen, Marjaana; Valkonen, Kati; Sairanen, Tiina; Forss, Nina; Curtze, Sami (2021)
    Background: There is contradicting evidence on the outcome of emergency patients treated during weekends versus weekdays. We studied if outcome of ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) differs according to the treatment time. Methods: Our retrospective study included consecutive patients receiving IVT within 4.5 h of stroke onset between June 1995 and December 2018 at the Helsinki University Hospital. The patients were compared based on the treatment initiation either during weekdays (Monday to Friday) or weekend (Saturday and Sunday). The primary outcome was 3-month mortality and secondary outcomes comprised 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). Additional analyses studied the effect of IVT treatment according to non-office hours, time of day, and season. Results: Of the 3980 IVT-treated patients, 28.0% received treatment during weekends. Mortality was similar after weekend (10.0%) and weekday (10.6%) admissions in the multivariable regression analysis (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.59-1.03). Neither 3-month mRS (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.86-1.12), nor the occurrence of sICH (4.2% vs 4.6%; OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.60-1.26) differed between the groups. No outcome difference was observed between the office vs non-office hours or by the time of day. However, odds for worse outcome were higher during autumn (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.04-1.35) and winter (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01-1.30). Conclusion: We did not discover any weekend effect for IVT-treated stroke patients. This confirms that with standardized procedures, an equal quality of care can be provided to patients requiring urgent treatment irrespective of time.
  • Koivula, Kimmo; Eskola, Markku; Viikilä, Juho; Lilleberg, Jyrki; Huhtala, Heini; Birnbaum, Yochai; Nikus, Kjell (2018)
    Background: Grade 3 ischemia (G3I) in the 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) predicts poor outcome in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The outcome of G3I in "real-life" patient cohorts is unclear. Methods: The aim of the study was to establish the prognostic significance of grade 2 ischemia (G2I), G3I and the STEMI patients excluded from ischemia grading (No grade of ischemia, NG) in a real-life patient population. We assessed in-hospital, 30-day and 1-year mortality as well as other endpoints. Results: The NG patients had more comorbidities and longer treatment delays than the two other groups. Shortterm and 1-year mortality were highest in patients with NG and lowest in patients with G2I. Maximum troponin level was highest in G3I, followed by NG and G2I. In logistic regression multivariable analysis, NG was independently associated with 1-year mortality. Conclusions: NG predicted poor outcome in STEMI patients. G2I predicted relatively favorable outcome. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Lemma, Aurora; Åberg, Fredrik; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Vikatmaa, Pirkka; Mentula, Panu; Leppäniemi, Ari; Sallinen, Ville (2020)
    Objectives In acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT), a six-month anticoagulation treatment achieves complete recanalization in only 35%-45% of patients, but the predictors of poor treatment responses are unclear. We examined treatment outcomes in PVT and aimed to identify predictors of incomplete recanalization and portal hypertensive complications. Materials and methods This retrospective study comprised patients diagnosed with PVT between 2006 and 2015. Key exclusion criteria were liver cirrhosis, malignancy, and age Results The final cohort comprised 145 patients, of whom 132 (92%) were primarily treated with anticoagulation. The 5-year cumulative incidence of complete recanalization was 42% and of portal hypertensive complications, 31%. Independent predictors of insufficient recanalization were sub-acute or chronic thrombosis (hazard ratio (HR) 3.1, 95% CI 1.6-5.8), while acute pancreatitis was a protective factor (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 - 0.7). Independent predictors of incident portal hypertensive complications were as cites at baseline (HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.7), sub-acute or chronic thrombosis (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3), extension of thrombosis to the splenic or mesenteric vein (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7), myeloproliferative disease (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.5), and anemia (HR 2.1, 95% 1.1-3.9), while acute pancreatitis was a protective factor (HR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03-0.5). Conclusions Etiology and age of thrombosis are associated with treatment responses in PVT. The presence of ascites at baseline, etiology, and extent of thrombosis, a non-acute thrombosis and anemia, are associated with the risk of portal hypertensive complications. Etiology and extent of thrombosis should be taken into account when determining the treatment (method) for PVT.
  • Puolakka, Tuukka; Strbian, Daniel; Harve, Heini; Kuisma, Markku; Lindsberg, Perttu J. (2016)
    Background-Few studies have discussed the emergency call and prehospital care as a continuous process to decrease the prehospital and in-hospital delays for acute stroke. To identify features associated with early hospital arrival ( Methods and Results-This was a 2-year prospective observational study. All stroke patients who were transported to the hospital by emergency medical services and received recanalization therapy were recruited for the study. For a sample of 308 patients, the stroke code was activated in 206 (67%) and high priority was used in 258 (84%) of the emergency calls. Emergency medical services transported 285 (93%) of the patients using the stroke code and 269 (87%) using high priority. In the univariate analysis, the most dominant predictors of early hospital arrival were transport using stroke code (P= 0.001) and high priority (P= 0.002) and onset-to-call (P<0.0001) and on-scene times (P= 0.052). In the regression analysis, the influences of high-priority transport (P<0.01) and onset-to-call time (P<0.001) prevailed as significant in both dichotomies of early arrival and treatment. The on-scene time was found to be surprisingly long (> 23.5 minutes) for both early and late-arriving patients. Conclusions-Fast emergency medical services activation and ambulance transport promoted early hospital arrival and treatment. Although patient-dependent delays still dominate the prehospital process, it should be ensured that the minutes on the scene are well spent.
  • Int Stroke Genetic Consortium; Spanish Stroke Genetic Consortium; Muino, Elena; Carcel-Marquez, Jara; Carrera, Caty; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Cruchaga, Carlos (2021)
    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and disability. Reperfusion therapies are the only treatment available during the acute phase of stroke. Due to recent clinical trials, these therapies may increase their frequency of use by extending the time-window administration, which may lead to an increase in complications such as hemorrhagic transformation, with parenchymal hematoma (PH) being the more severe subtype, associated with higher mortality and disability rates. Our aim was to find genetic risk factors associated with PH, as that could provide molecular targets/pathways for their prevention/treatment and study its genetic correlations to find traits sharing genetic background. We performed a GWAS and meta-analysis, following standard quality controls and association analysis (fastGWAS), adjusting age, NIHSS, and principal components. FUMA was used to annotate, prioritize, visualize, and interpret the meta-analysis results. The total number of patients in the meta-analysis was 2034 (216 cases and 1818 controls). We found rs79770152 having a genome-wide significant association (beta 0.09, p-value 3.90 x 10(-8)) located in the RP11-362K2.2:RP11-767I20.1 gene and a suggestive variant (rs13297983: beta 0.07, p-value 6.10 x 10(-8)) located in PCSK5 associated with PH occurrence. The genetic correlation showed a shared genetic background of PH with Alzheimer's disease and white matter hyperintensities. In addition, genes containing the ten most significant associations have been related to aggregated amyloid-beta, tau protein, white matter microstructure, inflammation, and matrix metalloproteinases.
  • Kaesmacher, Johannes; Abdullayev, Nuran; Maamari, Basel; Dobrocky, Tomas; Vynckier, Jan; Piechowiak, Eike; Pop, Raoul; Behme, Daniel; Sporns, Peter B.; Styczen, Hanna; Virtanen, Pekka; Meyer, Lukas; Meinel, Thomas R.; Cantre, Daniel; Kabbasch, Christoph; Maus, Volker; Pekkola, Johanna; Fischer, Sebastian; Hasiu, Anca; Schwarz, Alexander; Wildgruber, Moritz; Seiffge, David J.; Langner, Soenke; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Radbruch, Alexander; Schlamann, Marc; Mihoc, Dan; Beaujeux, Remy; Strbian, Daniel; Fiehler, Jens; Mordasini, Pasquale; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs (2021)
    Background and Purpose Data on safety and efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) fibrinolytics as adjunct to mechanical thrombectomy (MT) are sparse. Methods INtra-arterial FIbriNolytics In ThrombectomY (INFINITY) is a retrospective multi-center observational registry of consecutive patients with anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion ischemic stroke treated with MT and adjunctive administration of IA fibrinolytics (alteplase [tissue plasminogen activator, tPA] or urokinase [UK]) at 10 European centers. Primary outcome was the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II definition. Secondary outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months. Results Of 5,612 patients screened, 311 (median age, 74 years; 44.1% female) received additional IA after or during MT (194 MT+IA tPA, 117 MT+IA UK). IA fibrinolytics were mostly administered for rescue of thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 0-2b after MT (80.4%, 250/311). sICH occurred in 27 of 308 patients (8.8%), with an increased risk in patients with initial TICI0/1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 5.0 per TICI grade decrease) or in those with intracranial internal carotid artery occlusions (aOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 12.5). In patients with attempted rescue of TICI0-2b and available angiographic follow-up, 116 of 228 patients (50.9%) showed any angiographic reperfusion improvement after IA fibrinolytics, which was associated with mRS Conclusions Administration of IA fibrinolytics as adjunct to MT is performed rarely, but can improve reperfusion, which is associated with better outcomes. Despite a selection bias, an increased risk of sICH seems possible, which underlines the importance of careful patient selection.
  • Viikila, Juho; Nieminen, Tuomo; Tierala, Ilkka; Laine, Mika (2016)
    Backround: The optimal antithrombotic treatment during a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is not known. This single center registry study aims to assess the safety of a novel antithrombotic regimen combining enoxaparine and prasugrel at presentation, followed by bivalirudin at the catheterisation laboratory. Methods: All consecutive patients who underwent a pPCI were collected prospectively. The primary endpoint was major bleeding within 30 days. The secondary endpoints were a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) consisting of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, a new target vessel revascularisation and all-cause mortality at 30 days. Results: Ninety-nine out of the total of 390 patients were treated according to the new regimen (protocol-treated group). The rest received other antithrombotic treatment (non-protocol-treated group). The protocol-treated group had a lower risk than the non-protocol-treated group according to the GRACE ischaemic (112 vs. 124, p = 0.002) and CRUSADE bleeding scores (21 vs. 28, p <0.0001). The incidences of bleeding were similar: severe GUSTO or TIMI bleeding occurred in 0 % of the protocol-treated group and in 1.0 and 0.3 %, respectively, of the other group (p = 0.311 for GUSTO and p = 0.559 for TIMI). The incidence of MACE in the groups was 6.1 and 10.7 %, respectively (p = 0.178). The respective incidences of all-cause mortality were 5.1 and 9.6 % (p = 0.158). Conclusions: Administration of the novel antithrombotic regimen seems to be safe.