Browsing by Subject "TIME PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-13 of 13
  • Kibble, Milla; Khan, Suleiman A.; Ammad-ud-din, Muhammad; Bollepalli, Sailalitha; Palviainen, Teemu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Ollikainen, Miina (2020)
    We combined clinical, cytokine, genomic, methylation and dietary data from 43 young adult monozygotic twin pairs (aged 22-36 years, 53% female), where 25 of the twin pairs were substantially weight discordant (delta body mass index > 3 kg m(-2)). These measurements were originally taken as part of the TwinFat study, a substudy of The Finnish Twin Cohort study. These five large multivariate datasets (comprising 42, 71, 1587, 1605 and 63 variables, respectively) were jointly analysed using an integrative machine learning method called group factor analysis (GFA) to offer new hypotheses into the multi-molecular-level interactions associated with the development of obesity. New potential links between cytokines and weight gain are identified, as well as associations between dietary, inflammatory and epigenetic factors. This encouraging case study aims to enthuse the research community to boldly attempt new machine learning approaches which have the potential to yield novel and unintuitive hypotheses. The source code of the GFA method is publically available as the R package GFA.
  • Ahola, Aila J.; Saraheimo, Markku; Freese, Riitta; Forsblom, Carol; Mäkimattila, Sari; Groop, Per-Henrik; FinnDiane Study Grp (2017)
    Aims: Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Diet, as a modifiable risk factor, may in turn impact systemic inflammation. We therefore assessed whether adherence to the dietary recommendations is associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations in type 1 diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 677 FinnDiane study participants (48% men, mean +/- standard deviation age 46 +/- 13 years) were included. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. A diet score, with higher values denoting better adherence to the recommendations, was calculated. Serum hs-CRP concentration was measured, and individuals with hs-CRP <1.0 mg/l, and hs-CRP > 3.0 but <10.0 mg/l were compared. Results: Men and women with high hs-CRP had higher BMI, waist circumference, and triglyceride concentration, but lower HDL-cholesterol concentration. Adjusted for BMI, mean diet score was higher in the low hs-CRP group, both in men (10.8 +/- 3.6 vs. 9.9 +/- 3.8, p = 0.023) and women (12.7 +/- 3.4 vs. 11.6 +/- 3.5, p = 0.021). After further adjustments with potential confounding factors, the difference remained significant only in men. Conclusions: A diet that more closely adheres to the dietary recommendations is associated with lower hs-CRP in men. A prudent diet may help reduce systemic inflammation in type 1 diabetes. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Lallukka, Tea (2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause and cause-specific disability retirement. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from their inception to May 2019. A total of 27 (25 prospective cohort and 2 nested case-control) studies consisting of 2 199 632 individuals qualified for a meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We used a random effects meta-analysis, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, and performed sensitivity analyses. There were a large number of participants and the majority of studies were rated at low or moderate risk of bias. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and disability retirement. Underweight (hazard ratio (HR)/risk ratio (RR)=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41), overweight (HR/RR=1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19) and obese individuals (HR/RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.71) were more commonly granted all-cause disability retirement than normal-weight individuals. Moreover, overweight increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.26, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.39) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=1.73, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.41), and obesity increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.94), mental disorders (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.61) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=2.80, 95% CI 1.85 to 4.24). The association between excess body mass and all-cause disability retirement did not differ between men and women and was independent of selection bias, performance bias, confounding and adjustment for publication bias. Obesity markedly increases the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders. Since the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, disease burden associated with excess body mass and disability retirement consequently are projected to increase. Reviewregistrationnumber: CRD42018103110.
  • Heiskanen, Jarkko S.; Ruohonen, Saku; Rovio, Suvi P.; Kytö, Ville; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Juonala, Markus; Laitinen, Tomi; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jokinen, Eero; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T. (2019)
    Decreased left ventricular (LV) diastolic function is associated with increased all-cause mortality and risk for a heart failure. The determinants of LV diastolic function have been mainly studied in elderly populations; however, the origin of LV heart failure may relate to the lifestyle factors acquired during the life course. Therefore, we examined biochemical, physiological, and lifestyle determinants of LV diastolic function in 34-49-year-old participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (Young Finns Study). In 2011, clinical examination and echocardiography were performed for 1928 participants (880 men and 1048 women; aged 34-49 years). LV diastolic function was primarily defined using E/e-ratio (population mean 4.8, range 2.1-9.0). In a multivariate model, systolic blood pressure (P <0.005), female sex (P <0.005), age (P <0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.024), smoking (P = 0.028), serum alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.032) were directly associated with E/e-ratio, while an inverse association was found for height (P <0.005). Additionally, a higher E/e-ratio was found in participants with concentric hypertrophy compared to normal cardiac geometry (P <0.005). Other indicators of the LV diastolic function including E/A-ratio and left atrial volume index showed similarly strong associations with systolic blood pressure and age. In conclusion, we identified systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and smoking as modifiable determinants of the LV diastolic function in the 34-49-year-old participants of the Young Finns Study.
  • Ahola, Aila J.; Freese, Riitta; Mäkimattila, Sari; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; FinnDiane Study Grp (2016)
    Aims: Diet plays an important role in the management of type 1 diabetes. However, the association between dietary intake and health has not been extensively studied in this population. We studied the cross-sectional association between dietary factors, and selected vascular health markers and complications in type 1 diabetes. Methods: Data from 874 individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the FinnDiane Study were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and a diet score, expressing the extent to which individuals adhered to the dietary recommendations, was calculated. Diet questionnaire was also used to reveal dietary patterns using factor analysis. Results: Seven factors with high degree of inter-correlation were formed; healthy, traditional, vegetable, sweets, modern, low-fat cheese, and fish and eggs. In multivariate models, higher diet score and healthy factor score were associated with better glycaemic control. Higher diet score was associated with higher, while sweets, and fish and eggs patterns were associated with lower systolic blood pressure. Healthy, sweets, and fish and eggs factors were additionally associated with lower diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Closer adherence to the dietary recommendations, and a diet high in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries, cooked vegetables, fish dishes, and yoghurt may be beneficial for the glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes. Moreover, a diet pattern with fish and eggs may have beneficial effects for blood pressure. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Karppinen, Jari E.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Wiklund, Petri; Hamalainen, Kaisa; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2019)
    Purpose We aimed to investigate if hereditary factors, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and metabolic health interact with resting fat oxidation (RFO) and peak fat oxidation (PFO) during ergometer cycling. Methods We recruited 23 male monozygotic twin pairs (aged 32-37 years) and determined their RFO and PFO with indirect calorimetry for 21 and 19 twin pairs and for 43 and 41 twin individuals, respectively. Using physical activity interviews and the Baecke questionnaire, we identified 10 twin pairs as LTPA discordant for the past 3 years. Of the twin pairs, 8 pairs participated in both RFO and PFO measurements, and 2 pairs participated in either of the measurements. We quantified the participants' metabolic health with a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Results Fat oxidation within co-twins was correlated at rest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78] and during exercise (ICC = 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-0.86). The LTPA-discordant pairs had no pairwise differences in RFO or PFO. In the twin individual-based analysis, PFO was positively correlated with the past 12-month LTPA (r = 0.26, p = 0.034) and the Baecke score (r = 0.40, p = 0.022) and negatively correlated with the area under the curve of insulin (r = - 0.42, p = 0.015) and glucose (r = - 0.31, p = 0.050) during the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions Hereditary factors were more important than LTPA for determining fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. Additionally, PFO, but not RFO, was associated with better metabolic health.
  • Kärkkäinen, Sanna; Silventoinen, Karri; Svedberg, Pia; Ropponen, Annina (2020)
    Purpose Musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD) are one of the largest diagnostic groups for disability pensions (DP). This study investigated the associations between life events and DP due to MSD, considering sociodemographic, health, and familial factors. Methods The study sample included 18,530 Finnish twins, 24-64 years old at baseline, who responded to a questionnaire in 1981 including a 21-item life event inventory. Information on DP with diagnosis codes (ICD codes: M00-M99) were obtained from the official national pension registers. Life events were divided into family- and work-related events. "Positive change in life" was analyzed separately. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During the follow-up of 23 years, 1273 (7%) individuals were granted DP due to MSD. In discordant pair analysis, family-related events (>= 4 events) increased (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.31, 2.03) and the absence of such events decreased (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48, 0.95) the risk of DP due to MSD. For work-related events (>= 3 events), the risk estimates were non-significant when controlling for familial factors. Having had a positive change in life decreased the risk of DP due to MSD (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65, 0.96) while controlling for familial confounding, but were non-significant in the full model controlling for various covariates (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75, 1.12). Conclusions The associations between life events and the risk of DP due to MSD are complex and potentially affected by familial and other confounding factors including sociodemographics and health.
  • Svärd, Anna; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea (2016)
    Background: Both obesity and mental health are major public health issues. This study aimed to examine whether overweight and obesity among midlife employees are associated with subsequent psychotropic medication. A further aim was to examine the potential effect of key covariates on the association. Methods: The Helsinki Health Study baseline survey was conducted in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n = 8960). The participants were classified as of normal weight (18.5-24. 9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), obese (30-34.9 kg/m(2)) or severely obese (>= 35 kg/m(2)) based on self-reported body mass index. Data on psychotropic medication purchases from baseline to 2009 were derived from registers of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The final analysis included 4760 women and 1338 men. Antidepressants and sedatives were examined separately. Covariates included socio-demographic factors, workload, health behaviours, physical functioning, somatic ill-health and psychotropic medication prior to baseline. Hazard ratios (HR) for the first psychotropic medication purchase were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results: Third of women and quarter of men made at least one psychotropic medication purchase during the follow-up. Adjusting for age, obese (HR = 1.57; 95 % CI = 1.10-2.24) and severely obese (HR = 2.15; 95 % CI = 1.29-3. 56) men were at risk of having psychotropic medication compared to men of normal weight. These associations disappeared after further adjustment. Severe obesity remained associated with subsequent sedative medication among the men even after full adjustment (HR = 2.12; 95 % CI = 1.17-3.84). No associations were found among the women. Conclusions: Obese and severely obese men, but not women, were at risk of psychotropic medication. Further studies are needed to deepen understanding of the relationship between obesity and mental ill-health, and the possible protecting effects of age, employment, and living environment.
  • Ahola, Aila J.; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Groop, Per-Henrik (2020)
    Stress may negatively impact self-management of diabetes and thereby deteriorate glycaemic control. Eating is the most frequently reported stress-release method. In this study, we investigated the association between perceived stress (PS), dietary adherence, and glycaemic control. Data from participants in the FinnDiane Study with type 1 diabetes who had completed a diet questionnaire and Cohen's perceived stress scale (PSS) were included. In addition to using a continuous PSS score, participants were divided into three groups based on the PSS scores: the first PSS quartile, low levels of PS; second and third quartiles, moderate levels of PS; and fourth quartile, high levels of PS. A diet score reflecting the level of adherence to dietary recommendations was calculated. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample and in subgroups divided by body mass index (BMI <25 kg/m(2) vs. BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)). In the whole sample, high PS and continuous stress score were negatively associated with the diet score and with adherence to fish, fresh vegetable, low-fat liquid milk product, and vegetable oil-based cooking fat recommendations. The stress score was negatively associated with the diet score both in lean and in those overweight or obese. However, fish and fresh vegetable recommendations were only affected in those with corpulence. PS was not associated with mean blood glucose concentrations in the whole sample. When divided by BMI status, worse glycaemic control was observed in lean subjects reporting stress. In individuals with overweight or obesity, instead, high glucose concentrations were observed regardless of the level of perceived stress. Interventions to improve stress management could improve dietary adherence and glycaemic control and could thereby have the potential to improve long-term health and well-being of individuals with type 1 diabetes.
  • Hautasaari, Pekka; Savic, Andrej M.; Loberg, Otto; Niskanen, Eini; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M.; Tarkka, Ina M. (2017)
    Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 +/- 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images. We obtained exercise history and measured physical fitness and body composition. Equivalent electrical dipole sources of SMMR as well as gray matter (GM) voxel counts in regions of interest indicated by source analysis were evaluated. SMMR dipolar source strengths differed between active and inactive twins within twin pairs in postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus and in anterior cingulate (AC) GM voxel counts differed similarly. Compared to active twins, their inactive twin brothers showed greater dipole strengths in short periods of the deviant-elicited SMMR and larger AC GM voxel counts. Stronger activation in early unattended cortical processing of the deviant sensory signals in inactive co-twins may imply less effective gating of somatosensory information in inactive twins compared to their active brothers. Present findings indicate that already in 30's long-term physical activity pattern is linked with specific brain indices, both in functional and structural domains.
  • Rottensteiner, Mirva; Makela, Sara; Bogl, Leonie H.; Tormakangas, Timo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M. (2017)
    Purpose: The benefits of physical activity (PA) in preventing abdominal obesity are well recognized, but the role of different sport disciplines remains open. We aimed, therefore, to investigate how participation in different sport disciplines, and the number and types of sports engaged in are associated with waist circumference (WC) in young adulthood. Methods: This population-based cohort study comprised 4027 Finnish twin individuals (1874 men), with a mean age of 34 y (32-37), who answered a survey, including self-measured WC. We extracted the number and identified the types (aerobic, power, and mixed) of the different sport disciplines respondents reported participating in. Results: The number of sport disciplines participated in was inversely associated with WC, the linear decrease averaging 1.38cm (95% CI 1.10-1.65) per each additional sport discipline. The result persisted after adjustment for the main covariates, such as volume of PA and diet quality. Among dizygotic twin pairs discordant for sports participation (0-2 vs. 5 or more disciplines), the mean within-pair difference in WC was 4.8cm (95% CI 0.4-9.1) for men and 11.2cm (95% CI 4.4-18.0) for women; among discordant monozygotic pairs, no differences were observed. In men, all three types of sports were individually associated with smaller WC, while in women, only mixed and power sports showed this association. Conclusions: Participation in several sport disciplines and sport types was associated with smaller WC among young adults in their mid-30s. Shared genetic background may explain some of the associations.
  • Kaprio, Jaakko; Bollepalli, Sailalitha; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Iso-Markku, Paula; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kovanen, Vuokko; Kujala, Urho; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Latvala, Antti; Leskinen, Tuija; Lindgren, Noora; Ollikainen, Miina; Piirtola, Maarit; Rantanen, Taina; Rinne, Juha; Rose, Richard J.; Sillanpää, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Sipilä, Sarianna; Viljanen, Anne; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Waller, Katja (2019)
    The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945-1957 in 2011-2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938-1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.
  • Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kouvonen, Anne; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Sjosten, Noora; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2011)