Browsing by Subject "TIES"

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  • Crispino, Marta; Arjas, Elja; Vitelli, Valeria; Barrett, Natasha; Frigessi, Arnoldo (2019)
    We are interested in learning how listeners perceive sounds as having human origins. An experiment was performed with a series of electronically synthesized sounds, and listeners were asked to compare them in pairs. We propose a Bayesian probabilistic method to learn individual preferences from nontransitive pairwise comparison data, as happens when one (or more) individual preferences in the data contradicts what is implied by the others. We build a Bayesian Mallows model in order to handle nontransitive data, with a latent layer of uncertainty which captures the generation of preference misreporting. We then develop a mixture extension of the Mallows model, able to learn individual preferences in a heterogeneous population. The results of our analysis of the musicology experiment are of interest to electroacoustic composers and sound designers, and to the audio industry in general, whose aim is to understand how computer generated sounds can be produced in order to sound more human.
  • van der Wal, Jessica E. M.; Thorogood, Rose; Horrocks, Nicholas P. C. (2021)
    Collaboration and diversity are increasingly promoted in science. Yet how collaborations influence academic career progression, and whether this differs by gender, remains largely unknown. Here, we use co-authorship ego networks to quantify collaboration behaviour and career progression of a cohort of contributors to biennial International Society of Behavioral Ecology meetings (1992, 1994, 1996). Among this cohort, women were slower and less likely to become a principal investigator (PI; approximated by having at least three last-author publications) and published fewer papers over fewer years (i.e. had shorter academic careers) than men. After adjusting for publication number, women also had fewer collaborators (lower adjusted network size) and published fewer times with each co-author (lower adjusted tie strength), albeit more often with the same group of collaborators (higher adjusted clustering coefficient). Authors with stronger networks were more likely to become a PI, and those with less clustered networks did so more quickly. Women, however, showed a stronger positive relationship with adjusted network size (increased career length) and adjusted tie strength (increased likelihood to become a PI). Finally, early-career network characteristics correlated with career length. Our results suggest that large and varied collaboration networks are positively correlated with career progression, especially for women.
  • Karimi, Zeinab (2019)
    This article focuses on the process through which intergenerational ambivalence is experienced by a group of adult children and their parents with an Iranian refugee background living in Finland. This ethnographic study provides an insight into how the families' struggles to mobilize capital in different forms can contribute to their experience of intergenerational ambivalence. The study indicates that when the parents' social, economic and cultural capitals accumulated prior to migration are not accessible or valuable in Finland, they become dependent on their children's conduct. This produces a contradictory demand on the participants roles as parents and children, where they face difficulties in navigating their role expectations. The families in this study expressed a significant ambivalence in their intergenerational relationships associated with these stressful conditions.
  • Lynch, Robert; Lummaa, Virpi; Loehr, John (2019)
    The conditions that propel humans to make sacrifices for groups of unrelated, and often unknown, individualshas received considerable attention across scientific disciplines. Evolutionary explanations for this type of sa-crifice have focused on how men form strategic coalitions organized around kin networks and reciprocity whenfaced with out-group threats. Few studies, however, have analyzed how women respond to external threats.Using data from one of the largest female paramilitary organizations in history we show that women who havemore brothers, women whose husbands serve in the military and women without children are more likely tovolunteer. These results provide qualified support for the hypothesis that women are more likely to sacrifice fortheir country when members of their family are at risk. Overall, our analysis suggests that self-sacrifice andintense bonding with an imagined community of unknown individuals, such as the nation state, may arise out ofa suite of psychological adaptations designed to facilitate cooperation among kin (i.e. kin psychology). Theseresults can be interpreted within the framework of kin selection showing how individuals come to view un-related group members as family. They may also shed light on various theories of group alignment, such as‘identity fusion’–whereby individuals align their personal identity and interests with those of the group–and onour understanding of evolutionary adaptations that cause women to direct altruism toward in-groups.
  • Yamazaki, Takuya (2022)
    Capital is viewed as an essential instrument for highly skilled migrants (HSMs) to gain employment in a host country. Although scholars analyse the impact of capital on the labour market integration, the difference between capital and resources is rarely made. Treating resources such as a degree or networks as capital is too unspecific and disguises what is truly counted as capital that affects the occupational attainment of HSMs. This study addresses this issue by analysing what resources are used by HSMs to gain employment in a host country and what makes resources capital in HSMs' occupational attainment. To do so, the study conducts semi-structured interviews with Japanese from the Finnish university who seek employment in Finland. An analysis of these interviews yields cultural and social resources used during their job search. It also identifies the Finnish job market and the job-seeking intention of highly skilled Japanese as key elements to create capital out of resources. Eventually, this study contributes to the debate on the concept of capital and its role in the labour market integration of HSMs. Furthermore, it offers an extensive viewpoint on the topic of HSMs and integration in the Finnish context through the empirical data.