Browsing by Subject "TIME-SERIES DATA"

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  • Watts, J. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Parmentier, F. J. W.; Sachs, T.; Rinne, J.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W.; Tagesson, T.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Aurela, M. (2014)
  • Porcar-Castell, A.; Mac Arthur, A.; Rossini, M.; Eklundh, L.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Anderson, K.; Balzarolo, M.; Martin, M. P.; Jin, H.; Tomelleri, E.; Cerasoli, S.; Sakowska, K.; Hueni, A.; Julitta, T.; Nichol, C. J.; Vescovo, L. (2015)
    Resolving the spatial and temporal dynamics of gross primary productivity (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems across different scales remains a challenge. Remote sensing is regarded as the solution to upscale point observations conducted at the ecosystem level, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique, to the landscape and global levels. In addition to traditional vegetation indices, the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the emission of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), now measurable from space, provide a new range of opportunities to monitor the global carbon cycle using remote sensing. However, the scale mismatch between EC observations and the much coarser satellite-derived data complicate the integration of the two sources of data. The solution is to establish a network of in situ spectral measurements that can act as a bridge between EC measurements and remote-sensing data. In situ spectral measurements have already been conducted for many years at EC sites, but using variable instrumentation, setups, and measurement standards. In Europe in particular, in situ spectral measurements remain highly heterogeneous. The goal of EUROSPEC Cost Action ES0930 was to promote the development of common measuring protocols and new instruments towards establishing best practices and standardization of these measurements. In this review we describe the background and main tradeoffs of in situ spectral measurements, review the main results of EUROSPEC Cost Action, and discuss the future challenges and opportunities of in situ spectral measurements for improved estimation of local and global estimates of GPP over terrestrial ecosystems.
  • Koskikala, Joni; Kukkonen, Markus; Käyhkö, Niina (2020)
    Global terrestrial biodiversity hotspots (GBH) represent areas featuring exceptional concentrations of endemism and habitat loss in the world. Unfortunately, geospatial data of natural habitats of the GBHs are often outdated, imprecise, and coarse, and need updating for improved management and protection actions. Recent developments in satellite image availability, combined with enhanced machine learning algorithms and computing capacity, enable cost-efficient updating of geospatial information of these already severely fragmented habitats. This study aimed to develop a more accurate method for mapping closed canopy evergreen natural forest (CCEF) of the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) ecoregion in Tanzania and Kenya, and to update the knowledge on its spatial extent, level of fragmentation, and conservation status. We tested 1023 model possibilities stemming from a combination of Sentinel-1 (S1) and Sentinel-2 (S2) satellite imagery, spatial texture of S1 and S2, seasonality derived from Landsat-8 time series, and topographic information, using random forest modelling approach. We compared the best CCEF model with existing spatial forest products from the EAM through independent accuracy assessment. Finally, the CCEF model was used to estimate the fragmentation and conservation coverage of the EAM. The CCEF model has moderate accuracy measured in True Skill Statistic (0.57), and it clearly outperforms other similar products from the region. Based on this model, there are about 296,000 ha of Eastern Arc Forests (EAF) left. Furthermore, acknowledging small forest fragments (1-10 ha) implies that the EAFs are more fragmented than previously considered. Currently, the official protection of EAFs is disproportionally targeting well-studied mountain blocks, while less known areas and small fragments are underrepresented in the protected area network. Thus, the generated CCEF model should be used to design updates and more informed and detailed conservation allocation plans to balance this situation. The results highlight that spatial texture of S2, seasonality, and topography are the most important variables describing the EAFs, while spatial texture of S1 increases the model performance slightly. All in all, our work demonstrates that recent developments in Earth observation allows significant enhancements in mapping, which should be utilized in areas with outstanding biodiversity values for better forest and conservation planning.