Browsing by Subject "TIME RT-PCR"

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  • Masika, Moses Muia; Korhonen, Essi M.; Smura, Teemu; Uusitalo, Ruut; Vapalahti, Katariina; Mwaengo, Dufton; Jääskeläinen, Anne J.; Anzala, Omu; Vapalahti, Olli; Huhtamo, Eili (2020)
    Dengue virus (DENV) has caused recent outbreaks in coastal cities of Kenya, but the epidemiological situation in other areas of Kenya is largely unknown. We investigated the role of DENV infection as a cause of acute febrile disease in non-epidemic settings in rural and urban study areas in Kenya. Altogether, 560 patients were sampled in 2016-2017 in rural Taita-Taveta County (n = 327) and urban slums of Kibera, Nairobi (n = 233). The samples were studied for DENV IgM, IgG, NS1 antigen and flaviviral RNA. IgG seroprevalence was found to be higher in Taita-Taveta (14%) than in Nairobi (3%). Five Taita-Taveta patients were positive for flaviviral RNA, all identified as DENV-2, cosmopolitan genotype. Local transmission in Taita-Taveta was suspected in a patient without travel history. The sequence analysis suggested that DENV-2 strains circulating in coastal and southern Kenya likely arose from a single introduction from India. The molecular clock analyses dated the most recent ancestor to the Kenyan strains a year before the large 2013 outbreak in Mombasa. After this, the virus has been detected in Kilifi in 2014, from our patients in Taita-Taveta in 2016, and in an outbreak in Malindi in 2017. The results highlight that silent transmission occurs between epidemics and also affects rural areas. More information is needed to understand the local epidemiological characteristics and future risks of dengue in Kenya. Author summary Dengue virus (DENV) is an emerging mosquito-borne global health threat in the tropics and subtropics. The majority of the world's population live in areas at risk of dengue that can cause a wide variety of symptoms from febrile illness to haemorrhagic fever. Information of DENV in Africa is limited and fragmented. In Kenya, dengue is a recognized disease in coastal cities that have experienced recent outbreaks. We investigated the role of DENV infection as a cause of acute febrile disease in non-epidemic settings in rural and urban study areas in Kenya. We found DENV-2 in five febrile patients from rural Taita-Taveta, where no dengue has been reported before. Genetic analysis of the virus suggests it to be most likely of Indian origin. This Indian origin DENV-2 was detected in the Mombasa outbreak in 2013, in Kilifi in 2014, in Taita-Taveta in 2016 (our study samples) and again in the Malindi outbreak in 2017. The results suggest that dengue is unrecognized in rural Kenya and more studies are needed for local risk assessment. Our findings of virus transmission between epidemics contribute to better understanding of the epidemiological situation and origins of DENV in Kenya.
  • Huhtamo, Eili; Cook, Shelley; Moureau, Gregory; Uzcategui, Nathalie Y.; Sironen, Tarja; Kuivanen, Suvi; Putkuri, Niina; Kurkela, Satu; Harbach, Ralph E.; Firth, Andrew E.; Vapalahti, Olli; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier (2014)
  • Sutela, Suvi; Niemi, Karoliina; Edesi, Jaanika; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Vuosku, Jaana; Makela, Riina; Tiimonen, Heidi; Chiang, Vincent L.; Koskimäki, Janne; Suorsa, Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Haggman, Hely (2009)
  • Jääskeläinen, Anne J.; Korhonen, Essi M.; Huhtamo, Eili; Lappalainen, Maija; Vapalahti, Olli; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari (2019)
    The laboratory confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, and the differential diagnosis from other flavivirus infections such as dengue virus (DENV), often requires the use of several diagnostic test types. Cross-reactions and secondary infections complicate the serological diagnosis and specific viral RNA detection assays are often needed for confirming the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to validate serological and molecular methods for diagnosing ZIKV infection. This included the evaluation of a ZIKV RT-qPCR assay for diagnostics that was previously set up for research use and to compare the ZIKV, DENV and TBEV EIA methods. External and in-house controls and pre-characterized sample panels were tested, and also automated and manual nucleic acid extraction methods were compared. A total of ten Finnish traveler patients were diagnosed with acute ZIKV infection during 2015-2017 including one suspected dual DENV and ZIKV infection. These samples along with panels of DENV and tick-bome encephalitis virus (TBEV) infections were used to test the cross-reactive properties of ZIKV, DENV and TBEV IgM assays. Additionally, the diagnosed acute ZIKV patient samples were tested using commercially available diagnostic DENV NS1 antigen assay and a ZIKV NS1 antigen assay intended for research use. The ZIKV RT-qPCR assay was demonstrated to be both specific and sensitive (one genome per reaction) and suitable for routine diagnostic use utilizing automated nucleic acid extraction. Of the tested IgM tests the NS1 antigen-based ZIKV IgM (Euroimmun) assay performed with least cross -reactivity with a specificity of 97.4%. The DENV IgM assay (Focus Diagnostics) had specificity of only 86.1%. The results are in line with previous studies and additionally highlight that also acute TBEV patients may give a false positive test result in DENV and ZIKV IgM assays.