Browsing by Subject "THROMBOTIC MICROANGIOPATHY"

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  • Leimi, Lilli; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Olkinuora, Helena; Meri, Seppo; Vettenranta, Kim (2022)
    Treatment-related mortality and morbidity remain a challenge in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this retrospective, single-center study, we analyzed endothelial damage as a potential, common denominator and mechanism for the adverse effects. We evaluated the prevalence of key vascular complications and graft-versus-host disease among 122 pediatric patients with an allogeneic HSCT between 2001 and 2013. The spectrum and frequency of acute adverse events emerging
  • Lokki, A. Inkeri; Haapio, Mikko; Heikkinen-Eloranta, Jenni (2020)
    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder affecting ca 3% of all pregnant women. Preeclampsia is the source of severe pregnancy complications. Later life consequences for mother and infant include increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Preeclampsia is caused by the dysfunction of the endothelium with subsequent activation of complement and coagulation systems. HELLP syndrome is considered to be an extreme complication of preeclampsia but it can also present independently. Diagnostic symptoms in HELLP syndrome are Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets. Similar phenotype is present in thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) and HELLP syndrome is considered part of the TMA spectrum. Here, we present a case of severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome, which exacerbated rapidly and eventually led to need of intensive care, plasma exchange, and hemodialysis. The patient showed signs of hemolysis, disturbance in the coagulation, and organ damage in liver and kidneys. After comprehensive laboratory testing and supportive care, the symptoms did not subside and treatment with complement C5 inhibitor eculizumab was started. Thereafter, the patient started to recover. The patient had pregnancy-induced aHUS. Earlier initiation of eculizumab treatment may potentially shorten and mitigate the disease and hypothetically decrease future health risks of preeclamptic women.
  • Lokki, A. Inkeri; Heikkinen-Eloranta, Jenni (2021)
    Preeclampsia is a multifactorial vascular disease unique to human pregnancy. While genetic and antiangiogenic factors are important contributors to preeclampsia susceptibility, recent studies have shown that dysregulation and/or over-activation of the complement system has an integral role in dis-ease etiology. Furthermore, the role of the coagulation cascade may be underappreciated in the develop-ment of the disease. Traditionally, for research purposes, the pool of preeclampsia cases has been divided into non-severe and severe disease depending on the onset and severity of the symptoms. However, of particular interest are a small but important minority of cases that present with symptoms likening to those of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome, atypical hemolytic uremic syn-drome, or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, all thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) diseases, with the hallmark mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and aberrant activation of complement and coagu-lation cascades. We therefore propose a third class, severe TMA-like preeclampsia to be included in the categorization of preeclampsia patients. Identifying these patients would target research, diagnostic dif-ferentiation, and novel treatment options to the subclass of patients with life-threatening disease that are most likely to benefit from next-generation drug development. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Sabahi, Mohammadmahdi; Salehipour, Arash; Kazemi, Azin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Decaro, Nicola; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Yaghoobi, Mojtaba Hedayat (2019)
    Aim: The prevalence of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and its association with other diseases in Iran are yet to be systematically assessed. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and disease association of B19V across Iran from 2000 to 2019. Methods: The literature search, based on different keywords in different databases, was performed. A total of 29 eligible studies were included and the essential information was collected from each article. Results: The results of this study show a relatively high prevalence of the B19V-associated diseases in all age groups of the Iranian population. Conclusion: The transmission of B19V and its complications should be prevented by developing preventative strategies.
  • Meri, Seppo; Bunjes, Donald; Cofiell, Roxanne; Jodele, Sonata (2022)
    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (HSCT-TMA) is a common complication occurring post-HSCT and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality if not promptly identified and treated. Emerging evidence suggests a central role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of HSCT-TMA. The complement system has also been shown to interact with other pathways and processes including coagulation and inflammation, all of which are activated following HSCT. Three endothelial cell-damaging "hits" are required for HSCT-TMA genesis: a genetic predisposition or existing damage, an endothelial cell-damaging conditioning regimen, and additional damaging insults. Numerous risk factors for the development of HSCT-TMA have been identified (including primary diagnosis, graft type, and conditioning regimen) and validated lists of relatively simple diagnostic signs and symptoms exist, many utilizing routine clinical and laboratory assessments. Despite the relative ease with which HSCT-TMA can be screened for, it is often overlooked or masked by other common post-transplant conditions. Recent evidence that patients with HSCT-TMA may also concurrently present with these differential diagnoses only serve to further confound its identification and treatment. HSCT-TMA may be treated, or even prevented, by removing or ameliorating triggering "hits", and recent studies have also shown substantial utility of complement-targeted therapies in this patient population. Further investigation into optimal management and treatment strategies is needed. Greater awareness of TMA post-HSCT is urgently needed to improve patient outcomes; the objective of this article is to clarify current understanding, explain underlying complement biology and provide simple tools to aid the early recognition, management, and monitoring of HSCT-TMA.