Browsing by Subject "TIMBER"

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  • Kylkilahti, Eliisa; Berghäll, Sami; Autio, Minna; Nurminen, Jonne; Toivonen, Ritva; Lähtinen, Katja; Vihemäki, Heini; Franzini, Florencia; Toppinen, Anne (2020)
    Consumer acceptance of new bio-based products plays a key role in the envisioned transition towards a forest-based bioeconomy. Multi-storey wooden buildings (MSWB) exemplify a modern, bio-based business opportunity for enacting low-carbon urban housing. However, there is limited knowledge about the differing perceptions consumers hold regarding wood as an urban building material. To fill this gap, this study explores Finnish students' perceptions of MSWB relative to their familiarity with wooden residential buildings, and then connects these perceptions to 'consumption styles.' Data were collected in the Helsinki metropolitan area via an online questionnaire (n = 531). The results indicate that the aesthetic appearance of MSWB are appreciated most by frugal and responsible consumers, whereas the comfort, environmental friendliness, and longevity of MSWB are important to consumers who identify themselves as 'thoughtful spenders.' The study suggests that both environmental and hedonic young consumers already familiar with the use of wood in housing contribute to a successful bioeconomy in the urban context.
  • Viholainen, Noora; Franzini, Florencia; Lähtinen, Katja; Nyrud, Anders Q.; Widmark, Camilla; Hoen, Hans Fredrik; Toppinen, Anne (2021)
    Multi-story wooden buildings are hailed as a favorable means toward reducing the embodied energy of the construction sector. However, the sector's path- dependent nature hinders acceptance of using wood in multi-story construction. As a result, research predominantly focuses on examining the perceptions of construction professionals to identify means of breaking the path dependency. We propose using citizens' perceptions about the use of wood to inform professional decision makers. Our research thus aims to answer two questions: What are citizens' perceptions about using wood as a construction material, and are there country-based cultural differences between these perceptions? To elicit this spectrum of citizen views, an online survey was deployed in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze 6633 open-ended responses to the survey. Respondents held multi-faceted opinions about the physical properties, environmental, social, and economic aspects of using wood as a construction material. Citizens from Finland, Norway, and Sweden expressed discernably different perspectives about the acceptability of using wood than did citizens from Austria, Denmark, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Overall, respondents from all countries expressed high approval for the use of wood in construction.
  • Pyörälä, Jiri; Kankare, Ville; Vastaranta, Mikko; Rikala, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Sipi, Marketta; Hyyppä, Juha; Uusitalo, Jori (2018)
    While X-ray scanning is increasingly used to measure the interior quality of logs, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) could be used to collect information on external tree characteristics. As branches are one key indicator of wood quality, we compared TLS and X-ray scanning data in deriving whorl locations and each whorl's maximum branch and knot diameters for 162 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) log sections. The mean number of identified whorls per tree was 37.25 and 22.93 using X-ray and TLS data, respectively. The lowest TLS-derived whorl in each sample tree was an average 5.56 m higher than that of the X-ray data. Whorl-to-whorl mean distances and the means of the maximum branch and knot diameters in a whorl measured for each sample tree using TLS and X-ray data had mean differences of -0.12 m and -6.5 mm, respectively. One of the most utilized wood quality indicators, tree-specific maximum knot diameter measured by X-ray, had no statistically significant difference to the tree-specific maximum branch diameter measured from the TLS point cloud. It appears challenging to directly derive comparative branch structure information using TLS and X-ray. However, some features that are extractable from TLS point clouds are potential wood quality indicators.
  • Parkatti, Vesa-Pekka; Tahvonen, Olli (2021)
    We study forestry in the Sámi people homeland to understand an ongoing conflict between conventional forestry and maintaining forests as reindeer pastures vital for indigenous Sámi livelihood. Conventional logging affects pastures by creating stand densities suboptimal to lichen growth and by decreasing old-growth forest areas, both of which are essential to reindeer survivability during the subarctic winter. Our model includes timber production, carbon sequestration, externalities on reindeer husbandry, and optimization between rotation forestry and forestry with continuous forest cover. We show that the profitability of conventional forestry relies on utilizing existing forests, an outcome we label as forest capital mining. By varying the carbon price between €0 and €60 per tCO2 and assuming a 3% interest rate, we show that continuous cover forestry, which better preserves pastures, is always optimal. A carbon price of €60 − €100 chokes off timber production. Given the present management practices and an oldgrowth forest as the initial state, the carbon choke price decreases to €14–€20. Our economic analysis on maintaining old-growth forest versus conversion to timber production is an alternative to the frequently applied approach based on carbon debts and carbon payback periods.
  • Myers, Rodd; Rutt, Rebecca L.; McDermott, Constance; Maryudi, Ahmad; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Camargo, Marisa; Cam, Hoang (2020)
    Timber legality trade restrictions and verification are a bundle of contemporary mechanisms triggered by global concerns about forest degradation and deforestation. The European Union Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade initiative is a significant effort to not only screen out illegal timber and wood products from the EU, but also support trading partner countries to improve their legality definitions and verification processes. But by using bilateral agreements (Voluntary Partnership Agreements) as a key mechanism, the EU legitimizes trade partner nation-states as the authority to decide what is legal. We engage in a theoretical debate about the complexities of the meaning of legality, and then analyze empirical data collected from interviews in Ghana, Indonesia, Vietnam and Europe with policy, civil society and industry actors to understand how different actors understand legality. We find hegemonic notions of Westphalian statehood at the core of 'global' notions of legality and often contrast with local understandings of legality. Non-state actors understand these hegemonic notions of legality as imposed upon them and part of a colonial legacy. Further, notions of legality that fail to conform with hegemonic understandings are readily framed by nation- states as immoral or criminal. We emphasize the importance of understanding these framings to elucidate the embedded assumptions about what comprises legality within assemblages of global actors.
  • Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Sauru, Miska Eemil; Pätäri, Satu; Lähtinen, Katja; Tuppura, Anni (2019)
    In transitioning to a renewable material-based bio economy, growing public and industry interest is apparent for using wooden multistory construction (WMC) as a sustainable urban housing solution in Europe, but its business implications are not well understood. In our study, we evaluate, which internal and external factors of competitiveness are shaping the future of WMC, especially in the context of Finland and Sweden. Based on a multi-level perspective of socio-technical transitions, we conducted a three-stage dissensus-based Delphi study. The identified internal and external factors affecting the future competitiveness of the WMC business emphasize the importance of skilled architects and builders and the role of standardized building systems. Based on our results, the key aspects influencing the future competitiveness of WMC in the region are related to the development of technical infrastructure and project-based business networks, while additional changes in regulatory framework are perceived as less important. We conclude that towards 2030, the strong cognitive rules founded in the concrete-based building culture in these countries is likely to inhibit the dynamics of the socio-technical regime level. A change is also needed in the WMC business culture towards more open cross-sectoral collaboration and new business networks between different-sized players.
  • Korhonen, Jaana; Nepal, Prakash; Prestemon, Jeffrey P.; Cubbage, Frederick W. (2021)
    There is rising global interest in growing more trees in order to meet growing population, climate change, and wood energy needs. Using recently published data on planted forests by country, we estimated relationships between per capita income and planted forest area that are useful for understanding prospective planted forest area futures through 2100 under various United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-inspired Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Under all SSPs, projections indicate increasing global planted forest area trends for the next three to four decades and declining trends thereafter, commensurate with the quadratic functions employed. Our projections indicate somewhat less total future planted forest area than prior linear forecasts. Compared to 293 million ha (Mha) of planted forests globally in 2015, SSP5 (a vision of a wealthier world) projects the largest increase (to 334 Mha, a 14% gain) by 2055, followed by SSP2 (a continuation of historical socio-economic trends, to 327 Mha, or an 11% gain), and SSP3 (a vision of a poorer world, to 319 Mha, a 9% gain). The projected trends for major world regions differ from global trends, consistent with differing socio-economic development trajectories in those regions. Our projections based on empirical FAO data for the past 25 years, as well as those by other researchers, suggest that achieving the much more ambitious global planted forest targets proposed recently will require exceptional forest land and investment supply shifts.
  • Franzini, Florencia; Toivonen, Ritva; Toppinen, Anne (2018)
    As the construction sector continues to be associated with highly energy-intensive practices leading to excessive carbon emissions, governments in many countries are promoting a shift towards greener building practices, like the use of wood in multistory construction (WMC). Meanwhile, local-government actors (e.g., municipalities) often act as important gatekeepers of urban development given their authority to oversee or approve zoning and land-use plans. Despite this fact, they are not much focused on in existing WMC research. This qualitative interview study serves to fill a gap by studying municipal civil servant perceptions regarding WMC, using Finland as a case study. Civil servants were asked to elicit their personal opinions on WMC, and what they perceived as favorable or unfavorable about using wood as a multistory construction material. Results show increasing support for WMC, and that this is due to key benefits made possible by the technical qualities of engineered wood products in emerging WMC projects. These products permit both the adoption of rapid construction practices that enhance citizens' quality of living, and also the sourcing of local renewable building materials that support local industries. On the other hand, barriers to the use of wood were identified, such as inadequate information distribution, a limited number of WMC industry actors, and inefficient policy measures.